Morinda longiflora.
(CHAPTER I. The Anthraquinone Group.)

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Kaikki kuvat (kemialliset kaavat) puuttuvat // None of the illustrations (of chemical formulas) included.

Morinda longiflora, known as "Ojuologbo" (woody vine) (Jour. Soc. of Arts, 1905, 53, 1069), is a native of West Africa, and considered to be one of the most valuable medicinal plants of that region. It is fully described in the "Flora of Tropical Africa" (1877, in, 192), where it is stated to be known under the native name of "Mibogga".

According to Barrowcliff and Tutin (Chem. Soc. Trans., 1907, 91, 1909) the root of the Morinda longiflora (G. Don) contains an hydroxymethoxymethylanthraquinone and an alizarin-monomethyl ether, although morindin, the common constituent of the roots of the Morinda citrifolia, Morinda tinctoria and Morinda umbellata, is absent. The hydroxymethoxymethylanthraquinone, C16H12O4, yellow needles, melts at 290°, and the acetyl derivative at 173°. Heated with 70 per cent, sulphuric acid it gives the 1:3-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone of Schunck and Marchlewski (Chem. Soc. Trans., 1894, 65, 182). Accordingly it possesses one of the following formulæ [KUVA PUUTTUU]

Hydriodic acid converts it into dihydroxymethylanthranol, C15H12O3 (melting-point 235°), and by methylation 1:3-dimethoxy-2-methyl anthraquinone (melting-point 181°) is produced.

The monomethyl ether of alizarin is identical with the compound isolated by Perkin and Hummel (Chem. Soc. Trans., 1893, 63, 1174) from chay root, Oldenlandia umbellata (Linn.).

The leaves of the Morinda longiflora also contain the above-mentioned hydroxymethoxymethylanthraquinone, and in addition a crystalline alcohol morindanol, C38H62O4, which melts at 278° and has [a]D + 65,9°. With sodium methoxide and methyl iodide it yields methyl morindanol, C38H61O3.OCH3 (melting-point 116°).

"Ojuologbo" does not appear to contain an alkaloid, and extracts of the leaves and root were not found to possess any pronounced physiological action (B. and T.).

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