30.6.19

Valuable Receipts. Silver shrubbery.

Scientific American, 6.6.1863

Take a piece of clean copper wire and bend it into the form of a shrub, then lay it upon a plate of glass, over which has been poured some nitrate of silver. In a few hours afterward the copper wire will be covered with brilliant ramifications of silver. A solution of nitrate of silver, poured over a clean plate of copper, also produces a silver formation resembling leaves and branches.

29.6.19

Valuable Receipts. How to make a silver tree.

Scientific American, 6.6.1863

Mix one part of a saturated solution of nitrate of silver with twenty parts of distilled water, and pour the mixture upon two parts of metallic mercury in a phial. The phial is now to be left standing quietly for several days, when the mixture within will put forth branches, and the figure of a beautiful tree of silver will appear to grow from the mercury.

27.6.19

Valuable Receipts. Painting the Floors of Piazzas.

Scientific American, 6.6.1863

The floors of piazzas fronting the South and East are liable to leak during severe rain storms. A good cement for the seams of such floors has been a desideratum. An acquaintance of ours who had been much annoyed with the floor of his piazza leaking, was advised to try a cement composed of dissolved indiarubber and asphalt, and he did so, stopping the leakage perfectly. When the cement was sufficiently dry he painted the floor with drab colored oil paint, as a finish to the whole, and completed the operation one evening about sundown. Next morning he went out to examine his piazza, expecting to find the paint partly dry, and the floor improved in appearance. Judge of his surprise when he beheld the black Indiarubber cement which he had used floating like bubbles upon his drab paint, and the whole coating of the floor in an undelightful state of spissitude. The oil of the paint had acted upon the cement as a solvent; and the thought which first suggested itself to him was, that although the cement could stop leaks, it was impossible to paint over it. Thinking upon the subject during the day, the idea was presented to his mind that, if he covered the cement with a coat of varnish, he could paint over this when it became dry, and the oil of the paint would not penetrate under it. He acted upon this idea, and has now a most perfect and beautiful raintight piazza floor. Others may profit by such experience. Hot pitch is a good watertight cement for the seams of floors, &c., but it is liable to become soft in hot weather. Linseed oil, boiled with the flowers of sulphur, makes a cement resembling dissolved pitch, and is second to none for stopping leaks in such floors; it is also a great preservative of wood. It is employed for coating the knees of warships in the French navy, to prevent dry rot. A cement composed of white lead, oil, and pulverized white sand or glass, is about the best that can be used for such purposes.

26.6.19

Myymäläapulainen loimessaan.

Liikeapulainen 24, 5.12.1924

[...]

— Saadakseen kaupan käyntiin tulee apulaisen myös tarkoin huolehtia siitä, että tavara tulee oikein asetetuksi esille. Asiakkaan tulee niin seistä tai istua, ettei häntä häikäise ja ettei hän esim. tavaran väristä saa toista käsitystä myymälässä kuin sitten jälkeenpäin sitä kotona tarkastellessaan. Myyjä asettakoon siis tavaran niin, ettei ostaja katsele akkunaan päin, vaan että valo tulee sivulta. Etenkin on tämä tärkeätä kangastavaroita valikoitaessa. On joukko värejä, jotka näyttävät aivan toisilta päivänvalossa kuin keinotekoisessa valossa. Myyjän tulee tämä asia tuntea ja tietää, missä määrin väri vaihtelee eri valaistuksessa. Sellaisia tavaroita onkin näytettävä, mikäli mahdollista, eri valaistuksessa. On paljon muitakin tavaroita, jotka vaativat tarkkaa valaistusseikkojen huomioon ottamista. Niinpä esim. lasitavaroita näytteille pantaessa on katsottava, että heijastus ja hionta pääsevät oikeaan arvoonsa.

[...]

— Tarkasti tulee myöskin välttää, ettei epäsointuisia väriyhdistelmiä aseteta myymäläpöydälle. Sellainen esine, joka voisi viimeksinäytetyn esineen saattaa huonoon valoon, on heti poistettava.

— Tässä kaikessa vaaditaan myyjältä kehittynyttä makua ja hänen on koetettava sitä kehittää ja opetella asettamaan esineitä esille niin, että ne kohottavat ja vahvistavat toinen toisensa vaikutusta.

[...]

Värikokeita...

Käsiteollisuus 7-8, 1918

Värikokeita on syytä tehdä nykyään enemmän kuin ennen, sillä samalla kuin tavara on kallistunut, on väärennyksiä alkanut ilmetä entistä enemmän. Alempana muutamia värikokeita;

Värien peittovoiman tutkiminen.
Otetaan eri lajeja lyijyvalkoista, yhtä paljon kutakin ja sekoitetaan ne johonkin tummempaan väriin, mustaan, siniseen tahi johonkin muuhun, joita käytetään samassa suhteessa. Se lyijyvalkoinen, joka pysyy vaaleimpana (kirkkaimpana), on luonnonmukaisesti myös paraiten peittävää. Samaan tapaan voidaan myös vastavuoroon tummempain värien sekoitusvoima tuta. Jos esim. tehdään koe jollakin lajilla lyijy- tahi sinkkivalkoista tummain värien kanssa, niin on se väri paraiten peittävää eli sekoittavaa, joka voimakkaimmin värjää lyijy- tahi sinkkivalkoisen.

Mistä tunnetaan että lyijy- ja sinkkivalkoinen ovat väärennettyjä?
Laimennetaan salpietarihappoa vedellä ja sekoitetaan lyijyvalkoista siihen: jos se on puhdasta, niin se lämmittäessä liukenee siinä täydellisesti ja muut aineet jäävät vahingoittumattomina jäljelle. Tosin liitu myöskin liukenee salpietarihappoon, mutta se ei tapahdu niin nopeasti kuin lyijyvalkoisen liukeneminen, joten väärennyksen selvillesaaminen on varsin helppo toimitus.
Lasilliseen vettä sekoitetaan 30 tippaa väkevää rikkihappoa sekä joku määrä sinkkivalkoista. Väärentämätön sinkkivalkoinen liukenee muutamien sekuntien kuluttua täydellisesti, kun taas mahdolliset sekoitukset jäävät sakkana pohjalle.

Värien aniliinipitoisuuden tutkiminen.
Pannaan vähän väriä postipaperille ja kaadetaan tippa väkiviinaa sille. Jos värissä on aniliiniä, värjäytyy paperi heti läpeensä, jotavastoin puhdas väri ei muuta paperin kiiltoa eikä tunkeudu sen läpi.

- J. E.

25.6.19

Amber.

Scientific American 24, 15.6.1867

Amber is found on the southern shore of the Baltic, where it isc ast up by the action of the groundswell after the northerly gales. It is also found on the coast of Sicily, on the Adriatic, on the English cost Norfolk and Suffolk, and at Cape Sable, Maryland. Mining for amber in beds of brown lignite is carried on in Prussia, and it is found in excavations all over Europe. Still amber continues to be the "gem of the sea," by which it is yielded only after a storm, and in such small quantities that its value has ever remained undiminished.

Amber is found in masses, irregularly shaped, and usually of small size. The color is of all shades, from a pale straw to deep orange. It is brittle but can be easily cut with a sharp knife, it is the opinion, and is only an opinion that it is simply an exhuded vegetable juice. Baron Leibig thinks it probable "that amber is a product of the decay of wax, or of some other substance allied to the fixed oils." Sir David Brewster says that amber is an indurated vegetable juice. Wood, leaves, flowers, and fruit have been found inclosed in amber, and recognized as having belonged to coniferous trees now extinct.

Sicilian amber is usually of a deeper color than that from the Baltic, and it is said that in Germany an experienced amber worker can determine the locality of amber from difierences in its appearance. Neither is it invariably found in a hard state. An instance is on record of a gentleman having received from a friend living on the Baltic coast a piece as soft as to take an impression of his seal; and another piece is described as soft on one aide and hard on the other.

The uses of amber are not very numerous. As a material for art carving nothing can be more beautiful. The principal market is Constantinople where it is made into pipe mouthpieces, and articles of female adornment in the shape of beads. The Turks and Armenians are said to be fine judges of amber, and the bazaar at Stamboul, where the amber workers are located, is full of interest to the connoisseur.

The only purpose to which it is applied in the useful arts is in the manufacture of varnishes for carriage builders and photographer's. That used for carriages is expensive, and is a long time in drying, but it is the hardest and most invulnerable of any known varnish.

— Providence Journal.

Glass Printing.

Scientific American 24, 15.6.1867

De Mothay has prepared an ink for printing on glass by means of rollers similar to those used in calico printing, after which the glass is subjected to heat and the pitcture is vitrified and fixed in the glass, without producing any distortion or imperfection. Many thousands of plain patterns and mosaics of stained glass produced by this process at a very cheap rate, are already in use for the decoration of church and other windows. The colors are mixed with a solvent of a silicate or silico-borate of potash and lead, as usual in painting on glass, and this composition rendered plastic by resin in turpentine, is applied thickly to the rollers and transferred to the glass, after which it is vitrified in the usual manner.

24.6.19

Mäntyöljyvernissa.

Kymenlaakson Sanomat 65, 14.6.1928

Enso-Gutzeitin sellulosatehtaan uusi sivutuote.

Enso-Gutzeitin sulfaattisellulosatehdas Kotkassa on laskenut kauppaan uuden tuotteen, mäntyöljyvernissan, joka soveltuu erikoisesti ulkomaalaukseen. Se on valmistettu männyissä esiintyvästä hartsista ja öljystä sekä uunitärpätistä ja on sillä täten erinomaisia puutasäilyttäviä ominaisuuksia. Vaikkakin se on väriltään verrattain tummaa, saadaan sillä useimpiin väreihin, kuten punamultaan, keltamultaan y.m. sekoitettuna kauniita värivivahduksia. Valkoiseen väriin sekoittamalla tulee väri hiukan harmahtavaksi, mutta jos siihen lisätään jotain muuta väriä, esim. kromikeltaista, jotain sinistä j.n.e., saadaan erittäin kirkkaita värejä. Mäntyöljyvernissa kuivaa ulkona kahdessa päivässä, tunkeutuu puun sisälle vaikuttaen siten, kuten jo edellä mainittiin, puuta säi1yttäivästi.

Halpalhintaisuutensa ja kestävyytensä tähden saanee mäntyöljyvernissa yhtä suuren kysynnän, kuin toiminimen hyväksi tunnetut tuotteet, mäntysuopa ja tärpätti G I jo ovat saaneet.

23.6.19

Scientific Notices. On the coloring matter of the orange-leaved Morinda (Morinda citrifolia.)

The London Journal of Arts, Sciences, and Manufactures, and Repertory of Patent Inventions.

Conducted by Mr. W. Newton, of the Office for Patents, Chancery Lane. (Assisted by several Scientific Gentlemen.)

VOL. XXXVI. (Conjoined Series.)

London: Published by W. Newton, at the office for patents, 66, Chancerylane, and Manchester; t. and W. Piper, Paternoster Row; Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., Stationers' Court; J. McCombe, Buchanan St., Glasgow; and Galinani's Library, Rue Vivienne,

Paris. 1850

No. CCXXII.
By Mr. T. Anderson.

The substance which forms the subject of this paper was introduced some time ago into Glasgow under the name of Sooranjee, as a substitute for madder in the operation of dyeing. Experiments were, immediately after its importation, made with it by some of the first cotton printers in Glasgow, and the uniform opinion formed was, that this substance was not a coloring matter, and, therefore, could not be of any utility. Professor Balfour having forwarded some samples of the root to Mr. Anderson, that gentleman subjected them to chemical analysis. The seeds of this plant seemed perfectly identical with those of the sooranjee or soorinjee,—a quantity of which Mr. Anderson had formerly received from Bombay. This plant appears to have been long known and employed by the natives for the production of coloring matter. Unfortunately Mr. Anderson did not succeed in causing these seeds to germinate, which prevented the possibility of his studying the native plant itself, and comparing its characteristics with those of the pretended mother plant.

The morinda citrifolia has been described by Rheede (Hortus Malabaricus I., 97) under the name of cada pilava and is known to botanists under the name of Bancutus latifolia Rumphi (Herbar Amboinense V., cap. 13). In these works, it is expressly stated that the roots of the species mentioned do not possess any dyeing properties; whilst those of the Bancutus angustifolia, or morinda citrifolia, of modern botanists (doubtless the wongkudu of the Japanese dyers) is employed for the production of a splendid scarlet color. An exact description of the cultivation of the morinda citrifolia, and its employment for dyeing, is given by Hunter (Asiatic Researches IV., 35). He also calls attention to the fact, that this plant is known in Malacca under the name of aal, and in Oude under that of atchy. It does not appear that any chemical analyses have yet been made of this root. Dr. Bancroft has, however, made some observations upon a root introduced from India under the name of aurtch, which resembles madder in appearance, and seems to belong to the morinda citrifolia. As to the name sooranjee, which it has received, no definite information could be arrived at as to its derivation. Sooranjee is the root of the plant; and, as imported, it consists of pieces from one to two inches in thickness, and varying in diameter from three to twelve-thirtieths of an inch. In the largest pieces, the bark is thick, and constitutes the greatest part of the root; but, in pieces of a smaller size, the bark is much thinner,—its outside color is of a pale yellowish-brown; but, when broken, it presents, in the interior, a color varying from a fine yellow to a reddish-brown. The wood itself is of a light yellow color, becoming deeper towards the centre, and scarcely perceptible near the bark. Alkalies cause it to assume a deep red color, which indicates the presence of a certain quantity of coloring matter. The bark or rind is easily removed, and presents, on its inner face, a peculiar silvery lustre, which is very evident in large pieces, but is scarcely discernible in the small pieces. On boiling in water, the inside furnishes a yellow color; and, if boiled with alcohol, a deep red is produced.

In order to prepare the coloring matter from sooranjee, which Mr. Anderson calls morindin, the treatment with boiling water was first adopted, —preliminary experiments having shewn that this substance was easily soluble in that liquid: it was soon as certained, however, that this method was not applicable, as the decoction contained a viscous matter, which presented an obstacle to filtration. The employment of alkalies, in which this substance is rapidly dissolved, appeared also to be impracticable; Mr. An derson was therefore obliged to have recourse to alcohol, which perfectly answered the purpose. The bark or rind, after being deprived of all its ligneous parts, and ground to a fine powder, was boiled with six times its weight of rectified alcohol. The solution, after having been filtered while hot, was of a deep brownish-red color; and, on cooling, deposited a brown flaky precipitate, containing the morindin, and other coloring matters found in the root, although in small proportion. A second decoction, with the same quantity of alcohol, furnished a paler solution, in which the morindin was deposited with a much less quantity of red coloring matter. The same treatment was repeated until, on the dyeing matter cooling, no further deposit was obtained. Each of these latter decoctions furnished a substance purer and purer,—so that, at last, it was deposited in the form of small yellow crystals. By means of repeated crystalliza tion in alcohol at 50°, the red substance was completely removed and a fine yellow color obtained; but still some impurity remained,—for, in one instance, a residuum of 0.47 per cent. of ash was left; and, in another, a residuum of 0.32 per cent. The elimination of these mineral matters could not be effected by crystallization in alcohol, but only in alcoholic solutions, sharpened with hydrochloric acid. In this liquor the morindin is crystallized in a perfectly pure state.

Morindin is separated from its solution in the form of small crystals, grouped in the same manner as those of the wavelite. These crystals are exceedingly delicate, and, when collected and dried on a filter, present the appearance of a sulphur-colored mass, having a silky lustre. These crystals are not very soluble in cold alcohol; but are dissolved, in large proportion, in boiling alcohol, especially when it is diluted. The solution, on cooling, is converted into a mass of crystals, which shrink very much on being dried, are but slightly soluble in alcohol, and almost in soluble in ether.

Morindin is dissolved, in very small proportion, by means of cold water; but sufficient to impart a yellow color to it. At the boiling point, it is dissolved in much greater abundance; and, on cooling, is precipitated from its solution in the form of a gelatinous mass, which presents no traces of crystallization. It obstructs the passages of the filter, and, consequently, cannot be separated from its mother liquor. Morindin is dissolved by alkalies, which impart to it a fine orange-red color. By concentrated sulphuric acid it is changed to a deep purple-red, which, in thin layers, appears of a violet color. After remaining in a state of repose for twenty-four hours, the solution, on being diluted, deposits yellow flakes of coloring matter, completely insoluble in cold water, and furnishing, with ammonia, a violet and not an orange-colored solution. Nitric acid, of sp. gr. 1-28, in the cold state, slowly dissolves morindin, and is thereby converted into a deep brownish-red color. In the hot state, the action is brisk, the brown color disappears, and nitrous vapours are disengaged in abundance. The liquor, on being submitted to continued ebullition, and neutralized by means of ammonia, furnished no precipitate with salts of lime.

Morindin in solution gives, with basic acetate of lead, a crimson-red precipitate, flaky, and extremely fugitive, and which cannot be washed without loss of coloring matter. Solutions of baryta, strontian, and lime, furnish an abundant red precipitate, slightly soluble in water. Chloride of iron produces a deep brown color, but does not give any precipitate. On adding alum to an ammoniacal solution of morindin, this latter is precipitated, together with the alumina, in the form of reddish-colored lac; and by the addition of chloride of iron, the precipitate becomes brown, and is not distinguishable from that of pure oxide of iron; it however contains the whole of the morindin,—the supernatant liquor being colorless. On heating the morindin in a close vessel, it melts into a deep brown liquid, which boils at a high temperature, and afterwards disengages vapors of a splendid orange-color, analogous to the nitrous vapors, and which are deposited upon cold bodies in the form of oblong red crystals;—a large quantity of carbonaceous residuum remaining in the vessel. An elementary analysis of morindin gave results which agree with the formula C28H15O15. From this formula it would appear, that a remarkable analogy exists between morindin and the coloring matter of madder. This circumstance is so much the more worthy of notice, that it indicates identity in the chemical nature of plants, which approach very nearly to each other in natural classification. Morinda, in fact, belongs to the natural family of chicoraceoe, which is considered by many botanists to be a subdivision of the rubiacece, of which madder (rubia tinctorum is the type. This analogy does not extend further than the coloring properties,—the two substances differing essentially from each other.

It has been stated above, that the experiments of several printers at Glasgow, to produce upon cotton fabrics a coloring matter from sooranjee, completely failed. This is quite confirmed as respects the ordinary methods of mordanting. Mr. Anderson digested some morindin for a considerable time, and at a gradually increasing temperature, with pieces of stuff which had been mordanted with alumina and iron; the coloring matter was not, however, fixed, and the mordants, after boiling for a few minutes with soap, did not undergo any alteration. With the root itself, the fabric, mordanted with alum, acquired a greyish-red color, and with iron a rather deeper color; there was, however, considerable difference on trying a fabric mordanted for dyeing Turkey-red.

Mr. Anderson procured from Glasgow specimens of cotton fabric, prepared for Turkey-red according to the old and also the new method, and found, that after the lapse of a few hours, both of them had acquired a deep red-brown color, which did not possess any beauty, but was perfectly fast. These observations agree with the remarks made by Hunter on the method employed by the Hindoos in dyeing with the morinda plant. According to his account, the fabric is first immersed in an imperfect soap, obtained by mixing oil of sesame with soda lye, and, after being washed and scoured, it is treated with a decoction of myrobolans (astringent fruits of the Terminalia chebula) and finally exposed, for four or five days, to the sun. After undergoing this treatment, it is immersed in an alum bath; it is then wrung dry and again exposed for four or five days.

By another method the morinda roots are pulverized, damped with sesame oil, and mixed with the flowers of the Lythrum fruticosum, or a corresponding quantity of Purwas (galls of a species of mimosa). This mixture is, with the cotton, introduced into a large quantity of water, and kept at the boiling point over a moderate fire for about three hours: a red color is thus obtained, which, according to Hunter, possesses great durability and beauty. This process is the one usually employed for dyeing Turkey-red; but Hunter further states, that with fabrics mordanted with iron a fixed purple-red or a chocolate color may be obtained; and that in that case the color is probably produced by the tannic acid of the astringent substance employed in the process.

It has been stated above, that morindin is decomposed by heat, and a carbonaceous residuum left in the vessel,—a crystallizable matter, totally different in its properties from the original substance, being sublimed. Mr. Anderson gives to this substance the name of morindon. It has the form of long crystals, which, when inspected through a microscope, present the appearance of six-sided prisms, with an oblique base, and have a red color of extraordinary brightness. These crystals are insoluble in water (either hot or cold), but will readily dissolve in either alcohol or ether. The morindon may be easily obtained from these solutions, in the form of crystals, by careful evaporation. This substance is dissolved by alkalies, and thereby acquires a rich violet color. Concentrated sulphuric acid also dissolves it, and imparts to it the same rich violet color: on evaporating the solution a precipitate is formed. By adding alum to an ammoniacal solution, a red lac is produced; and with barytawater a cobalt blue precipitate is formed. The small quantity of morindon obtained did not allow of its being brought to a perfect state of purity; Mr. Anderson, therefore, merely washed the sublimed crystals with ether, in order to deprive them of all empyreumatical matters, and dried them at the temperature of 100° Cent. On analysis they furnished a result agreeing with the formula C^H^Oi0. Morindon, therefore, appears to be produced from morindin by the elimination of water; and this is confirmed by the change morindin undergoes when brought into contact with sulphuric acid. As was above stated, morindin is insoluble in water, and furnishes, with alkalies, a violet color: this is also the case with morindon. Now, as the sulphuric acid acts in the ordinary manner, viz., by extracting the water, it appears very likely that the morindin loses five equivalents of water, and is thereby converted into morindon.

Supposing that further experiments should confirm the for mula given above for morindon, a strong analogy would be established between the coloring matter of this suhstance and that of madder,—the only difference between them being that of one equivalent of water. It appears, therefore, that morindon really is a coloring matter, and is capable of entering into combination with the ordinary mordants. With alumina it furnishes a deep lively red, and with iron a violet or black. These colors are, however, not fast, and moreover have the disadvantage of combining with the non-mordanted portions of the fabric, and of adhering to the parts desired to be left white. The morindon, when treated with sulphuric acid, will enter into combination with the ordinary mordants.

The discovery of a peculiar coloring matter, which only combines with a fabric which has been treated with oil, in the manner practised for Turkey-red dyeing, is so much the more interesting that it shews the existence of a peculiar class of substances which had not hitherto been noticed. The theory of Turkey-red dyeing, which has been for many years a secret in chemistry, may, perhaps, by this means, have some light thrown upon it; for, although this method of dyeing was imported into Europe some centuries ago, and many improvements have been made upon it, yet, during this lengthened period, no satisfactory explanation of the process has yet been arrived at.

It may be presumed, that by the action of the dung, which is employed in large quantity, the fabric becomes, as it were, animalized; by means of which it acquires the property of being charged with finer and brighter colors than when simply mordanted with mineral substances. Further researches have moreover proved, that the oil, which is employed in large quantity in Turkey-red dyeing, when brought into contact with the air and with decomposed animal matter, becomes also decomposed, and is converted into a sort of resinous matter, which constitutes the mordant for Turkey-red dyeing. M. Weissgerber, to whom we are indebted for some experiments on this subject (an account of which is given by M. Persoz in his Traité Théorique et Pratique de l'impression des Tissus, Vol. III., p. 174), found that fabrics treated with oil took a fine lively red; that, by means of acetone, the oil might be extracted, and that it would be found to have undergone no change; also, that after each successive application of the acetone, the fabric gradually lost the property of taking up the coloring matter of the madder, until at last (the whole of the oil having been extracted) the fabric would come out of the dyebath without taking up any color. The same chemist also found, that by employing the extract obtained by the acetone, as a mordant, a very fine color was produced with madder, without the necessity of adding any other substance. The observations of M. Weissgerber are confirmed by the experiments detailed in this memoir; there being no doubt that the deep red color obtained from morindin was produced in a manner totally independent of the alum, as this salt does not possess the property of fixing the coloring matter.

M. Persoz and Mr. Anderson both seem to be of opinion that the alum now used for Turkey-red dyeing will be completely abandoned, when Turkey-red dyers shall have become acquainted with the nature of the modification which the oil undergoes during the operation.

Recipes for Colored Potters' Glazings.

Scientific American 5.6.1869

White Glazing. - Prepare an intimate mixture of four parts of massicot, two parts of tin ashes, three fragments of crystal glass, and one-half part of sea salt. The mixture is suffered to melt in earthen-ware vessels, when the liquid flux may be made use of.

Yellow Glazing. - Take wqual parts of massicot, red lead, and sulphuret of antimony. Calcine the mixture and reduce it again to powder, add then two parts of pure sand, and one and a-half parts of salt. Melt the whole.

Green Glazing. - Two parts of sand, three parts massicot, one part of salt and copper scales, according to the shade to be produced. The mixture is melted as directed above.

Violet Glazing. - One part of massict, three parts of sand one of smalt, and one-eight part of black oxide of manganese.

Blue Glazing. - White sand and massicot, equal parts, one-third part of blue smalt.

Black Glazing. - Two parts of black oxide of manganese, one of smalt, one and a-half of burned quartz, and one and a-half of massicot.

Brown Glazing. - One part of fragments of green bottle glass, one of manganese, and two parts of lead glass.

22.6.19

Improved Compound of Aniline Colors.

Scientific American 18, 2.5.1868

Emil Zinssmann, of New York city, has lately patented the following:
"This invention consists in a compound, which is soluble in water, and made of aniline colors, which, in themselves, are not soluble in water, by treating said colors with glue or gelatinous materials, or with different kinds of gums, such as gum arable or gum tragacanth, or with starch, which is soluble in water, or with other equivalent materials, either alone or mixed together, in combination with either acetic acid, or glycerin, or eaccharine solutions or decoctions of plants, or any other liquid which will produce the desired effect; said materials being combined mechanically to a thick siruplike homogeneous mass, and then mixed together with the anilihe color (which is to be rendered soluble in water), and, heated in such a manner that a product is obtained which retains all the coloring properties and qualities inherent to the aniline colors, and which is so perfectly soluble in water that it can be used with the best success for dyeing and printing all fibrous materials, and consequently the expensive operation of dissolving the aniline colors in alcohol, which, with aniline colors as now made, is indispensable, particularly for dyeing and printing wool or cotton, or fabrics made therefrom, can be dispensed with.

"In carrying out my invention, I proceed, for instance, as follows: I take a quantity of glue (about from two to six pounds of glue to one pound of the color), and dissolve the same in common acetic acid of seven or eight degrees, so as to form a thick, siruplike mites. With this thick solution I mix the aniline color previously reduced to a fine powder, and then I work the mass until it forms a fine thick homogeneous pulp, either by means of suitable stones, or by passing the mass through a mill, or in any suitable manner. The pulp thus obtained is then placed into a suitable vessel (best an enamelled kettle), and heated in a water bath under constant agitation or kneading, it being desirable at the same time to provide the vessel containing the pulp with a tightlyclosing cover, so as to prevent the undue evaporation of the liquid parts of the mass. It must be remarked, however, that the desired reaction, or, in other words, the perfect dissolution of the aniline color in the glue, or the, equivalent material, will take place only and best when the pulp in the water bath forms a mass of such thickness and consistency that it just can be kneaded or stirred. If the pulp should, however, become so thick that it cannot be stirred or kneaded before the aniline color is perfectly dissolved in the glue or equivalent material, the addition of a small quantity of the corresponding liquid is sufficient to reduce the pulp to the desired consistency. From time to time a small quantity of the pulp is taken out, dissolved in hot water, and while hot passed through a filter, and if no color remains on the filter, the process can be considered completed, and the product can be used immediately, or it can be dried and preserved for future use.

"For purple aniline colors, with the exception of the bluish purple, such as "Parme," or of the aniline blue, about two or three pounds of glue or gelatine to one pound of the color are sufficient, but for bluish aniline, such as "Parme," or for aniline blue, it is better to use from four to six pounds of glue or gelatine. For blue aniline, or for "Parme," the use of glue and acetic acid is to be recommended, but for purple aniline I can use gums, or starch which is soluble in water (dextrine), and the acetic acid can be replaced by glycerin or decoctions of plants, such as soapwort (Radix saponica), or materials of a similar effect, and this change is to be recommended, because the acetic acid affects and injures the hue of the purple aniline colors. If glycerin and glue are employed, it is necessary to soften the glue first in a small quantity of water, and then to effect the combination of the glycerin and glue by heating them together.

"By this treatment I am enabled to produce from aniline colors, which in themselves are not soluble in water, a compound which is perfectly soluble in hot water, thus forming a solution which is applicable with great advantage in place of the expensive and unreliable alcoholic solution of mid colors. The great saving effected thereby is apparent from the fact that at present, for the purpose of dissolving one pound of purple or blue aniline colors (particularly for the purpose of dyeing or printing woolen and cotton materials), from twenty to thirty pounds of the strongest alcohol, or a still larger quantiy of methylene or wood spirit, are required, and even then the solution thus produced is not reliable or perfect. If the alcoholic solution remains standing a short time, a portion of the color is precipitated from the same, and if said solution is used for dyeing, the color of the dyed fabric is many times not uniform, and liable to come off. By the use of my compound all these disadvantages are avoided, it dissolves perfectly; the coloring matter is not liable to precipitate from the solution, however long said solution may remain standing, and wool, silk, cotton, also paper, and different other materials or fabrics can be dyed or printed therewith with the greatest ease and perfection.

"I am well aware that products soluble in water have been prepared by treating aniline colors with sulphuric acid, but such products are applicable more particularly for dyeing and printing leather or silk, but little or not at all for dyeing and printing of wool or cotton or fabrics made therefrom. I am also aware that some time ago, glycerin or decoctions of plants have been recommended for the purpose of dissolving aniline colors. But the extensive and common use of alcohol as a solvent of these colors, shows that said materials did not produce the desired result. I have never succeeded in producing, with these lastnamed materials alone, anything like a satisfactory result, and it is only possible to effect the solution, if at the same time a substance is used, such as glue, or equivalent material, as above specified.

"Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is: A compound, which is soluble in water, and made from such aniline colors which in themselves are not soluble in water, by treating said colors with glue or equivalent substances, either alone or mixed together, and with a liquid, such as acetic acid, or glycerin, or their equivalents, either alone or mixed together, as herein set forth."

21.6.19

The Manufacture of French Leather.

Scientific American 18, 2.5.1868

For the Scientific American.

To learn the secret of making French leather; or what is popularly. known as fine fancy leather, has been a source of anxiety to the tanners of other nations for many years. Schemes have been thought of for the discovery of the mystery by leather manufacturers and others but they have been hitherto unsuccessful. Chemists have been called in to solve the question and though analyzing air, water, food, and the mysteries of nature, their researches to discover the wished. for process of tanning leather, have been as ineffectual as those of the most unscientific tanner.

That the leather manufacture is indeed of national importance, witness the statement of Mr. Smull, an extensive manufacturer of this city, who at a late meeting of the Polytechnic Association, asserted that more hides were Tanned in New York alone than in the cities of Paris and London combined. A description of the process employed in preparing the fancy and fine kinds of French and Russia leather may throw some light upon the subject under consideration.

The best kinds of kid leather are made from goat skins, on account of their lightness and smoothness, but cow hides and sheep skins are also used for the purpose. The first operation in preparing the leather is to put the skins into running water, where they are kept for one week, being taken out daily and thoroughly beaten with a wooden brake, a work of skill and patience, which effects the breaking up of the nerve and softens the fiber to a pulpy condition. Next they spend a month in a lye made of lime or ashes, of which the exact quality must be left to the judgment and experience of the operator. The hair is now removed and the alkaline properties are got rid of by soaking the skins in an infusion of white gentian in fresh water for twenty-four hours. The swelling of the skins is a matter of particular care, for which they are soaked four or five days in a mixture of oatmeal and water. They are now ready for the tannin, which is extracted from the bark of the willow. In the first solution the skins remain but three days, and are again beaten with the brake. The second solution, which is stronger than the first, retains them eight or ten days. After being taken out they are dried with the flesh side upward, again beaten, then greased, dried, and finished, using logwood and alum, and alum and green Vitriol for the dark coloring. The mode of dyeing is peculiar. A number of skins are sewed up in the form of a sack, closed all around except a small opening at one end to admit the dyeing liquid. When the dye has reached all parts they are hung up to drain, then to dry, and again dyed with asparge, the whole process being repeated two or three times. Again they are greased on the flesh side and grained with a notched stick passing through the length and breadth of the skins until small furrows are gradually produced. After graining, another greasing is necessary, this time with birch or linseed oil, and they are put on the wooden horse to be smoothed. The birch oil gives the leather a peculiar smell which distinguishes it from that prepared by any other process.

There is no article of manufacture in the United States or in the world of more importance than that of leather, and some process for converting raw hides into upper or sole leather in a short number of days or a few weeks would be of the greatest national importance. The present mode of preparing leather necessitates a long and tedious process, which makes serious inroads on the profits of the tanner, and consequently the necessary time is not allowed for properly converting the raw skins into leather, and thus the community have the sad experience that neither sole nor upper leather is impervious to water, and the wearer of the shoe made from it suffers from damp feet, and finally goes into a decline, a practical view of the case that alone should be sufficient to arouse the inventive talent of the American people for the discovery of a quick, trustworthy tanning process, which would speedily bring a fortune to the inventor.

The French tanners use valonia and oak bark with either caustic soda, carbonate of soda, ammonia, or carbonate of ammonia. By the use of these substances a considerable saving in time in the preparation of the skins is effected, and the leather is said to be of superior quality. The tanning is facilitated by means of a roller to which a slow motion is given by steam. The moving of the hides in the bath, the usual process of liming, fleshing, and unliming is carried out, and the skins are then submitted to the action of a bath composed of a solution of extract of valonia or other tanning material, Carbonate of soda is to be added in such quantity that the bath shall be raised 1° on Raumer's hydrometer, the bath then marking 2° on the hydrometer. After three days the skins are removed to a second bath, composed of a solution of valonia of 3°, strengthened one degree as before by adding caustic soda or carbonate of soda. After lying in this bath for four days, being turned several times a day, the skins are transferred to a third solution of valonia, marking originally 7°, but by the means as above, increased one degree in strength. In this liquor the skins are immersed for seven days, when the coarsest kinds must be changed to still another bath, marking, with the added carbonate of soda, 10°, wherein they are to remain for nine days, being turned three or four times during that period.

In the case of ordinary hides they will not need to be subjected to the action of the bath in which thick hides are treated, but they should be transferred from their own bath and allowed to remain seven days, to the final bath, which is composed of the extract of valonia marking 9° on the hydrometer, the bath marking about 10°. Between each hide or skin as they are placed in the bath, about six pounds of oak bark and six pounds of valonia are strewn, and they are allowed to remain therein for fifteen days, when they are removed and finished in the usual way. Finally the process is hastened and the labor of handling the hides lessened by fixing over the bath a roller orwinch to which a slow motion is given by a steam engine. The hides are fastened together end to end, and then motion is given to the roller by means of the steam engine, no as to move the hides at the rate of four or five a minute. When the process of moving the hides and agitating the liqUor is employed, a stronger bath may be used, beginning at the first bath at 2° of the hydrometer, the hides being regularly moved in the daytime and remaining in the solution two or three days. They are then to be taken out and put into the bath No. 3, marking 7° of Rammer and 1½° of the alkane mixture and to remain in the bath from four to five days, being moved around as before, after which they are placed in the finishing bath with oak bark or valonia scattered between. An example has been made of the properties of the carbonate of soda to be employed in the different baths, but when the other alkalies or other alkaline carbonates are to be used, such as ammonia or carbonate of ammonia, they are used in the same proportions as carbonate of soda, but not marking the degrees given for carbonate of soda, as the density of the solution will vary with the different alkalies. The skill of the mechanic has done more to expedite the preparation of the leather than chemistry, but the great difficulty is, that in quickening the process the quality of the leather is not so good, no that when the best kind of leather is required the old slow method must be adopted.

Catechu will produce four or five times the quantity of leather that oak bark will. A considerable quantity of this tannin is used, but the quality of the leather from catechu is not equal to oak bark tanned leather. The process is much quicker and the tanner is able to save time by the use of catechu; nevertheless the action of this substance on the leather is not satisfactory, as the leather is soft and spongy and absorbs moisture.

Valonia is the fruit of a tree which is known by the name of "acorn cups;" it cornea from Italy, Turkey, and the East Indies. The leather tanned with valonia is not liable to absord moisture, and for this reason is preferred by many to oak bark, and presents the advantage of imparting to the leather a smooth, soft, and nice texture, which is thorougly impervious to water. Two pounds of this tannin will make one pound of leather.

Catechu is taken from a tree, acacia catechu, which grows mostly on the Malabar coast. The sap or bark of this tree is boiled, the solution evaporated, and the astringent matter is taken by this process. There is another kind of catechu brought from the East which is known by the name of gambir. This is collected on the shore of the Malacca; the wood, bark, and leaves are boiled in water, and when evaporated there is added sago to give it a body; it is then dried in the sun ready for use. Five thousand tins of this catechu, better known as gambir, are annually exported from Rhio by the Chinese. It yields forty per cent of tanning matter. This substance of catechu; or kassu, as the natives call it, has been introduced into Europe, but has not as tannin yielded satisfactory results. Sumac is used for the preparation of Spanish leather. It is said to harden the leather. It is quite expensive, its cost varying from $100 to $150 per tun, and is chiefly used by the glazed leather manufacturers. Devidivi is also used in tanning operations, but has the bad reputation that leather tanned by it is porous and consequently absorbs moisture.

Birch bark is used in Ireland for tanning bazils. It contains 7 per cent tanning matter. It is also used in France for making the fine red leather and other fine kinds known as Russian leather.

Hemlock is principally employed in tanning in this countsy, and such leather is porous and absorbs moisture. It is likewise stiff and hard, and presses on the feet.

Elm bark is very generally used in Norway for making leather, and it is said the fine Norway gloves are prepared from the elm bark, and that the softness and beauty of the leather are attributable to this bark. The white willow is used in Denmark for the manufacture of gloves. Russia also uses this bark in the manufacture of fancy leather, and the leather being impregnated with the oil of birch bark, which gives it a peculiar, agreeable smell. It is a noteworthy fact that the Norway tanners use birch and willow in preference to oak bark.

France uses the bark of a species of oak known as komes oak, a stunted shrub growing in the south of France. This species of oak is in clumps, and grows in Night to about three feet. The shrub which is called coppice oak has roots of a yellow brown hue, and is very rich in the tanning principle, and is used in France for tanning sole leather of first quality.

Vauguelin, by chemical analyses, found that kino contains 75 per cent of tanning property. Esanleck found that terrejaponica or gambir contains 40 per cent. White willow, according to Davy, contains 16 per cent; birch bark, 1.6 per cent; beech bark, 2 per cent; weeping willow, 16 per cent; sumac, 16 per cent; and sassafras root, 58 per cent of tanning matter.

For the removal of the hair and other extraneous matter from the skin, some of the French tanners use acids; others employ a bath of sour milk for the purpose. The acid ferment of milk and barley meal is acetic acid, and is found to be very efficacious for the separation of the hair and other substances from the skin. Sulphuric acid is.a good agent, but from its causticity is very likely to injure the leather if not used with great care. The process of sweating, which is adopted in the United States, is known to all experts in the trade, and it is needless to expatiate on it.

The process of oak tanning is of such general use and so familiar to the trade that it is of no interest, or there is no novelty in the process that is not familiar to all tanners.

The vapor of steam has been introduced for removing the hair, a method that finds great favor in France. The hides are hung up in a close room the floors of which are perforated with holes, through which steam is admitted. By this process the hair becomes soft and is easily scraped off with the hair knife, and a quick process is afforded, and one having the advantage that the hides cannot be injured by putrefaction, as with the ordinary tanning processes.

19.6.19

Happojen ja kromisuolojen käyttämisestä villavärjäämöissä.

Kutoma- ja paperiteollisuus 8, 1915


Yleensä tunnettua on, että villan, silkin, ja puuvillan pesussa käytettävät kemikaliot y. m. lisäaineet vaikuttavat muutoksia näiden kudonta-aineden ominaisuuksiin. Etukädessä, näyttäytyvät nämät muutokset kehräys- ja valmistuskäsittelyissä. Niinpä esim. villaa värjättäessä ennen kehräystä kromimustalla, lisääntyy kehräytyväisyys, mutta vanuvaisuus vähenee. Eräs laji mustaa, rautamusta (Eisenschwarz), vaikuttaa taasen kokonaan päinvastoin. Kromin vaikutus ylimalkaan ei ole villasyille edullinen. Kromin vahingollinen vaikutus vanutukselle perustuu niihin muutoksiin joita se saa aikaan villasyiden pinnassa; myöskin saa kromilla käsitelty villa epämiellyttävän, karkean tunteen, ollen sen vaikutus riippuvainen luonnollisestikin käsittelyn voimakkuudesta. Jos villa ensin keitetään happamassa liemessä ja sen jälestä käsitellään kromilla, kärsii se väheanmän kuin kromipeittauksen ja jälkivärjäyksen saanut villa, sillä jälkikromikäsittelyssä käytetään tavallisesti noin 1-1½% kromia kun sitävastoin peittauksessa käytettävä kromimäärä nousee aina 3-4%, jonka ohessa villaa on vielä keitettävä, joka ei suinkaan ole eduksi villasyille. Jälkikromikäsittelyn kautta värjätyssä villassa on myöskin miellyttävämpi tunne ja säilyttää se vanumiskykynsä. Villasyyt säästyvät myöskin enemmän tässä menettelytavassa, jonka vuoksi se onkin tullut yhä enemmän käytäntöön. Useille väreille kuten esim. Anthracensäüreväreille on jälkikromikäsittely osoittautunut myöskin paremmaksi. Puhtaita värejä haluttaessa, kun on kysymys löysästä villasta, on alkukromikäsittely eli peittaaminen välttämätöntä, sillä nykyään ei vielä löydy värejä jotka suoranaisesti, ilman peitatta muodostaisivat täysin pysyviä värejä, lukuunottamatta, kenties n. k. sulfonivärejä.

Toisin on asian laiita kappalevärjäyksessä. Suuri joukko hapoilla käsiteltyjä värjäyksiä on osoittanut paremmaksikin kuin kromipeitatut värjäykset, milloin on kysymys kappalevärjäyksestä. Vaatimukset, jotka pääasiassa asetetaan kappalevärjäykselle ovat: ilma-, pesu-, happo- ja valonkestävyys; viimeksi mainittuun vaikuttaa kromikäsittely usein heikontavasti. Niinpä esim. "Blauholz"-rautamusta on valonkestävämpi kuin "Blauholz"-kromimusta. Myöskin löytyy useita peitatta värjääviä kuin myöskin kromipeittavärejä, m. m. Anthracenroth, jotka happovärjäyksellä antovat huomattavasti valoakestävämmän värin kuin kromivärjätyt. Yleensä olisi kromikäsittelyä kappalevärjäyksessä vältettävä jo senkin vuoksi, että kromin vaikutus villan ulkomuotoon sekä tunteeseen ei ole edullinen. Villa on kromikäsittelyn jälkeen aina enemmän eli vähemmän kiillotonta. Se tuntuu kovemmalta ja kuivemmalta kuin happokäsittelyn kautta värjätty. Heikko happoliuos värjäyksen yhteydessä käytettynä vaikuttaa edullisesti villan ulkonäköön ja tunteeseen.

Jos värjätään kaksi kappaletta, samasta raaka-aineesta valmistettua kangasta, toinen saa kromikäsittelyn toinen happokäsittelyn, sekä kumpainenkin kappale valmistetaan samoja menettelytapoja käyttäen, huomataan helposti edellämainitut eroavaisuudet. Heikkojen happoliuosten edullinen vaikutus huomataan kappaleissa jotka ovat värjätyt Säurealizarinblau sekiä Anthraconblauväreillä. Happokäsittelyn jälkeen saavat kappaleet näillä väreillä värjättynä miellyttävän tunteen ja niiden kiilto ei ole ollenkaan vähentynyt. Eroitus huomataan selvästi vertaamalla niitä kromikäsittelyn kautta värjättyihin kankaihin. Nyttemmin käytetään ani harvoin peittausta kappalevärjäyksessä, enimmän käytettyjä ovat sellaiset värit jotka kromin avulla yhtyvät suoranaisesti. Tällaisia n. k. suoraan värjääviä värejä ovat: Anthracenblau, Säurealizarinblau, Alzarincyanin, Anthracensäureschwarz, Timanttimusta, Alizarininmsla y. m.

Kromin vaikutus samoin kuin kromisuolojen yleensä näyttäytyy tässäkin, vaikkakaan ei niin suuressa määrässä kuin kromipeittaamalla värjätessä. Kappalevärjäyksessä olisi siis annettava etusija suoraan värjääville väreille. Sellaisia väriaineita, jotka suoraan värjäämällä tuottavat tarpeeivsi puhtaita värisävyjä, löytyykin jo nykyään suuri määrä. Mustilla väreillä on useita merkkejä esim. Naptholschwarz, Naphthylaminschwarz, Brillantschwarz, Victoriaschwarz j. n. e. Kaikki näistä tosin eivät anna täysin puhtaita sävyjä mutta voidaan niitä tarpeen mukaan parantaa sinisen, vihreän, keltaisen ja punaisen avulla.

Sinisistä väreistä mainittakoon Naptholblau, Patenttisininen, Cyanin, Cyanolextraet, Brillantblau j. n. e. Viheriäitä: Timanttivihreä, Patenttivihreä. Ruskeita: Sulfonbraun ja sen yhdistykset sekä sukulaisvärit.

18.6.19

Omatekoinen hydrosulfiti.

Kutoma- ja paperiteollisuus 8, 1915

Kuten tunnettua on valmistetaan värien vaalentamiseen ja kyyppivärien hauteeseen tarvittavia hydrosulfiti siten, että sinkin annetaan vaikuttaa natriumsulfitiliuokseen, josta vesiliuoksesta natriumhydrosulfiti syntyy sammutetulla kalkilla. Saatu liuos on hyvin kestämätön, joten tehtaat yhä enemmän ovat ruvenneet käyttää saksalaisten valmistamaa kiinteää ja kestävää hydrosulfitia, joka esiintyy erinimisenä kaupassa. Kun sota keskeytti hydrosulfitin saannin ovat tehtaat jälleen olleet pakoitettuja itse valmistamaan tarvitsemansa hydrosulfitin. Niin kauan kuin natriumbisulfitisuolaa oli saatavissa ei hydnosulfitistä ollut puutetta. Ja monet tehtaat, jotka ennen olivat vaan käyttäneet saksalaista tuotetta, huomasivat nyt, että omatekoinen hydrosulfiti oli yhtä tehokas ja saksalaista tuotetta melkoista halvempikin. Tosiasia, josta tämän lehden palstoilla muuten monta kertaa jo oli huomautettu.

Vähitellen alkoi kuitenkin natriumibisulfitinkin saanti käydä vaikeaksi. Mitä nyt keinoksi? Hätä keksi keinon. Meikäläiset sulfititehtaat valmistavat rikkidioksidia, jota he käyttävät, sellulosakeittoonsa. Rikkidioksidi on, kuten tiedetään, natriumibisulfitin hapan osa. Johtamalla rikkidioksidia soodaliuokseen voivat sulfititehtaat varsin helposti valmistaa hydrosulfitiin tarvittavaa natriumhisulfitiliuosta. Sakottamalla siihen jauhettua sinkkiä (viilajauhetta) ja sammutettua kalkkia, syntyy siitä hydrosulfiti tunnettuun tapaan.

Tätä keinoa ovat monet tehtaamme jo pitemmän aikaa, sodan kestäessä hyväkseen käyttäneet. Mikäli tiedämme on Lielahden sulfitisellulosatehdas lähellä Tamperetta erikoisesti varustautunut natriumbisulfitiliuoksen valmistamiseksi. Kääntymällä tämän tehtaan puoleen voidaan siis tämä pulmallinen kysymys saada ratkaistuksi.

Emme saata tämän ohessa olla huomauttamatta. että meille Suomeen välttämättä olisi saatava kemiallinen tehdas, joka valmistaa tavallisimmat tehtaissamme käytettävät kemialliset tarveaineet. Olotila, johonka tällaisen puutteessa nykyisin olemme joutuneet uhkaa perikadoilla useita tärkeitä teollisuus aloja.

17.6.19

Improvement in Finishing Pictures.

Scientific American 4, 23.1.1869

Among the most recent patents, is the one granted to Mrs. Sarah A. L. Hardinge, artist, 57 Fleet street, Brooklyn, for a method of finishing pictures, specimens of which we have examined. Very beautiful and charming effects are produced and the improvement promises to have an extensive introduction, as it may be employed by any artist with entire success.

The patentee states as follows in the specification: "This invention consists in the employment, in combination with the surfaces of photogrophic prints, lithographic prints, woodcut prints, engravings, and all kinds of pictures, whether upon paper or other material, of a translucent sheet or film such as wax, upon which film the inks or pigments used in coloring or finishing the picture are laid. In carrying out my invention I take any ordinary print or picture, as for example a photographic print, and upon the face thereof I place a sheet of ordinary white wax, sufficiently thin to be so translucent that,when the wax is in close contact with the picture,the principal outlines thereof can be discerned through the wax. I then carefully press the wax film into close contact with the surface of the picture, either by hard pressure or by means of a roller, or by passing the picture through a roller press, or other suitable press. In order to apply the necessary pressure, I cover the surface of the wax with fine paper. The application of suitable pressure serves to harden and condense the wax, making an excellent surface for the reception of inks and colors.

"The translucent film of wax thus applied will adhere very closely to the surface of the picture, which is then to be finished up by laying upon the film any suitable inks or colors that may be desired for the finishing of the picture, such as oil colors, water colors, india ink, etc.

"One of the peculiar advantages of my improvement is that the harsher lines and defects of the picture are more or less covered or softened, while the general effects of the lights and shades are blended and improved. This renders the use of my invention specially advantageous in connection with miniature coloring, as the skilled artist is enabled to preserve completely the original likeness, and yet with a comparatively small expenditure of time to produce the most charming and exquisite efficts by stippling and coloring.

"The facility with which the background of the picture may be altered, lightened when too dark by the application of white colors, or darkened with dark colors when too light, or otherwise artistically changed, will be obvious. Alterations and corrections in the picture, may also be readily effected. In case of accidental injury to the surface of the picture, it may be easily repaired and preserved. The border of the translucent film may be embossed with any suitable ornamental composition.

"In other examples, where the picture consists of a profile or other naked figure, the semitranslucent material, after being applied upon the surface of the picture, may be traced with a needle or pointed instrument around the form of the profile, and all of the film except that directly upon the profile may be removed and the edges of the film then leveled down to the background. In this way the filmcovered portion of the picture when colored up and finished, will appear to stand out in relief forming a medallion picture of very beautiful appearance.

"In the general use of my improvement the artist is enabled to produce accurate, lifelike colors and effects with a facility which results from no other process with which I am acquainted.

"The use of the film herein described, serves also to prevent the original picture from fading and preserve it from injury from moisture and atmospheric changes."

16.6.19

Recent Patents. To Samuel Brown Oliver [...] for certain improvements in dyeing and dyeing materials

Recent Patents. To Samuel Brown Oliver, of Woodford, in the county of Essex, Gent., for certain improvements in dyeing and dyeing materials,—being a communication.— [Sealed 10th November, 1849.]

The London Journal of Arts, Sciences, and Manufactures, and Repertory of Patent Inventions.

Conducted by Mr. W. Newton, of the Office for Patents, Chancery Lane. (Assisted by several Scientific Gentlemen.)

VOL. XXXVI. (Conjoined Series.)

London: Published by W. Newton, at the office for patents, 66, Chancerylane, and Manchester; t. and W. Piper, Paternoster Row; Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., Stationers' Court; J. McCombe, Buchanan St., Glasgow; and Galinani's Library, Rue Vivienne,

Paris. 1850

No. CCXXIII.
This invention consists in manufacturing mixtures of the following materials, to be used in dyeing woollen fabrics, or fabrics containing a mixture of wool, viz.: — Sulphuric, nitric, boracic, acetic, arsenious, pyroligneous, oxalic, and tartaric acids—chloride of sodium or common salt—sal-ammoniac— chloride of magnesium—chloride of potassium—sulphate of potash—sulphate of magnesia—sulphate of soda—oxalate of potash—acetate of potash—acetate of soda—nitrate of soda— nitrate of potash—sulphate of zinc — and borax.

The patentee describes seven mixtures, which are those that he prefers to use; but he does not confine himself thereto, as variations in the proportions or substitutions of certain of the materials above enumerated may be made. The first mixture consists of 100 parts of chloride of sodium, 300 parts of water, 10 parts of sulphuric acid, 3 parts of nitric acid, and 1 part of arsenious acid. The second mixture consists of 100 parts of sulphate of soda or sulphate of potash, 6 parts of sulphuric acid, and 2 parts of nitric acid. The third mixture consists of 100 parts of sulphate of soda or potash, 1 part of sulphuric acid, 3 parts of nitric acid, and 6 parts of vinegar (or, instead of the latter, 2 parts of purified acetic acid may be used). The fourth mixture is composed of 100 parts of sulphate of soda or potash, 6 parts of sulphuric acid, and 3 parts of tartaric acid in a state of powder. The fifth mixture consists of 100 parts of nitrate of potash, 30, 40, 50, or 60 parts of sulphuric acid (according to the shade required), and 1000 parts of sulphate of soda or potash. The sixth mixture is composed of 100 parts of the fifth mixture, 3 parts of tartaric acid in a state of powder, and 10 parts of acetate of potash. The seventh mixture consists of 100 parts of sulphate of soda or potash, 4 parts of nitric acid, 4 parts of acetic acid, and 10 parts of tartaric acid in a state of powder.

The first and second mixtures are not to be employed for grain colors, or for any other colors in which solutions of tin are present; but the other mixtures may be employed for all colors,—including grain colors, or other colors in which solutions of tin are present. The materials of which the mixtures are composed are to be left in contact for several days. The vessels in which the above mixtures, or other analogous compounds, are prepared, must be formed of such substances as will not be liable to be acted on by the materials that are to compose the mixture; and which materials are allowed to act on each other until decomposition and admixture are thoroughly effected. The mixtures may be dried by natural or artificial means, and reduced to a state of powder in a mortar or mill.

The mixtures, above described, are to be used in dyeing woollen fabrics, or fabrics in which a mixture of wool is present, in the same manner as cream of tartar or argol is commonly employed,—the same weight of the respective mixtures being taken as would have been taken of cream of tartar or argol. The mixtures are to be employed with the aluminous or other mordants in the ordinary operations of dyeing. For dyeing dark colors, the mixtures may be used without the addition of other mordants; but, for ordinary purposes, they are employed as substitutes for cream of tartar or argol. In conclusion, the patentee says that, having described the invention and stated what he considers to be the best materials for the purposes above mentioned, he wishes it to be understood that he does not claim the use of the acids or salts above enumerated, when taken separately; but he does claim, as the improvements in dyeing and dyeing materials communicated to him, the use of such acids and salts, when combined in the manner and for the purposes above described, or when any of them are made to substitute one another in such mixtures for like purposes. — [Inrolled May, 1850.]

15.6.19

Recent Patents. To James Nasmyth [...] for certain improvements in the method of, and apparatus for, communicating and regulating the power for driving or working machines employed in manufacturing, dyeing, printing, and finishing textile fabrics.

Recent Patents. To James Nasmyth, of Patricroft, near Manchester, in the county of Lancaster, engineer, for certain improvements in the method of, and apparatus for, communicating and regulating the power for driving or working machines employed in manufacturing, dyeing, printing, and finishing textile fabrics.— [Sealed 26th June, 1849.]

The London Journal of Arts, Sciences, and Manufactures, and Repertory of Patent Inventions.

Conducted by Mr. W. Newton, of the Office for Patents, Chancery Lane. (Assisted by several Scientific Gentlemen.)

VOL. XXXVI. (Conjoined Series.)

London: Published by W. Newton, at the office for patents, 66, Chancerylane, and Manchester; t. and W. Piper, Paternoster Row; Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., Stationers' Court; J. McCombe, Buchanan St., Glasgow; and Galinani's Library, Rue Vivienne,

Paris. 1850

No. CCXXIII.
These improvements apply principally to machines employed in textile manufactures, and consist in communicating the power requisite for driving each separate machine, or system of machines of the same character or description, by means of a separate and distinct steam-engine, placed in direct and immediate connection therewith; and in so arranging the lever connected with the cock or valve which regulates the supply of steam to the said engine, as to enable the attendant work man to communicate, regulate, and disconnect the power which drives the particular machine or system of machines under his superintendence at the time he is inspecting the operation of the machines.

In order that the nature and object of his invention may be clearly understood, the patentee remarks, that, in the management of the several machines employed in the various processes connected with textile manufactures, it is very desirable that the workman should, at all times, have direct and immediate control over the power which drives the machine or system of machines under his charge; in order that he may be able, at any instant, to set in motion or disconnect the said machine or set of machines, without in any way interfer ing with the operations of the machinery adjacent; and also that he may be enabled to regulate the speed of the said machine or system of machines, from the greatest desirable amount of velocity to the slowest degree of motion he may require, whilst the said machines are in motion. These objects have hitherto been but partially attained by certain arrange ments and modifications of connecting and disconnecting apparatus, catch or clutch-boxes, &c., which communicate the motion to the several machines from the system of shafting through which the power of the steam-engine is transmitted; but, by the present method of communicating power, the most direct and perfect control is given to each workman over the power which drives the machine or system of machines under his care. This object is effected by simply placing the handle or lever of the cock or valve of the steam-engine so near to the machine which it drives that the attendant, while watch ing the progress of the operation under his charge, can, at any instant, arrest or modify the velocity of the machine or set of machines under his superintendence.

Another object to be attained by the present invention is, that any particular machine or system of machines may be driven separately, without the necessity of working a large steam-engine, with its train of heavy shafting, gearing, &c.; and also that any number of machines may be connected to, or disconnected from, the driving power, without the liability of breakage or disarrangement (caused by the shock or jerk), which exists, under the present system, when heavy machinery is thrown in or out of gear with the driving power. The patentee suggests that, in the process of dyeing, printing, and many other operations wherein a large quantity of steam is required for heating, drying, and other purposes, the steam should be used at a high pressure for driving the engines, and subsequently passed off to the other processes for which it is required at a lower pressure.

The great importance of the objects to be attained by the improved method of communicating and regulating the power for driving such machinery will, it is said, be at once evident to the practical manufacturer, and may be well exemplified as applied to the machines for printing calico and other similar surfaces, more especially those wherein several colors, forming one pattern, are printed by the machine at one and the same operation; in which, according to the peculiar nature of the work they are intended to perform, it is necessary to adjust and regulate the several parts of the said machine with the greatest accuracy and delicacy previous to commenc ing the process of printing; and as the accuracy of the said adjustments is liable to be deranged (especially when such machines are actuated, as heretofore, by means of gearing, which is common to several adjacent machines), it is requisite for the attendant workman to arrest the progress of the machine, in order that he may be enabled to ascertain whether or not the operation is proceeding in a satisfactory manner. In the ordinary method of communicating the power to such machines, by means of clutch-boxes and other similar contrivances, the connecting and disconnecting of the machines is invariably accompanied, more or less, by a shock or jerk, which is sometimes found to have the effect of disturbing the accurate correspondence of the several parts of the pattern, thereby occasioning what is technically termed a "mis-fit," and frequently, if unobserved, spoiling the piece of goods.

By means of the present invention, it is stated, the attendant workman, having, at starting, accurately adjusted the several parts of his machinery, can cause the machinery to commence working in the most gradual and delicate manner, and keep it so moving that he may not only be enabled to examine the accuracy of the process whilst the machine is in actual motion, but also, by reason of the extreme command which he possesses over the velocity of his machine, he may perform the most delicate adjustments of the several parts without totally arrest ing the progress of the machine. As soon as he finds all the parts in a satisfactory condition and fit state of adjustment, he may gradually increase the speed of his engine to the utmost desirable velocity; and again, when necessary, reduce the same, in order to examine whether the operation is proceeding in a satisfactory manner; and so proceed again, with out actually stopping the machine: the effect of which will be that the piece need not be spoiled, as it is now very liable to be; but the work in question may be performed in a more perfect and satisfactory manner, and in a much shorter time than it has hitherto been effected.

In Plate XVI., the invention is shewn as adapted to some of the machines used in textile manufactures. In all the figures the handle or lever by which the workman controls and regulates the supply of steam to the engine is indicated by a, a. Fig. 1, represents the application of the invention to a calendering machine; fig. 2, shews the same as applied to a mangle; fig. 3, shews the adaptation of the invention to a "padding machine;" and fig. 4, represents the application of the same to a four-color calico printing machine.

The patentee, in conclusion, states that he does not claim, as his invention, any peculiar construction, form, or arrange ment of steam-engine, as adapted to the purposes aforesaid; but he claims the improved method of communicating and regulating the power for driving or working machines employed in manufacturing, dyeing, printing, and finishing tex tile fabrics, by placing a separate and distinct steam-engine in direct and immediate connection with each machine or system of machines; and so arranging the handle of the steam-valve or cock that the attendant workman may, at all times, have perfect control over the engine whilst he is watch ing or inspecting the operation of the machine or system of machines under his charge. — [Inrolled December, 1849.]

14.6.19

Recent Patents. To Andrew Crosse [...] for improvements in tanning hides and skins, and also in dyeing fabrics and substances.

Recent Patents. To Andrew Crosse, of Gloucester-place, New-road, in the county of Middlesex, Gent., for improvements in tanning hides and skins, and also in dyeing fabrics and substances.*— [Sealed 24th May, 1849.]

The London Journal of Arts, Sciences, and Manufactures, and Repertory of Patent Inventions.

Conducted by Mr. W. Newton, of the Office for Patents, Chancery Lane. (Assisted by several Scientific Gentlemen.)

VOL. XXXVI. (Conjoined Series.)

London: Published by W. Newton, at the office for patents, 66, Chancerylane, and Manchester; t. and W. Piper, Paternoster Row; Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., Stationers' Court; J. McCombe, Buchanan St., Glasgow; and Galinani's Library, Rue Vivienne,

Paris. 1850

No. CCXXII.

---

* The patentee has, by means of a disclaimer, struck out the words "and also in dyeing fabrics and substances" from the title of his patent.
The first part of this invention consists in the application of hydrosulphuret of lime in the process of unhairing hides and skins, by causing the hides and skins to be moistened with and soaked in hydrosulphuret of lime (which is obtained by passing sulphuretted hydrogen through a mixture of lime and water), whereby the hair will be quickly loosened, and may then be removed in the ordinary manner.

The second part of the invention consists in a mode of obtaining strong tannin or other matter from bark, or other substance used in tanning or manufacturing hides and skins into leather. The pulverized or ground bark, or other substance, is first permitted to absorb so much water as may serve to dissolve or set loose the tannin principle or other matter held within the bark or other substance; and then it is subjected to powerful pressure, by means of an hydraulic press or other suitable mechanical apparatus, which causes it to emit an ooze or tanning liquid of a strong kind, i. e., with out so great an admixture of water as may be found in tanning liquid produced by the ordinary method of immersing and soaking the bark or other substance in pits. The improved process is to be repeated upon the same bark or other substance until it no longer contains any tannin or useful matter.

The third part of the invention consists in obtaining electric or galvanic effects in the pits or vessels in which hides and skins undergo the process of tanning. On one side of the pit or vessel is placed a plate of lead, and on the other side a plate of zinc (the plates covering the sides of the pit or vessel); and the two plates are connected together at the upper parts of the same, above the tanning liquid, by means of a strap of either of those metals. The hides or skins, after being unhaired, are suspended in the pit or vessel, which is to be filled with water; the water is allowed to remain therein for three or four days, and then it is either to be removed or else converted into tanning liquor by the addition of bark or other suitable matter; or, the water having been removed, the pit is to be filled with tanning liquor, which is to be kept at the strength of about fifteen degrees of a saccharometer for the first week, and after that the strength is to be increased at the rate of six degrees per week, until a strength of about forty-six degrees is indicated, which is to be maintained until the completion of the tanning process. The patentee says that he does not confine himself to the strengths of the tanning liquor, nor the progressive increase of the strengths above mentioned; and he states that the means of obtaining the requisite electric or galvanic effects in the pit or vessel may be varied.

The patentee claims, as his improvements in tanning hides and skins, Firstly,—the subjecting hides or skins to the action of hydrosulphuret of lime. Secondly,—the improved mode of producing tanning liquid. Thirdly,—the employ ment of means to obtain electric or galvanic effects in the pits or vessels in which hides or skins are under process of tanning.— [Inrolled November, 1849.]

13.6.19

Scientific Notices. On a new method of Gilding Porcelain.

The London Journal of Arts, Sciences, and Manufactures, and Repertory of Patent Inventions.

Conducted by Mr. W. Newton, of the Office for Patents, Chancery Lane. (Assisted by several Scientific Gentlemen.)

VOL. XXXVI. (Conjoined Series.)

London: Published by W. Newton, at the office for patents, 66, Chancerylane, and Manchester; t. and W. Piper, Paternoster Row; Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., Stationers' Court; J. McCombe, Buchanan St., Glasgow; and Galinani's Library, Rue Vivienne,

Paris. 1850

No. CCXXI.
By M. Grenon.

M. Grenon, decorator of porcelain, of Rue de Faubourg, St. Martin, Paris, submitted to the Society for the Encouragement of National Industry, Paris, an improvement in gilding porcelain, which adds much to its durability.

The operation of gilding, as generally practised, consists, as is well known, in mixing with the preparation of gold and protonitrate of mercury, a certain quantity of subnitrate of bismuth which serves as a flux, and allows the metal to be burnt into the porcelain. The gold prepared by nitrate of mercury, may be applied in extremely thin layers, so that this process will be very economical; it is, however, not very durable. Gold, obtained by sulphate of protoxide of iron, furnishes a more solid, although less economic gilding. Different processes have been employed for rendering gilding more durable without increasing the expense.

M. Rousseau's method is, first to lay a coating of platina, mixed with flux, and then a thin coating of gold upon the platina. This gives a solid gilding, but it is apt to lose its lustre by use,— the color of the gold being modified by that of the platina, which appears when the gold wears away.

M. Grenon's process consists in the successive application of two layers of gold, each having a special flux, and in different proportions. The first layer is first burnt in at a high tempera ture; after which, it is polished with rotten-stone, and on it is laid a thin coating of mercury-gold, which is prepared and burnt in the ordinary manner. This gilding is easily burnished, and takes a fine polish; and it has been proved that friction from hard bodies, which would seriously injure ordinary gilding, does not affect it.

M. Grenon's method merits attention from the public on account of its solidity and brilliancy; the increase in price (which is not very considerable) being justified by the quantity of gold employed, and the double expenses of laying-on and burning.

12.6.19

Scientific Notices. On a new coloring matter called wongshy.

The London Journal of Arts, Sciences, and Manufactures, and Repertory of Patent Inventions.

Conducted by Mr. W. Newton, of the Office for Patents, Chancery Lane. (Assisted by several Scientific Gentlemen.)

VOL. XXXVI. (Conjoined Series.)

London: Published by W. Newton, at the office for patents, 66, Chancerylane, and Manchester; t. and W. Piper, Paternoster Row; Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., Stationers' Court; J. McCombe, Buchanan St., Glasgow; and Galinani's Library, Rue Vivienne,

Paris. 1850

No. CCXXI.
By M. W. Stein, of Dresden.

[Translated for the London Journal of Art s and Sciences.]
Towards the close of last year a substance, bearing the name of Wongshy, was imported from Batavia into Hamburgh, with the view of being employed as a yellow dye. As no account has yet been published, relative to the application of this substance to the purpose of dyeing, the following particulars may, perhaps, prove interesting.

The new coloring matter consists of pods of seed, obtained from a plant, which, according to M. Reichenbach, belongs to the gentian family. The pods, which are unilocular, jure of an oblong form, ovoidal, and terminating in a point on that side near the []obtuse at the opposite extremity, and surrounded by the calix, which is dry and has five divisions. They vary in size, which is generally from 1 J to 1 J inches in length, with a diameter (in the largest part) of about half an inch. The color is a reddish-yellow, which is not uniform; it being darker in some places than others. The surface is more or less irregular and wavy, with from six to eight longitudinal nerves. It has a smell somewhat like saffron, with an after smell of honey. The shell is hard and brittle, and on being masticated it quickly becomes mucilaginous and colors the saliva yellow, giving out a slightly bitter flavor. It swells considerably in water. Inside the pods are small seeds, of a deep reddish color, and having a rough surface; they are detached from the sides, and are closely imbedded in a hard pulp: as many as 108 of these seeds have been counted in one pod. These seeds are rather hard, being chewed with difficulty, and having no particular flavor; but leaving on the end of the tongue a peculiar burning sensation, sweet and stinging, which is similar to that of red paraguay: the pulp in which they are imbedded has a strong bitter taste, which is most perceptible at the back of the gums.

The embryo, which consists of cells, containing amylum, is surrounded with albumen; the amylum may be easily detected by means of iodine, which partially colors the embryo blue, but does not affect the mass surrounding it. On being properly prepared and viewed under the microscope, this embryo presents two cotyledons; and its structure is more particularly seen on making a transverse section of the seeds passing through the em bryo. It is also to be remarked that the amorphous coloring matter, which is yellow in the cells inside the pod, with a slight tinge of green, appears of a purple red in those placed outside.

The wongshy fruits (when ground, both at the ordinary temperature, and at the boiling point) give up to water their coloring matter, which is of so divisible a nature, that two parts of the ground pods furnish 1 28 parts of a liquor which, on being intro duced into a cylindrical vessel of white glass, 2^- inches in diameter, displays, when exposed to the light, a clear yellow color. The concentrated extract is very mucilaginous, and is of a fire-red color, which disappears when the liquor is much diluted, and is converted into a gold-yellow. Alcohol, at 80° Centigrade, and also pure alcohol, on digesting pulverized fruit in it, also acquires a fire-red color, which is, by dilution, converted into gold-yellow. On digesting it in ether, it is, at the ordinary temperature, colored variously from pale up to brownish-yellow, and leaves, after evaporation, a thick yellowish-brown oil, which has a fruity smell and a sweet taste, slightly bitter; and which at 0° only deposits a small quantity of concrete fatty matter: on being agitated with azotate of protoxide of mercury, it does not thicken, even after a length of time; and consequently may be classed amongst the siccative oils. By saponification, perfectly colorless fatty acids may be extracted from it. The color of this oil is therefore due to a small quantity of the coloring matter which it has carried off with it.

Fatty oils do not possess the property of extracting any portion of coloring matter from these fruits, either at the ordinary temperature, or with the addition of heat.

An aqueous solution is obtained, in the form of jelly, by the addition of alcohol. This jelly, which is of a yellowish color, may be rendered perfectly colorless by washing with alcohol. On drying, it forms a translucid mass, which is slowly dissolved by water,—forming a thick mucilage. (In one experiment made by M. Stein, in which it was extracted from a fermented solution of the coloring matter, it was not obtained in the gelatinous form, but in the form of soft flakes, which, after drying, remained white and opaque, but otherwise behaved in the same maimer as the translucid substance.) This solution is not precipitated by acids; caustic soda, in excess, produces a gelatinous deposit; and when the soda is only in small quantity, the liquor remains limpid; but the addition of acid immediately produces gelatinous flakes. Carbonate of potash behaves in the same manner,—excepting that a considerable time is required for the production, by an excess of that salt, of the gelatinous thickening of the liquor, and that acids only produce slight flakes. Water of baryta precipitates the solution so completely, that the liquor from which the precipitate has been separated by filtration, on being submitted to evaporation upon a sheet of platina, and the residuum calcined, presents no traces of organic matter.—Lime water also produces an analogous precipitate, and acetate of lead produces a gelatinous precipitate.

The manner in which this substance behaves, and which has just been mentioned, agrees with the properties of pectine, as described in a recent work of M. Fremy; it will therefore be seen that wongshy contains a considerable quantity of pectine.

If, after having deprived the liquor of pectine by means of alcohol, a small quantity of acetate of copper be added, and caustic soda in excess, protoxide of copper will be precipitated. This substance, therefore, contains sugar, the presence of which is also manifested by the fact, that on exposing it in a pulverized state, and diluted with water, to a moderate heat, alcoholic fermentation will take place. During this fermentation, which, in one experiment, lasted more than three weeks, carbonic acid was disen gaged in large quantity, together with, at first, an odour of beer, which afterwards changed to that of butyric and valeric acids. On afterwards submitting the fermented liquor to distillation, a product was obtained which did not contain any alcohol, but only traces of acetic and butyric acids. In the liquor which remained, neither lactic acid nor mannite was detected. These phenomena of fermentation differ materially from those presented oy what is called viscous fermentation; by which, as is known, sugar is decomposed into carbonic acid, gum, lactic acid, and maunite, without the formation of alcohol.

* One experiment made by M. Stein, for the purpose of ascertaining whether with alum, and by precipitating with potash, a fine lacker might not be produced, did not give satisfactory results; as by this means only a small portion of the coloring matter, combined with the alumina, was precipitated, which was entirely removed hf simple washing with water.A solution of gelatine produces in the aqueous extract a trace of precipitate, arising from the presence of tannin. Chloride of tin, at the ordinary temperature, does not, even after the lapse of considerable time, produce any change; but, on raising the temperature, a precipitate of a deep orange color is perceptible. Basic acetate of lead produces no change. Simple acetate of lead produces a slight cloudiness at the ordinary temperature, and an orange precipitate at the boiling point. Sulphate of iron changes the color to a deep brown-yellow, without any precipitate being formed, either in the hot or cold state. Alum,* acetate of alumina, and acetate of zinc, give yellow precipitates, but only in the hot state. Baryta water, even at the ordinary temperature, produces a yellow precipitate, which, on being boiled, turns to a reddish tint. Lime water furnishes a yellow precipitate, which is not changed by heat, Solutions of sulphate of lime and chloride of calcium give no precipitate, either in the hot or cold state. Spring water, containing a considerable quantity of car bonate of lime, did not precipitate the coloring matter, even with the addition of heat; this latter is, therefore, unable to decompose combinations of lime with acids.

With regard to the solution of the coloring matter when completely deprived of pectine, water of baryta and of lime act rather differently,—as orange precipitates are formed at the boiling point. Caustic soda, caustic ammonia, and carbonate of potash render the color darker and tinge it brown. This change is not due to the coloring matter itself, but results from the action of the alkalies upon the sugar of gelatine which is present; and also upon a very bitter and easily changed substance which could not be separated. At the same time, on boiling the liquor and employing carbonate of potash or caustic soda, the disengagement of ammonia will be perceived on testing it by holding litmuspaper over the mouth of the vessel Nitric acid, in small quantity, and at the ordinary temperature, does not produce any change in the liquor; but when this acid is added in larger quantity, it causes the red color of the liquor to disappear; which then appears limpid, although slightly tinged with red. Each drop of acid, on falling into this liquor, causes it to assume a greenish tint, giving to the matter a distant resemblance to saffron yellow, which is also turned green by nitric acid. Sulphuric acid of commerce, in the cold state, produces a brown-yellow, and in the warm it is a yellowish-green by transmission, and a deep green by reflection. After the lapse of some time, olive-green flakes are separated, whilst the liquor appears of a reddishbrown color. Hydrochloric acid does not produce any change in the liquor at the ordinary temperature; but, on being heated, and before reaching the boiling point, it appears of a yellow-green color by transmission and deep green by reflection. Soon afterwards deep green flakes are precipitated, and the liquor becomes of a reddish-brown color. This reaction, which distinguishes the extract of wongshy from solutions of all other known yellow coloring substances, is not caused by the pure coloring matter, but by the bitter substance above mentioned; and for this reason this test must not be employed for ascertaining whether fabrics have been dyed with wongshy, as the bitter substance does not combine with the fabric. Tartaric and citric acids change the color to a brown-red. Metallic zinc, with the addition of a few drops of hydrochloric acid, decolors the liquor, changing it to a pale yellow, which colors woollens but very slightly. The liquor does not recover its former color on exposure to the air. Sulphurous and hydros ulph uric acids only produce imperfect decoloration of the liquid;—complete decoloration is obtained with difficulty, even by the action of chlorated water.

In order to ascertain with certainty whether wongshy could be employed for dyeing, M. Stein infused a quantity of the pulverized pods in lukewarm water for twelve hours—stirring frequently; after which, the liquor was run off. In this manner the coloring matter was extracted in the most expeditious manner, without the liquor becoming too thick or viscous, by the formation of paste, which would take place at the boiling point.

M. Stein states that, notwithstanding many experiments, he has not been able to produce a good green with wongshy yellow.With this extract, samples of woollens, properly prepared, were dyed, some without mordant, and others mordanted with alum, chloride of tin, acetate of alumina, and acetate of lead, in a bath heated to about 50° Centigrade, —as at a higher temperature the color is not pure.* The result was, that the unmordanted stuff was dyed, in a single bath, of a fine uniform orange color; and that amongst the mordanted samples, those treated with alum and acetate of alumina were better than those treated with chloride of tin; and that those having acetate of lead for a mordant, produced the least satisfactory results. The tone of the color was not changed by the three first-mentioned mordants; the samples were, however, dyed with a color less intense and less uniform. By means of a second bath, the samples treated with alum gave perfectly satisfactory results.

The coloring matter combines as readily with silk, and communicates to it a very brilliant gold color; so that M. Stein does not hesitate to give the preference to dyeing without mordants. Cotton, as might have been foreseen, will only take the color by means of a mordant; —the tin mordant appearing to give the best results. The color is an orange, very agreeable to the eye. This color, whether upon wool, silk, or cotton, resists perfectly the action of soap; alkalies, however, stain it yellow; and acids and salt of tin, turn it red. From the manner in which it behaves in these cases, it differs from annotto dye, to which it, however, bears great resemblance, as will be hereafter shewn,—the similarity extending to the action of the light upon the two bodies. This color, on being exposed to the light, very soon loses its color upon cotton, and a little more slowly upon wool: in this respect it appears to be more durable upon the unmordanted samples; but when employed for silk, it offers the most resistance; so that, compared with other yellow coloring matters, it may be considered to be one of the best.

On mordanting a woollen fabric with lime water, and passing it through a boiling bath of that substance, a fine yellow, inclining to red, was obtained, which resisted completely the action of soap, and also resisted the action of light better than the orange: alkalies, acids, and salt of tin, change it less than the orange, but in an analogous manner. Various fine shades of yellow may be obtained by adding to the bath carbonate of potash or caustic potash, and passing the unmordanted pieces through the bath at the ordinary temperature. The combination of the color with the fibre takes place very speedily, and with great uniformity and tenacity. By the addition of one part of potash to 30 parts of the coloring liquor, a yellow is obtained which is of a peculiar tint, owing to the presence of a small quantity of red. By doubling the quantity of potash, a bright yellow, inclining slightly to green, is obtained.—A larger addition of potash is not desirable, as the color becomes dull and uncertain. If caustic potash be used instead of the carbonate, a pure and lively yellow will be at first obtained, and containing little less red than that produced by the carbonate; and, afterwards, a fine canary yellow, with a slight tinge of green. Ammonia acts in the same manner as carbonate of potash and caustic potash; but the color is richer in red.— The coloring matter furnishes also somewhat different tints, when the fabric, after being washed, is passed through an alkaline bath.

The action of the alkalies is the same for silk and cotton; it is, however, a little less striking, as the fibres of silk and cotton absorb the coloring matter in less quantity than wool. The manner in which the coloring matter of wongshy acts, in common with annotto dye, is explained by the chemical character of the former, which is presented as a weak acid. It is from this circumstance that it has a disposition to combine with alkalies, and even with alkaline earths, as is shewn by the precipitation by waters of baryta and lime. The combinations which it forms with the former possess a pure yellow color, and are decomposed by the more energetic acids: when the coloring matter is thus set free, it assumes a lively cinnabar red. The matter, thus eliminated, is not the same as that which was originally in the aqueous solution, as it has become completely insoluble in water, and is only dissolved in small quantity by pure alcohol, ether, and alcohol at 80° Cent., which it colors yellow. Its color in the damp state is a cinnabar red; in a dry and most pure state, a brownish-red; and, like extract of ratanhia, it is easily reduced to powder; but, when it contains sugar and fatty matter, it pre sents, if inspected in thick layers, a fine yellow color; and, while in thin layers, it appears yellow and translucid, and draws humidity from the air. When the pure matter is heated on a sheet of platina, a yellow vapour is first disengaged, and the color is, in some places, pure yellow; it subsequently changes to a black, melts, and becomes carbonized. The resulting ash is very combustible;—the yellow vapours condense in yellow oily drops when the experiment is conducted in a small glass tube. Concentrated sulphuric acid brings out a faint blue, and the acid is colored with the same tint, which passes speedily to violet and brownred; whilst the coloring matter is slowly dissolved. With water, a flaky precipitate is formed, of a dirty yellowish-grey.

* To obtain it pure, with the etherieal solution, M. Stein evaporated the ether and treated the residuum with an aqueous solution of marine salt, in order to separate the fatty matter, which was then filtered off; the liquor was then evaporated at 50 per cent., and the residuum removed by means of alcohol. On afterwards evaporating the alcohol, a brown residuum was obtained, which had no bitter taste, and was insoluble in water.

** M. Stein remarked, in one instance, in the solution, concentrated by evaporation by the aid of a magnifying glass, detached white crystals, and others in the
The change of annotto to a blue tint by the action of sulphuric acid has no analogy with the phenomena presented by the coloring matter of wongshy, as the liquor is never, as is the case with annotto, colored a pure blue, but only presents traces of it—being violet for an instant only. It is easily soluble in ammonia and caustic soda, to which it imparts a gold color. In order to obtain it pure, an extract is made, by means of pure alcohol, from the bruised pods of wongshy; the alcohol is then separated by distillation, and the residue is treated with ether (to deprive it of the fatty matter), and afterwards dissolved in water; the solution is then treated with basic acetate of lead, with the addition of ammonia, and a precipitate is obtained. The plumbic precipitate, after being well washed and diluted with water, is afterwards decomposed by hydrosulphuric acid. On afterwards heating the liquor separated from the sulphuret of lead by the hydrochloric acid, it will be colored green; and, on evaporating it, a brown substance will be obtained, insoluble in water, and which is probably a product of the decomposition of the bitter substance above mentioned; a great part of which will, together with the fatty matter, have been carried away by the ether.* If, after drying the sulphuret of lead, it be treated with pure alcohol, it will assume a yellow color, and give up, by evaporation** the cinnabar red coloring matter, which is afterwards changed to brown-red. The product is, however, so small, that the quantity obtained by M. Stein did not allow of an elementary analysis being made. Nevertheless, by the help of M. Levol's method of testing, M. Stein ascertained that it did not contain any azote, neither could any traces of sulphur be detected on boiling with caustic ley.

The insolubility of the coloring matter in water, after being separated from the basic oxides, in contradistinction to its easy solubility before entering into combination with those oxides, led M. Stein to make some experiments, with the view of discovering the explanation of this phenomenon. One proof, that neither sugar nor pectine, in any way, influence the solubility of the coloring matter, is, that a solution containing sugar will, after having been boiled in caustic soda, allow the coloring matter to be precipitated, by means of vinegar; and this prepared and pure matter is neither soluble in a pure solution of pectine nor in a solution of sugar. One fact which seemed remarkable was, that the precipitation by acids took place immediately after having boiled an aqueous solution of the matter in caustic soda; while, at the ordinary temperature, a much longer time was required. M. Stein concluded from this, that the coloring matter originally existed in a state of combination, which was completely destroyed by boiling with the caustic soda. He supposes it to be an ammoniacal combination; for, as before remarked, a disengagement of ammoniacal gas was observed on boiling with caustic soda. This disengagement is, it is true, scarcely observable at the ordinary temperature; and, on the addition of chloride of platinum, even when the liquor is evaporated, no ammoniacal platinum is formed. This fact seems, therefore, to justify the opinion, that the coloring matter of wongshy is a starchy compound; and this opinion is supported by the fact, that the matter, after the solution has been boiled with caustic ammonia, cannot be precipitated by acids, but that it is capable of pecipitation from the aqueous solution, which still contains sugar, by boiling it with hydrochloric acid: in this case it should be remarked, that it is not of a cinnabar red color, but a brown-yellow, by reason of the pro ducts of decomposition of the sugar which were present.

M. Stein observes, in conclusion, that wongshy contains 5 per cent. of ash, which is obtained at a low temperature, and in an entire state, by mixing the pounded fruit with powdered platina. It was observed, in some experiments (in which plntina was not employed), that, at a certain temperature, there was, each time, sudden and violent combustion, which led to the belief that the fruit, perhaps, contained saltpetre. M. Stein, therefore, treated the fruit (deprived as much as possible of coloring matter by means of alcohol) with water, and endeavoured to detect the presence of nitric acid in the extract by means of sulphate of iron; he also treated another portion with sulphuric acid, but no traces were perceptible.

The ash of wongshy rapidly absorbs humidity from the air, and effervesces briskly with acids. On saturating it with nitric acid, M. Stein determined the proportion of phosphoric acid which it contains, according to M. H. Rose's process; i.e., by the help of mercury, and other ingredients usually employed.

100 parts of ash contain—
Phosphoric acid 10.27 = 5.75 0
Silica 400
Sulphuric acid 0.93
Chlorine 0.55
Lime 11.96 = 3.36 O
Magnesia 3.47
Oxide of iron 5.51
Soda 11.35
Potash 29.19
77.23

The solution of this ash, neutralized by nitric acid, is precipitated of a fine yellow color, by nitrate of silver; and the proportion of oxygen contained in the lime, bears the same proportion to that in the phosphoric acid as that contained in the basic phosphate of lime, according to the formula CaO x PO5. The question, whether these two matters are really thus combined, is left undecided,—M. H. Rose having perfectly demonstrated, in a recent work, how little one is justified in pronouncing upon the state of combination of the inorganic elements of plants from the analysis of their ash. The greater part of the basic oxide above mentioned must be combined with an organic acid, as it is found in the ash combined with carbonic acid. The quantity amounts to 21-67 per cent., supposing the alkalies to be in the state of carbonates, and the loss of 1.10 per cent. observed, to be really owing to the carbonic acid combined with the magnesia; which acid, on incineration in the presence of the alkaline carbonates, is but imperfectly driven oflf from the magnesia.