A History of Inventions and Discoveries: Stamped paper.

A History of Inventions and Discoveries.
By John Beckmann,
Public professor of economy in the University of Gottingen.
Translated from the German, by William Johnston.
Third edition, carefully corrected, enlarged by the addition of several new articles.
In four volumes.
Vol. 1.
Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; R. Priestley; R. Scholey; T. Hamilton; W. Otridge; J. Walker; R. Fenner; J. Bell; J. Booker; E. Edwards; and J. Harding.

Paper stamped with a certain mark by Government, and which in many countries must be used for all judicial acts, public deeda, and private contracts, in order to give them validity, is one of those numerous modes of taxation invented after the other means of raising money for the service of states, or rather of their rulers, became exhausted. It is not of great antiquity; for before the invention of our paper it would not have been a very productive source of finance. When parchment and other substances employed for writing on were dear; when greater simplicity of manners produced more honesty and more confidence among mankind; and when tallies supplied the place of notes, bonds, and receipts, writing of that kind were very little in use.

* An account of this book may be found in Anecdotes secretes sur divers sujects de litterat. 1734, p. 573. and in the preface to Etat de la France, de M. de Boulainvilliers, fol. p. 12.
*2 An extract from it is inserted also in the Paris edition of the Encyclopédie, vol. xi. p. 862.
*3 Illud quoque præsenti adjicimus legi, ut tabelliones non in alia charta pura scribant documenta, nisi in illa quæ in initio (quod vocatur protocollum) per tempora gloriorissimi comitis sacranum nostrarum largionum habeat appellationem, et tempus quo chartsa facta est, et quæcunque in talibus scribuntur; et ut protocollum non incidant, sed insertum reliquant; novimus enim multas falsitates ex talibus chartis ostensas et prius et nunc; ideoque, licet aliqua sit charta (nam et hoc sancimus) habens protocollum non ita conscriptum, sed aliam quandam scripturam gerens, neque illam suscipiant, tanquam adulteram, et ad talia non opportunam, sed in sla tali charta qualem dudum diximus documenta scribant. Hæc itaque quæ de qualitate talium chartarum a nobis decreta sunt, et de incisione corum quæ vocantur protocolla, valcre in hac felicissima solum civitate volumus, ubi plurima quidem contrahentium multitudo, multa quoque chartarum abundantia est, et licet legali modo intresse negotiis, et hon dare occasionem quibusdam falsiatem committere, cui se obnoxios existere demonstrabunt qui præter falsitatem committere, cui se obnoxios existere demonstrabunt qui præter hæc aliquid agere præsumpseringt. Novell. coll. iv. tit. 23. cap. 2. nov. 44.
*4 Such is the idea of Stryk in Continual´. altera usus moderni oandectarum, lib. xxii. tit. 4. p. 856: Chartaæ signatæ hodiarnæ est longe alius finis, et potissimum ad augendum fiscum inventa est.
*5 The States of Holland having laid sufficiently heavy duties on merchandise of every kind, and these not being equal to the expenditure, which was daily increasing, began to think of imposing new ones. For that purpose they issued an edict, inviting the ingenious to turn their thoughts towards that subject, and offering a very ample rewards to whoever should invent a new tax, that might be as little burdensome as possible, and yet productive to the republic. Some shrewd, deep-thinking person, at length, devised one on stamped paper (called
de impost van bezegelde brieven
), to be paid for all paper impressed with the seal of the States. The inventor proposed, that it should be enacted by public authority, that no petitions from the states, r from the magistrates of any city or district, or any public bodies, should be received; that no documents should be admitted in court of justice; that no receipts should be legal, and that no acts signed by notaries, secretaries, or other persons in office, and, in short, no contracts should be valid, except such as were written upon paper to which the seal of the States had been affixed, in the manner above mentioned. It was proposed, also, that this paper should be sold by the clerks of the different towns, and courts, at the following rate: paper impressed with the great seal of the States for sixpence, and that with the less seal for twopence per sheet: for according to the importance of the business it was necessary that the great or less seal should be used - - - - The States approved this plan, and it was immediately put in execution. Boxhornii Disquisitiones politic. casus 59. These Disquisitiones politicæ were printed by the author only for the use of his scholars, and published at first, without his name. They are to be found, however, in Boxhornii Varii tractatus politici. Amstelodami 1663, 12mo. In this collection there is also Bozhornii Reip. Bataviæ brevis et accurata descriptio, in the eight chapter of which the author gives the following account of the origin of stamped paper: "A very ingenious methods has lately been invented of raising large sums of money for the use of republic. As there are many rich people who have entrusted a considerable share of their property to the public treasury, the interest of which they receive annually on giving receipts; as many law-suits are carried on which are generally entered into by the wealthy, and which cannot be brought to a conclusion until a variety of instruments, as they are called, have been executed on each side; and as, on account of the flourishing state of trade, many contracts are made, which for the sake of security, must be mutually signed, the States thought proper to enact, by a public edict, that no receipts, law-papers, contracts, or instruments, of the like kind, should be legal or valid, unless written on paper impressed with the great or small seal of the States. A price was also fixed on the paper, to be paid by those who had occasion for it; so that a sheet which before could be purchased for a halfpenny, was raised to several pence; and it is incredible how great a revenue these sheets bring to the public, by so many of them being used. The poor, however, and those of small fortune, feel little of this burden, as the rich principally are concerned in the transactions above mentioned."
*6 Mylii Corpus constitut. MArch. p. iv. sect. 5. cap. 3. Von Dreyhaupts Beschreibung des Saal-Kreises, im auszuge, ii. p. 591. G. F. Mullers Stempel-recht. Halle 1778. 8vo. p. 9.
*7 Fr. Jac. Barholdi Diss. de charta signata; resp. P. Kolhart. Francof. ad. Viadr. 1690. ca. 2. § 16. p. 36.
De Basville or Baville, however, in his Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de Languedoc, affirms that stamped paper was introduced so early as the year 537, by the emperor Justinian. This book, written by the author, intendant of that province in 1697, for the use of the duke of Burgundy, was printed, in octavo, at Marseilles in 1734, and not at Amsterdam, as announced in the title; but it was carefully suppressed by the Government, and on that account is very scarce even in France.* I have never seen it; but I know the author's ideas respecting stamped paper, from an extract in Varietés historiques, physiques, et litteraires printed at Paris in the year 1752.*2 The author of this work supports the opinion of his countryman: but it is undoubtedly false; for the law quoted as a proof requires only that documents should be written on such paper as had marked at the top (which was called the protocoll) the name of the intendant of the finances, and the time when the paper was made; and this regulation was established merely with a view to prevent the forging and altering of acts or deeds.*3 A kind of stamped paper therefore was brought into use, though different from what we have at present, the principal intention of which is not to render writings more secure, but by imposing a certain duty on the stamps, proportioned to the importance of the purpose it is employed for, to make a considerable addition to the public revenue.*4 The stamps serve as a receipt to show that the tax has been paid; and, though many law papers must be stamped, the burthen has tended as little to prevent law-suits as the stamping of cards has to lessen gaming: though some think differently. In both too much is risked and too much expected for taxes to deter mankind from engaging in either.

If tin this historical research, we look only to the antiquity of stamping, we shall find that both the Greeks and the Romans had soldiers marked in that manner; and, if we may be allowed to bring together things so different, we might include under the like head those run-away slaves who were marked by being branded; but I allude here only to the stamped paper now in use, which was certainly invented in Holland, a country where every necessary of life is subjected to taxation. The States of the United Provinces having promised a reward to any one who should invent a new impost, that might at the same time bear light on the people and be productive to the government, some person proposed that of bezegelde brieven, or stamped paper, which was approved; and which Boxhorn, to whom we are indebted for this information, considers as a very proper tax. He is of opinion also that it might with great advantage be adopted in other countries;*5 and this was rally the case soon after his death, which happened in 1653.

Stamped paper was introduced in Holland on the 13th of August 1624, by an ordinance which represented the necessity and great benefit of this new tax. Among other things advanced in its favour, it was said, that it would tend to lessen lawsuits, and, on that acount, would soon recommend itself to neighbouring nations. What we are told, therefore, by the author of an extract in Varietés historiques, before quoted, that stamped paper began to be used in Holland and Spain so early as the year 1555, is certainly false. The Spaniards may, indeed, have been the first people who followed the example of the Dutch; for the author above mentioned asserts, that he saw an act, executed by a notary at Brussels, in 1668, which was written on stamped paper.

This tax was introduced in the electorate of Saxony by an ordinance of the 22d of March 1682; and into that of Brandenburg on the 15th of July the same year. *6 Bartholdus however says, but without producing any proof,*7 that stamped paper was used before that period in Denmark, Florence, and Silesia. In Hanover it was first introduced, as I think, on the 20th February 1709.


A History of Inventions and Discoveries: Alum.

A History of Inventions and Discoveries.
By John Beckmann,
Public professor of economy in the University of Gottingen.
Translated from the German, by William Johnston.
Third edition, carefully corrected, enlarged by the addition of several new articles.
In four volumes.
Vol. 1.
Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; R. Priestley; R. Scholey; T. Hamilton; W. Otridge; J. Walker; R. Fenner; J. Bell; J. Booker; E. Edwards; and J. Harding.

* What the Romans called alumen was by the Greeks called ---- This substance affords a striking instance how readily one may be deceived in giving names without proper examination. Our alum was certainly not known to the Greeks or the Romans; and what the latter called alumen* was vitriol; not, however, pure vitriol, but such as form itself in mines, and which is often nothing else than vitriolic earth. To those who know how deficient the ancients were in the knowledge of salts, and of mineralogy in general, this assertion will without further proof appear highly probable. Alum and vitriol are neutral salts, or to speak more correctly, saline substances, which have a very close affinity. Both contain the same acid called the vitriolic; both have a strong astringent quality, and on this account are often comprehended under the common name of styptic salts. Both are also not only found in the same places, but are frequently obtained from the same minerals; and both can be sometimes employed in the like manner, and for the same purposes. The difference, that vitriol is combined with a metallic earth, either that of iron, copper or zinc, and alum on the other hand with a peculiar white earth, called therefore alum earth, has been established only in modern times.

* Examen chymyque de différentes substances minerales, par M. Sage: or my translation Chemische untersuchung einiger mineralien Göttingen 1775, 8vo. p. 148.
*2 Some crystals of this kind were observed by Linnæus and Morand. See the Travels of the former through Scandinavia, p. 291, and the account of the latter in my Physical.-ökonom. Bibliothek. iii. p. 469.
*3 Nec ullius æque mira natura est. Plin. lib. xxxiv. c. 12. The same account is given by Isifor. Origin. lib. xvi. c. 2. and by Dioscorides, lib. v. c. 114. The latter, however, differs from Pliny in many circumstances.
*4 Those who are desirous of seeing every thing that the ancients have left us respecting their alum may consult Aldrovandi Museum metallicum, and Bernardi Casii Mineralogia. Lugduni 1636, fol. p. 334.
A stronger proof, however, in favour of my assertion is what follows: The Greeks and the Romans speak of no other than natural alum; but our alum is seldom produced spontaneously in the earth, and several of our most accurate mineralogists, such as Scopoli and Sage,* deny the existence of natural alum. Real alum crystals are formed very rarely, on minerals which abound in a great degree with aluminous particles, when they have been exposed a sufficient time to the open air and the rain;*2 and even then they are so small and so much scattered, that it requires an experienced and attentive observer to know and discover them. The smallest trace of alum-works is not to be found in the ancients, nor even of works for making vitriol, except what is mentioned by Pliny, who tells us that blue vitriol was made in Spain, by the process of boiling; and this circumstance he considers as the only one of its kind, and so singular, that he is of opinion no other salt could be obtained in the same manner.*3 Besides, every thing related by the ancients of their alum agrees perfectly with natural vitriolic substances: but to describe them all might be difficult; for they do not speak of pure crystals, but of saline bodies, which nature of itself exhibits in various ways, and under a variety of forms; and every small difference in the colour, the exterior or interior conformation, however accidental, provided it could be clearly distinguished, was to them sufficient to make a distinct species, and to induce them to give it a new name. *4

The celebrity which the ancient alum had, as a substance extremely useful in dyeing and medicine, was entirely forgotten when the alum of the moderns became known; but this celebrity was again revived when it was discovered that real alum could be often made from vitriolic minerals; or that where the latter are found there are generally minerals which abound with it. In many of these places alum-works have, in the course of time, been erected: and this circumstance has served in some measure to strengthen the opinion that the alum of the ancients and that of the moderns are the same salt; because where the former was found in ancient times, the latter has since been procured by a chemical process. some historians of the fifteenth century even speak of the alum-works erected at that period, as if the art of making this salt had only been revived in Europe.

*------ Herodot. lib. ii. c. 180. Franc. 1608, fol.
*2 A catalogue of the Egyptian articles of commerce may be found in Nouvelle relation d'un voyage fait en Egypte, par le P. Vansleb, Paris 1677, 12mo. p. 204.
*3 Diodor. Sic. lib. v. ed. Wesselingii, i. p. 338.
*4 Tournefort, Voyage, i. p. 63.
*5 Matthews's Travels may be found in the German translation of Blainville's. Lemgo 1767, vol. v. p. 445, 446. There is also a French translation of them, intitled Voyage en France, en Italie, et aux isles de l'Archipel en 1750, traduit de l'Anglois. Paris 1763, four vol. 4to. Some information respecting the same subject may be seen in that expensive but useful work, Voyage pittoresque de la Grèce, i. p. 12.
*6Diodor. Sic. lib. c. Strabo, lib. vi. edit. Almel. p. 423.
*7 See Deodat. de Dolomieu, Reise nach den Liparischen INseln. Leipzig 1783, 8vo. p. 80.
*8 Copious information respecting the Spanish alum-works may be found in Introduccion à la historia natural y´à la geografia fisica de Espagna, par D Guil. Bowles; preliminary discourse, page 39, and in Travels through Spain, by Dillon, London, 1780, 4to. p. 220.
The ancients procured their alum from various parts of the world. Herodotus mentions Egyptian alum; for he tells us that, when the people of Deplhos, after losing their temple by a fire, were collecting a contribution in order to rebuild it, Amasis king of Egypt sent them a thousand talents of alum.* In Pliny's time the Egyptian alum was accounted the best. It is well known that real alum is reckoned among the exports of Egypt at present;*2 but I am acquainted with no author who mentions the place where it is found or made, or who has described the method of preparing it.

The island of Melos, now called Milo, was particularly celebrated on account of its alum, as we learn from Diodorus Siculus, Celsus, Pliny, and others, though none was to be found there in the time of Diodorus.*3 This natural vitriol has been observed in the grottos of that island by several modern travelers, such as Tournefort*4 and Matthews,*5 who very properly consider it as the real alum of the ancients.

The islands of Lipara and Strongyle, or, as they are called at present, Lipari and Stromboli, contained so great a quantity of this substance, that the duty on it brought a considerable revenue to the Romans.*6 At one period, Lipari carried on an exclusive trade in alum, and raised the price of it at pleasure; but in that island, at present, there are neither vitriol nor alum-works.*7 Sardinia, Macedonia, and Spain, where alum was found formerly, produce still a salt known under that name.*8

*The derivation of the Latin name alumen, which, if I mistake not, occurs first in Columella and Pliny, is unknown. Some deduce it from ----; others from ----; and Isidore gives a derivation still more improbable. May it not have come from Egypt with the best sort of alum? Had it originated from a Greek word, it would undoubtedly have been formed from -----. This appellationis to be found in Herodotus; and nothing is clearer than that it has arisen from the astringent quality peculiar to both the salts, and also from ----, as has been remarked by Dioscorides, Pliny, and Galen. The latter says, ----. This drug has acquired its name from (---) astringency, because it possesses that quality in a high degree, Galenus de simp. medicam. facultat lib. ix. c. 3 30. See also G. J. Vossii Etymologicaon linguæ Latinæ, Neapoli 1762, fol. p. 30.
*2 Viride etiam. quod a quibusdam vitreolum vocatur. Alberti Magni Opera ombia. Lugduni 1651.
*3 G. Agricola. lib. iii. de nat. fossilium. Basiliæ 1546, fol. p. 219
*4Atramentum sutorium variis coloribus præditum est; --- candidum potissimum stiriæ figura reperitur Goslariæ, translicidum crystalli instar nec cæruleum nec viride caret perspicuitate; unde superior ætas atramento sutorio vitrioli nomen imporui. Vossii Etymol. p. 779.
*5 Color et cæruleus, perquam spectabili nitore, vitrumque creditur. Plin. lib. xxxiv. c. 12.
When our alum became known, it was considered as a species of the ancient; and as it was purer, and more proper to be used on most occasions, the name of alum* was soon appropriated in a particular manner to it alone. The kinds of alum however known to the ancients, which were real vitriol, maintained a preference in medicine and for dyeing black; and on this account, these impure substances have been still retained in druggists' shops under the name of misy, osry, &c. But a method was at length found-out of forming them into a lye, and of procuring thence crystallized martial salts, which obtained the new name of vitriol. This appellation has its rise first in the eleventh or twelfth century; at least I know no writer older than Albertus Magnus*2 by whom it is mentioned or used. Agricola*3 conjectures that it was occasioned by the likeness which the crystals of vitriol has to glass. This is also the opinion of Vossius; *4 and it is very singular that Pliny says nearly the same thing; for he observes, speaking of blue vitriol, the only kind then known, that one might almost take it for glass.*5

* Verba Quadrigarii hæc sunt: Tum Sulla conatus est, et tempore magno eduxit copias, ut Archelai turrim unam, quam ille interposuit, ligneam incenderet. Venit, accessit, ligna subdidit, submovit Gæcos, ignem admovit; satis sunt diu conati, nunquam quiverunt incendere; ita Archelaus omnem materiam obleverat alumine. Quod SUlla atque milites mirabantur; et, postquam non succendit, reduxit copias. A. Gellii Noct. Att. lib. xv. c. l.
*2 The halotrcihum of Scopoli. See Scopoli Tentamen de hydragyro Idriendi, and his Principia mineralogiæ, p. 81. See also my observations on Sages Chemische untersuchung einiger mineralien, p. 149. Chartheuser, Elementa mineral. p. 43; and Wallerii System. Miner. ii. p. 32. The first person who discovered this salt to be vitriolic was Henkel, as we find in his Kiesshistorie, p. 856, where he calls it Atlas-vitriol.
*3 Wecker de Secretis, lib. ix. 18. p. 445.
*4 I can give only one instance of its being used for this purpose, taken from Ammaninus Marcellinus; Persæ aggerum altitudine jam in sublime porrecta, machinæque ingentis horrore perculsi, quam minores quoque sequebantur, omnes exurere vi maxima perculsi, quam minores quoque sequabantur, omnes exurere vi maxima nitebantur; et assidue malleolos atque incendiaria tela torquentes laborant incassum; ea re quod humectis scortis et centonibus erant opertæ materiæ plures, aliæ unctæ alumine diligenter, ut ignis per eas laberetur innoxius. Ammian. Marcel. lib. xx. c. 12.
*5 Majus juverit, si prius ligna aceto linantur; nam a materia aceto illita ignis abstinet, Æneæ Poliorcet. cap. 34.
*6 Johannis Serapionis Arabis de simplicibus medicinis opus; edit. Othonis Brunsfelsii, Argentorati 1531, fol. cap. 410. p. 276.
By inquiring into the uses to which the ancients applied their alum, I find that it was sometimes employed to secure wooden buildings against fire. This remark I have here introduced to shew that this idea, which in modern times has given occasion to many expensive experiments, is not new. Aulus Gellius* relates, from the works of an historian now lost, that Archelaus, one of the generals of Mithridates, washed over a wooden tower with a solution of alum, and by these means rendered it so much proof against fire, that all Sylla's attempts to set it in flames proved abortive. Many have conjectured that the substance used for this purpose was neither vitriol nor our alum, but rather asbestos, which is often confounded with Atlas-vitriol;*2 and against this mistake cautions are to be found even in Theophrastus. But it may be asked, With that was the asbestos laid on? By what means were the threads, which are not soluble in water, made fast to the wood? How could a tower be covered with it? I am rather inclined to believe, that a strongly saturated vitriol-lye might have, in some measure, served to prevent the effects of the fire, at least as long as a thin coat of potters-earth or flour-paste, which, in the present age, have been thought deserving of experiments attended with considerable expense. It does not however appear that the invention of Archelaus, which is still retained in some old books,*3 has been often put in practise;*4 for writers on the art of war, such, for example, as Æneas,*5 recommended vinegar to be washed over wood, in order to prevent its being destroyed by fire.

I shall now proceed to the history of our present alum, which was undoubtedly first made in the East. The period of the invention I cannot exactly determine, but I conclude, with certainty, that it is later than the twelfth century; for John, the son of Serapion, who lived after Rhazes, was acquainted with no other alum than the impure vitriol of Dioscorides. *6 What made the new alum first and principally known, was its beneficial use in the art of dyeing, in which it is employed fro fixing as well as rendering brighter and more beautiful different colour. This art, therefore, the Europeans learned from the Orientals, who, even yet, though we have begun to apply chemistry to the improvement of dyeing, are in some respects superior to us, as is proved by the red of Adrianople, their silks, and their Turkey leather. The Italians procured their first alum from the Levant, along with other materials for dyeing; but when these countries were taken possession of by the Turks, it grieved the Christians to be obliged to purchase these necessary articles from the common enemy, and bitter complaints on that subject may be seen in the works of various authors. In the course of time, the Italians became acquainted with the art of boiling alum; for some of them had rented Turkish alum-works, and manufactured that salt on their own account. They, at length, found aluminous minerals in their own country, on which they made experiments. These having answered their expectations, they were soon brought into use; and this branch of trade declined afterwards so much in Turkey, that many of the alumworks there were abandoned.

* Büschings Geograph. v. p. 214. Beschreibung des Reyss Leonhardi Rauwolffen. Frank. 1582, 4to. ii. p. 36. Naukeurige bescryving van Asie - door Dapper. Amsterdam 1680, fol. p. 23.
*2 Reisebeschreibumg, ii. p. 408, 409. Dapper, p. 26. Büsching, p. 212. See also Michaelis Orientalische Bibliotek, xiii. p. 46.
*3 Büsching, p. 200.
We are told by many historians, that the Europeans who first made alum in Italy learned their art, as Augustin Justinian says, at Rocca di Soria, or Rocca in Syria. Neither in books of geography nor in maps, however, can I find any place of this name in Syria. I at first conjectured that Rocca on the Euphrates might be here meant;* but at present it appears to me more probable that it is Edessa, which is sometimes called Roha, Raha, Ruha, Orfa, and also Roccha, as has been expressly remarked by Niebuhr. *2 Edessa is indeed reckoned to be in Mesopotamia; but some centuries ago Syria, perhaps, was understood in a more extended sense. This much, at least, is certain, that minerals which indicate alum, such for example as bitumen, have been often observed by travelers in that neighbourhood.*3

* This singular appellation occurs in Valentini Historia simplicium; in Martini's Dictionary of natural history; and several other works.
*2 Vulgo audis alumen rochæ, quæ Græca vox maximæ Europæ servit parti ad rupem significandam. Jul. Ces. Scaligeri Exot. exercitat. Francof. 1612, 8vo. p. 325.
*3 This is the opinion of Mazeas; a translation of whose treatise I caused to be inserted in the Naturforscher, ii. p. 217. I shall here take occasion to remark, that sand seems to have been employed for making alum in the time of Agricola, as appears by his book De ortu et causis subterraneorum, p. 47.
*4 Mercati is of this opinion, in his Metallotheca, p. 54.
*5 Pyrotechnia. In Venegia, 1559, 4 to. lib. ii. cap. 6
*6 Cum constet, ejus coquendi artem vix trecentis abbine annis a Rocca Syriæ in Europam rediisse (unde aluminis Roccæ non intellecta vulgo appellatio), atque in Italia primum exercitam, serius in Germaniam penetrasse. Leibnitii Protogæa, p. 47.
It appears that the new alum was at first distinguished from the ancient vitriol by the denomination of Rocca, from which the French have made alun de roche, and some of the Germans rotzalaun.* Respecting the origin of this name very different conjectures have been formed. Some thing it is derived from rocca, which in the Greek signifies a rock, because this salt is by boiling procured from a stone; and these translate the word alumen rupeum, from which the French name is formed. *2 Some are of opinion, that alum boiled from stones has been so called to distinguish it from that procured from sand, which is generally combined more with iron than the former;*3 and others maintain that alum acquired the name of Rocca from the alum-rocks in the neighbourhood of Tolfa.*4 It is to be remarked, on the other hand, that Biringoccio, that expert Italian, confesses he does not know whence the name has arisen.*5 For my part, I am inclined to adopt the opinion of Leibnitz, that alumen roccæ was that kind first procured from Rocca in Syria; and that this name was afterwards given to every good species of alum, as we at present call the purest Roman alum.*6

*Bellonii Observationes, at the end of Clusii Exotica, cap. lxi. p. 64.
*2 The latter name occurs in Biringoccio, Pyrotechnia, p. 31.
*3 Carte de la Grèce, dressée sur les mémoires de MM. Wheeler, Tournefort - par G. de l'Isle. A Amsterdam, chez Ottens. In this map we find expressly noticed: Ypsala, Chapsilar, alum-mines. The same situation is given to Ipsela, Cypsela in the map of Thrace and Greece, in Pococ's Travles.
*4 In Lotter's map of Græcia nova
*5 Cellarii Geographia, i. p. 1299. In the map, however, published a few yars ago at Berlin, under the title of Græ antiqua delineata a I. C. :R. A. G. Scapta Hyla is placed on the west side, and Cypsela on the east.
In the fifteenth century, there were alum-works in the neighbourhood of Constantinople, from which John di Castro, of whom I shall have occasion to speak hereafter, learned his art. May not these alum-works be those visited by Bellon, and of which he has given an excellent description.* He names the place Cypsella or Chypsilar, and says, that the alum in commerce is called alumen Lesbium, or di Metelin..*2 The alum procured from Constantinople at present, may perhaps be brought from the same spot; but I am not sufficiently acquainted with its situation to determine that point with certainty, for Büschung makes no mention of it. In some maps I find the names Ypsala and Chipsilar on the western side of the river Mariza, Maritz or Maricheh, which was the Hebrus of the ancients;*3 in other stands the name Scapsiler on the west side of lake Bouron;*4 and it is not improbable that these may be all derived from the old Scaptesyle or Scapta Hyla, where, according to the account of Theophrastus, Pliny, and others, there were considerable mines.*5

* Büschings Gegraph. v. p. 74.
*2 In Phocis, which lies close to Ionia, there is a mountain abundant in aluminous mineral (----). The stones found on the top of this mountain are first calcined in the fire, and then reduced to sand by being thrown into water. The water mixed with that sand is put into a kettle; and a little more water being added to it, and the whole having been made to boil, the sand is liquefied, and the thick part which falls to the bottom in a cake is preserved; what is hard and earthy is thrown away as of no use. The cake is afterwards suffered to dissolve in vessels for four days; at the end of which the alum is found in crystals around their edges, and the bottoms of them also are covered with pieces and fragments of the like nature. The remaining liquor, which at the end of four days does not coagulate or harden, is poured into a kettle, more water and more sand is added to it; and being boiled as before, it is put into proper vessels, and the alum obtained in this manner is preserved as an article very necessary for dyers. All masters of ships, bound from the Levant to Europe, consider alum as a very convenient and useful lading for vessels. - - - - In the reign of Michael Palæologus, the first emperor of his family, some Italians requested a lease of that mountain, for which they promised to pay a certain sum annually. - - - - The Romans and the Latins build Phocæa Nova on the seashore, at the bottom of that mountain which lies on the east side of it. On the west it has the island of Lesbos, on the north the neighbouring bay of Elæa, and on the south it looks towards the Ionian sea. Duæ, Michaelis Ducænepotis, Historia Byzantina, res imperio Græcorum gestas complectens a Joanne Palæologo I. ad Mehemetem II. - studio et opera Ismaëlis Bullialdi. Venetiis 1729, p. 71.
*3 Bouillaud in his observations on Ducas, p. 186.
*4 Observations sur le commerce et sur les arts, par Flachat . Lyön 1766, ii. p. 431. The alum of Smyrna is mentioned by Baumé in his Experimental Chemistry, i. p. 458
*5 Professor Sprengel was so kind as to point out to me where an account might be found of other Eastern alum-works. This information is contained in a treatise of Francesco Balducci Pegolotti, written in the middle of the fourteenth century, on the state of commerce at that time, and printed in a book entitled Della decima e di varie altre gravezze imposte dal commune di Firenze. Lisbona e Lucca 1765, 4to. 4 vol. Of Pegolotti, some account may be seen in vol. ii. p. 61 and 74; and what he says of the kinds of alum then in use is in vol. iii. p. 368. I must acknowledge that I do not understand this old Italian author; and the learned marquis Hippolito Durazzo of Genoa, author of the well-written Elogip di Christophoro Colombo, when I had the pleasure of seeing him lately, confessed that some parts were untintelligible even to him. It appears, however, from this work, that in the fourteenth century the Italians were acquainted with no other than Turkish alum.
Another alum-work, no less celebrated in the fifteenth century, was established near the city Phocæa Nova, at present called Foya Nova, not far from the mouth of the Hermus, in the neighbourhood of Smyrna.* Of this work, Ducas, who had a house there, has given a particular description, from which we learn that in his time, that is under the reign of Michael Palæologus, it was farmed by Italians, who sold the produce of it to their countrymen, and to the Dutch, French, Spaniards, English, Arabs, Egyptians, and people of Syria. This author relates very minutely, in what manner the alum was made,*2 but that work has been long since abandoned:*3 alum however made in the neighbourhood is still exported from Smyrna.*4 It is much to be wished, that ingenious travelers would examine the alum-works in Thrace, around Smyrna, and in Turkey in general, and give an accurate description of them according to the state in which they are at present.*5

* I shall embrace this opportunity of giving a brief account of the situation of the island, and of the nature of its soil. That Ænaria has been at some time violently separated from the continent by an earthquake, seems proved by a variety of circumstances, such as calcined rocks; the ground full of cavers; and the earth, which, like that of the main land, being abundant in warm springs, and dry, feeds internal fire, and on that account contains a great deal of alum. A few years ago Bartholomew Perdix, a Genoese merchant, passing this island, in his way to Naples, observed some aluminous rocks scattered here and there along the sea-coast. About a hundred and sixty-.three years before that period, the earth having suddenly burst by the effects of fire confined in its bowels, a considerable part of Ænaria was involved in flames. By this eruption a small town as burned and afterwards swallowed up; and large masses of rock mixed with flames, sand, and smoke, thrown up, where the shore looks towards Cumæ, fell upon the neighbouring fields, and destroyed the most fruitful and the most pleasant part of the island. Some of these huge pieces of rock being at that time in a furnace, extracted alum from them, and revived that art which he had brought from Rocca in Syria, where he had trated for several years, and which had been neglected in Italy for many centuries. Joannis Joviani Pontani Historiæ Neapolitanæ libri sex, in Grævii Thesaurus antiquit, et historiarum Italiæ, vol. ix. part 3. p. 88.
*2 I must not omit to mention that about this time Bartholomew Pernix, a citiszen and merchant of Genoa, who had resided long in Syria for the purpose of commerce, returned to his native country. Soon after he made a voyage to the island of Ænaria, situated in the Tuscan sea, called formerly Pythacusa, and now in the vulgar Greek Iscla or Ischia; and being a man of an acute genius, and a diligent investigator of natural objects, he observed near the sea-coast several rocks fit for making alum. He took some fragments of them therefore, and, having calcined them in a furnace, he procured from them most excellent alum He was the first person who, to the incredible benefit of many, brought as it were again into use that art long abandoned and almost lost in Italy and the greater part of other countries. On that account his name deserves to be rescued from oblivion. Senatus populique Genuensis rerum hist. atque annal. auctore Petro Bizaro Sentinati.. Antverpæ 1579, fol. p. 302.
*3 About that period (1459) Bartholomew Pernix, a Genoese merchant, sailing past the island of &AEnaria or Ischia, learned that there were near the shore many aluminous rocks, that is to say, fit for making alum. He took some of them, therefore, and having caused them to be calcined in a furnace, he procured from them most excellent alum. This Bartholomew brought back to Italy from the city of Rocca, in Syria, where he had trated many years, the art of making alum, which had been neglected and lost for a long space of time. Castigatissimi annali, con la loro copiosa tavola, della republica di Genoa, da fideli e approvati scrittori, per Monsignore Agostino Giustiano, Genoese, Vescovo di Nebio.. Genoa 1537, fol. lib. v. p. 214.
*4 Dominici Bottone, Pyrologia topographica; id est, de gne dissertatio. Neapoli 1692, 4to. p. 313. This author calls the inventor Perdix, and not Pernix.
The oldest alum-works in Europe were established about the middle of the fifteenth century, but where they were first erected cannot with certainty be ascertained; for it appears that several were set on foot in different places at the same period. Some affirm that the first alum made in Europe was manufactured in the island Ænaria, or Pithacusa, at present called Ischia, by a Genoese merchant, whom some name Bartholomew Perdix, and others Pernix. This man, who is praised on account of his ingenuity, and attachment to the study of natural history, having often travelled through Syria, learned the method of boiling alum at Rocca; and on his return found alum-stones among the substances thorn up by the eruption of a volcano which had destroyed part of the island, and gave occasion to their being first employed in making that salt. Such is the account of respectable historians, Pontanus, * Bizaro,*2 Augustine Justinian,*3 and Bottone,*4 who wrote much later. Bizaro says, that his happened in the year 1459, which agrees perfectly with the account of Pontanus; for he tells us that it was under the reign of Ferdinad I, natural son of Alphonsus, who mounted the throne in 1458. Besides, the earthquake, which had laid waste the island one hundred and sixty-three years before, took place in 1301, which makes the time of this invention to fall about the year 1464. So seems Bottone also to have reckoned, for he mentions expressly the year 1465.

*The most authentic account of Paul di Castro is to be found in Falricii Biblioth. lat. mediæ et infimæ ætatis, vol. v. p. 617, and in Joh. Fichardi Vitæ Ictorum, which is printed along with Pancirolli Libri de claris legum interpretibus. Lipsiæ 1721, 4to. p. 186. Paul di Castro was not of Castro in the kingdom of Naples, as is said in Jocher's Gelehrten Lexicon, but of Castro belonging to the duchy of the same name in the Ecclesiastical States.

*2 A little before that period came to Rome John di Castro, with whom the pontiff had been acquainted when he carried on trade at Basle, and was banker to Pope Eugenius. His father, Paul, was a celebrated lawyer of his time, who sat many years in the chair at Padua, and filled all Italy with his decisions; for law-suits were frequently referred to him, and judges paid great respect to his authority, as he was a man of integrity and sound learning. At his death he left considerable riches, and two sons arrived at the age of manhood; the elder of whom, following the profession of the father, acquired a very extensive knowledge of law. The other, who was a man of genius, and who applied more to study, made himself acquainted with grammar and history; but, being fond of traveling, he resided some time at Constantinople, and acquired much wealth by dyeing cloth made in Italy, which was transported thither, and committed to his care, on account of the abundance of alum in that neighbourhood. Having by these means an opportunity of seeing daily the manner in which alum was made, and from what stones or earth it was extracted, he soon learned the art. When, by the will of God, that city was taken and plundered about the year 1453, by Mahomet II, emperor of the Turks, he lost his whole property; but, happy to have escaped the fire and sword of these cruel people, he returned to Italy, after the assumption of Pius II, to whom he was related, and from whom he obtained, as an indemnification for his losses, the office of commissary-general over all the revenues of the Apostolic Chamber, both within and without the city. While, in this situation,l he was traversing all the hills and mountains, searching the bowels of the earth, leaving no stone or clod unexplored, he at length found some alum-stone in the neighbourhood of Tolfa. Old Tolfa is a town belonging to two brothers, subjects of the church of Rome, and situated at a small distance from Civita Vecchia. Here there are high mountains, retiring inland from the sea, which abound with wood and water. While Vastro was examining these, he observed that the grass had a new appearance. Being struck with wonder, and inquiring into the cause, he found that the mountains of Asia, which enrich the Turkish treasury by their alum, were covered with grass of the like kind. Perceiving several white stones, which seemed to be minerals, he bit some of them, and found that they had a saltish taste. This induced him to make some experiments by calcining them, and he at length obtained alum. He repaired, therefore, to the Pontiff, and addressing him, said, "I announce to you a victory over the Turk. He draws yearly from the Christians above three hundred thousand pieces of gold, paid to him for the alum with which we dye wool different colours, because none is found here but a little at the island of Hiscla, formerly called Æ naria, near Puteoli, and in the cave of Vulcan[] at Lipari, which, being formerly exhausted by the Romans, is now almost destitute of that substance. I have, however, found seven hills, so abundant in it, that they would be almost sufficient to supply seven worlds. If you will send for workmen, and cause furnaces to be constructed, the stones to be calcined, you may furnish alum to all Europe; and that fain which the Turk used to acquire by this article, being thrown into your hands, wil be to him a double loss. Wood and water are both plenty, and you have in the neighbourhood the port of Civita Vecchia, where vessels bound to the West may be loaded. You can now make war against the Turk: this mineral will supply you with the sinews of war, that is money, and, at the same time, deprive the Turk of them." These words of Castro appeared to the Pontiff the ravings of a madman: he considered them as mere dreams, like the predictions of astrologers; and all the cardinals were of the same opinion. Castro, however, though his proposals were often rejected, did not abandon his project, but applied to his holiness by various persons, in order that experiments might be made in his presence, on the stones which he had discovered. The Pontiff employed skilful people, who proved that the really contained alum; but lest some deception might have been practised, others were sent to the place where they had been found, who met with abundance of the like kind. Artists who had been employed in the Turkish mines in Asia were brought from Genoa; and these, having closely examined the nature of the place, declared it to be similar to that of the Asiatic mountains which produce alum; and, shedding tears for joy, they kneeled fown three times, worshipping God, and praising his kindness in confering so valuable a gift on our age. The stones were calcined, and produced alum more beautiful than that of Asia, and superior in quality. Some of it was sent to Vewnice and to Florence, and, being tried, was found to answer beyond expectation. The Genoese first purchased a quantity of it, to the amount of twenty thousand pieces of gold; and Cosmo of Medici for this article laid out afterwards seventy-five thousand. On account of this service, Pius thought Castro worthy of his highest honours, and of a statue, which was erected to him in his own country, with this inscription: "To John di Castro, the inventor of alum;" and he received besides a certain share of the profit. Immunities and a share also of the gain were granted to the two brothers, lords of Tolfa, in whose land the aluminous mineral had been found. This accession of wealth to the church of Rome was made, a, by the divine blessing, under the pontificate of Pius II; and if it escape, as it ought, the hands of tyrants, and be prudently managed, it may increase, and afford no small assistance to the Roman Pontiffs in supporting the burdens of the Christian religion. - Pii Secundi Comment. Rev. memorab. quæ temp. suis contigerunt, Joan. Gobellino compositi, a Franc. Bandino Picolomineo ex velusto origin. recog.; quibus hac edit. accedunt Jac. Picolominei Rer. gest. sui temp. commentarii. Francofurti 1614, fol. p. 185.

*3 The Frangipani a third time acquired lands in the kingdom of Naples. When they possessed in Maremma di Roma, Tolfa, Castello, and a jurisdiction which brings at present eighty thousand crowns annually to the Church, it happened that a son of Paul fi Castro, a celebrated doctor, and a vassal of these lords, who had been many years a slave in Turkey to an alum-merchant, returned free to his own country; and observing that in the territories of Tolfa there was abundance of alum mineral, he gave notice of it to Lodovico Frangipani, his lord, and was the cause of greatly increasing his revenues. Pope Paul II, however, pretending that the mineral belonged to the Apostolic See, as supreme lord of the fief; and not being able to persuade Lodovico to give it up to the Church, he declared war against him, but was vigorously opposed by Lodovico and his brother Peter, lords of Tolfa, assisted by the Orsini their relations, so that the pope was obliged to bring about an accommodation with them by means of king Ferrante I, and to paly them as the price of Tolfa sixteen thousand crowns of gold, of which Lodovico gave twelve thousand to the king, and was invested by him in the lordship of Serino in the year 1469. -Discorsi delle famiglie entitnte, forestiere, o non comprese ne' Seggi di Napoli, imparentate colla casa sdella Marra. Composti dall Signor Don Ferrante della Marra, duca della Guardia; dati in luce da Don Camillo Tutini Napolitano. In Napoli 1641, fol. p. 178.
See also Istoria dell' antichissima città de Civita Vecchia, scritta dal Marchese Antigono Frangipani. In Roma 1761, 4to. p. 119, 120, 121. 182. Platina, in his Life of Pope Pius II, says nothing further of this remarkable circumstance than: Fodinas invenit (Pius II), tuun primum aluminis apud Tolfam instituit.
*4 Ferbers Briefe über Welschland, p. 246.
*5 This year (1460) is distinguished by the discovery of alum at Tolfa Vecchia, no one there having been acquainted with it till that period: and this happened by means of one John di Castro, who had acquired some knowledge of it from a young man of Corneto, and a Genoese, who had learned in Turkey the whole process of making it. The said John jhaving observed that in the mountains of Tolfa there were undoubtedly veins of alum, he caused some of the earth and stones to be dug up, and the first experiments were made on them at Viterbo in the following manner. The stones were first calcinated in a furnace; a large quantity of water was then thrown over them; and when they were entirely dissolved, the water was boiled in great leaden cauldrons; after which it was poured into wooden vessels; where evaporating by degrees, the result was alum of the most perfect kind. Pope Pius II, sensible of the great benefit which might arise from this mineral to the Apostolic Chamber, employed, more than eight hundred persons at Tolfa in preparing it. - HIstoria della città di Viterbo, di Feliciano Bussi. In Roma 1742, fol. p. 262.
The alum-work which is situated about an Italian mile north-west from Tolfa, and six from Civita Vecchia, in the territories of the Church, is by some Italian historians reckoned to have been the first. However this may be, it is certain that it is the oldest carried on at present. The founder of it was John di Castro, a son of the celebrated lawyer, Paul di Castro,* who had an opportunity at Constantinople, where he traded in Italian cloths, and sold dye-stuffs, of making himself acquainted with the method of boiling alum. He was there at the time when the city fell into the hands of the Turks; and after this unfortunate event, by which he lost all his property, he returned to his own country. Pursuing there his researches in natural history, he found in the neighbourhood of Tolfa a plant which he had observed growing in great abundance in the aluminous districts of Asia: from this he conjectured, that the earth of his native soil might also contain the same salt; and he was confirmed in that opinion by its astringent taste. At this time he held an important office in the Apostolic Chamber; and this discovery, which seemed to promise the greatest advantages, was considered as a real victory gained over the Turks, from whom the Italians had hitherto been obliged to purchase all their alum. Pope Pius II, who was too good a financier to neglect such a beneficial discovery, caused experiments to be first made at Viterbo, by some Genoese who had formerly been employed in the alum-works in the Levant, and the success of them was equal to his expectations. The alum, which was afterwards manufactured in large quantities, was sold to the Venetians, the Florentines, and the Genoese. The Pope himself has left us a very minute history of this discovery, and of the circumstances which gave rise to it. *2

Some pretend that Castro was several years a slave to a Turk who traded in alum;*3 others affirm, that he had even been obliged to labour as a slave in alum works; *4 and others, that he learned the art of boiling alum from a citizen of Corneto, a town in the dominions of the Pope, and from a Genoese, both of whom had acquired their knowledge in the Levant.*5 But as I do not with to ascribe a falsehood to the Pontiff, I am of opinion that the history of this discovery must have been best known to him. He has not, indeed, established the year with sufficient correctness; but we may conclude from this relation that it must have been 1460 or 1465. The former is the year given by Felician Bussi; and the latter that given in the history of the city of Civita Vecchia.

* Labat Reisen nach Welschland. Frankf. and Leipzig. vol. v. 1760, 8vo. p. 3 et seq.
*2 Museo di fisica e di esperienze, di Don Paoplo Boccone. In Venetia 1697, p. 152. [Tekstissä ei viittausta tähän kohtaan.]
*3 Targioni Tozzetti, Viaggi, vii. p. 234.
*4 Anno 1458. Rock alum, which the Greeks call pharno, was at this time first discovered by a Genoese in the territories of Volterra, where being boiled and found to be good, it began to be dug up afterwards in many of the mountains of Italy. Till that period the Italians had made no use of mines of this kind; for our alum was all brought from Turkey. The above discovery was, therefore, a grat advantage to us. - Supplementum supplementi chronicorum; edit. et cast. a patre Jacobo Philippo Bergomare. Venetiis 1513, fol. p. 299.
*5 Antonius quidam Senensis architectus, haud longe ab ea urbe (Berignone, jam diu deleta), ad eum prospectum qui verdit ad Cecinæ flovium, aluminis tolpham (probably mineram) comperuit, in publico usn atque vectigalium censu neutiquam spernendam. - Giovanni Giovanniense, Monarchia Medicea, p. 51. 58.
*6 An account of this dispute between the Florentines and the people of Volterra may be seen in Machiavel's History of Florence, book vii. - TRANS.
*7 Jo. Michaël. Bruti Historia Florentina. Venetiis 1764, 4to. lib. v. p. 244.
*8 Nunch foditur alumen nuper inventum pluribus in locia in Hetruria, apud Forum Claudii, præterea in agro Mussano et Volaterrano; sed Volaterranum jam desiit. - Raphaelis Volaterrani Comment. urbani. Fancof. 1603, fol. p. 1020.
*9 De Thermis.
*10 Relazioni d'alcuni viaggi fatti in diverse parti della Toscana In Firenze, tom. iii. p. 117.
The plant which first induced John di Castro to search alum was that ever-green, prickly shrub, the ilex aquifolium, or holly, which in Italy is still considered as an indication that the regions where it grows abound with that salt.* But though it is undoubtedly certain that the quality of the soil may be often discovered by the wild plants which it produces, it is also true that this shrub is frequently found where there is not the smallest trace of alum; and that it is not to be seen where the soil abounds with it, as has been already remarked by Boccone and Tozzetti.*3

Among the earliest alum-works may be reckoned that which was erected at Volterra, in the district of Pisa, in 1458; by a Genoese named Antonius.*4 Others say that it was consctructed by an architect of Sienna;*5 but this opinion has, perhaps, arisen only from the work having been farmed by a citizen of Sienna, or built at his expense. On account of this alum-work an insurrection of the inhabitants of Volterra broke out in 1472; but it was at length quelled by the Florentines, who took and plundered the city.*6 Brutus,*7 who wrote his History of Florence in the year 1572, says that this alum-work was carried on in his time: but this is certainly false; for Raphael di Volterra, *8 who died in 1521 in his native city, expressly tells us, that, in his time, alum was no longer boiled there; and this is confirmed by Baccius, *9 who also lived in the sixteenth century. At present, no remains of it are left; so that Tozzetti was not able to discover the place where the alum-stones were broken.*10

* The words of the document are: Vendo montem rotundum cum balneis - et cum aurifodinis, argentifodinis, erifodinis, cretifodinia, sufodinis, et alumifodinis et aluminibus ceteribus perhaps veteribus). Tozzetti, Viaggi, vii. p. 51.
*2 Andreas Baccius de thermis. Venetiis 1588, fol. p. 293. Tozzetti, iv. p. 186.
It appears from what has been said, that the art of boiling alum in Europe was first known in Italy, but not before the year 1458. That document, therefore, of the year 1284, quoted by Tozzetti, and in which alum-works, alumifodinæ, are mentioned, must, as he himself thinks, be undoubtedly false.

The great revenue which the Apostolical Chamber derived from alum, induced many to search for aluminous minerals, and works were erected wherever they were found. Several manufactories of this substance were established, therefore, in various parts, which are mentioned by Baccius, *2 Biringoccio, and other writers of the sixteenth century. The Pope, however, understood his own interest so well, that he never rested until he had caused all the works erected in the territories of others to be given up, and until he alone remained master of the prize. He then endeavoured, by every method possible, to prevent foreigners from acquiring an accurate knowledge of the art of boiling alum; and at the same time found means, by entering into commercial treaties with other nations, and by employing the medium of religion, which has always the greatest effect on weak minds, to extend his commerce in this article more and more. The price was raised from time to time, and it at length became so high that foreigners could purchase this salt at a cheaper rate from the Spaniards, and even when they sent for it to Turkey. His Holiness, that he might convert this freedom of trade into a sin, and prevent it by the terror of excommunication, artfully gave out that he meant to set apart the income arising from his alum-works to the defence of Christianity; that is, towards carrying on war against the Turks. Prohibitions and threats now followed in case nay one should be so unchristian as to purchase alum from the Infidels; but every person was at liberty to make what bargain he could with his Holiness for this commodity.

* Les anciens minéralogiates, par Goet, vol. ii. p. 805.
*2 Cum Pontifex Pius II hujusmodi inventi aluminis in TUscia redditus et proventus in fidei defensionem dedicasset et consecrasset, meritoque Julius II vetuerit alumina ex Indifdelium terris adduci, et Christianos ca mercari, ut ita solum cenderetur et emeretur inter Christianos quod in terris Romanæ Ecclesiæ insperato fuerat adinventum, ut constat ex Leon. X. bulla 36 et Pauli III. n. 48; ideo Julius III, imitatus dictum Julium II, qui primus hoc prohibuit sub excommunicatione, et Paul. III, qui eam renoavit, in alia sua constit. 42. in Bullario veteri edita anno 1553, quæ incipit: Etsi ea; cujus contextum adducit Scortia in Constit. pontif. epist. 66. theor. 173, ubi explicat ipse Julius III, renovat atque confirmat, contra facientes et complices vectores, ementes, vendentes, laborantes, sese in his immiscentes, naves et alumina assecurantes, Julii II et Pauli III excommunicationem; et, aggravando poenas, eosdem reddit intestabiles et incapaces hæreditatum, officiorum publicorum; cisque omnes actus legitimos interdicit, et oppida ac civiates, ad quas declinaverint, nisi inde eos expennat intra diem unum post habitam de his notitiam, supponit interdicto ecclesiastico, ut Leo X bulla 12, et alii in rebus gravibus fecerant; et reservat tam absolutionem illius quam relazationem hujus excomunicationis Pontifici Romano; et hanc eandem constitutionem confirmasse postea Paulum IV in bulla 43, quæ incipit: Ex Apostolica, et Greg. XIII, num. 21, quæ incipit: Muneris, quarum bullarum ratio ex testu nostro colligtur in vers. ibi: Dummodo in mercibus suis (vel alio modo) aliquod commodum vel subsidium provehiret; ut revera contigeret si Christiani emerent alumen a Turcis, pro illo pecunias argenteas et aureas darent, wquibus ditiores et potentiores fierant ad Christianos debellandos, et ex verbis d. c. olim. 12 hic. Nicol. Rodrig. Fermosini Tractatus criminalium. Lugd. 1670, 2 vol. fol. tom. ii. p. 62.
*3 Pyrotechn. p. 31. He says expressly, that this was the only alum-work in Europe in his time without the boundaries of Italy.
*4 Winkelmans Beschreibung von Hessen, i. p. 39.
*5 Peithners Versuch über die geschichte der Böhmischen un Mährischen begwerke. Wien 1780, fol. o. 68.
*6 Büschings Geographic, iv. p. 843.
*7 De natura fossilium, lib. xii.
In the year 1468, Pope Paul II entered into a commercial treaty respecting alum with Charles de Bold, duke of Burgundy; but, in 1504, Roman alum had risen to such an exorbitant price, that Philip the Fair, archduke of Austria, caused a council of inquiry to be held at Bruges, by which it appeared that this article could be purchased at a much cheaper rate in Turkey. Commissions, therefore, were sent thither for that purpose;* but scarcely was this known at Rome, when a prohibition, under pain of excommunication, was issued by Pope Julius II. This pontiff, however, was not the only one from whom such prohibitions proceeded: bulls of the like kind were issued also by Julius III, Paul III, Paul IV, Gregory XIII, and others.*2

But these means, like all those founded on the simplicity of others, could not be of long duration; and as soon as men became a little more enlightened, they learned to know their own interest, and to discover the selfishness of the Pope's bulls. Unless Biringoccio, who visited a part of the German mines, be under a mistake, the first European alum-work without Italy was erected in Spain; and is that still carried on, with considerable profit, at Almacaron, not far from Carthagena.*3 In the beginning of the sixteenth century very large quantities of alum were brought to Antwerp, as we learn from Guicciardini's Description of the Netherlands.

At what time the first alum-work was erected in Germany, I am not able to determine; but it appears that alum began to be made at Oberkaufungen, in Hesse,*4 in the year 1554. For the alum-work at Commotau in Bohemia, *5 the first letters-patent were granted in 1558. An alum-work was established at Lower Langenau, in the county of Glatz, in 1563; but it was soon after abandoned.*6 Several more manufactories of alum are mentioned by Agricola, such as that of Dieben or Duben, in the circle of Leipsic, and those of Dippoldiswalda, Lobenstein, &c.*7

* History of Commerce, iv. p. 406. "The manufacture of alum," says he, "was first found out in England, and carried on with success in 1608. It was supported and patronized in the county of York by lord Sheffield, sir John Bourcher, and other landholders of the said county, to the great benefit of England in general, and of the proprietors in particular, to the present day. King James was a great promoter of this alum-work, after he had, by the advice of his minister, appropriated to himself a monopoly of it, and forbidden the importation of foreign alum.
*2 Such is the account of Pennant, in his Tour in Scotland, 1768, third edition, Warrington 1774, 4to. p.23. "The alum-works in this country are of some antiquity; they were first discovered by Thomas Chaloner, in the reign of queen Elizabeth, who observing the trees tinged with an unusual colour, made him suspicious of its being owing to some mineral in the neighbourhood. He found out that the strata abounded with aluminous salt. At that time the English being strangers to the method of managing it, there is a tradition that sir Thomas was obliged to seduce some workmen from the Pope's alum-works near Rome, then the greatest in Europe. If one may judge from the curse which his Holiness thundered out against sir Thomas and his fugitives, he certainly was not a little enraged; for he cursed by the very form that Ernulphus has left us, and not vaired a tittle from that most comprehensive imprecations. The first pits were near Gisborough, the seat of the Chaloners, who still flourish there notwithstanding his Holiness's anathema." See also A Political Survey of Britain by John Campbell, London 1774, 2 vol. 4to. i. p. 75, and ii. p. 20. The following passage, extracted from Britannia, or a Chorographical description of Great Britain, by W. Camden; the third edition, by E. Gibson, London 1753, 2 vol. fol. vol. ii. p. 910, is much to the same purpose: "This (alum) was first discovered a few years since (anno 1607) by the admirable sagacity of that learned naturalist sir Thomas Chaloner, knt. (to whose tuition his majesty [king James the First] committed the delight and glory of Britain, his son prince Henry), by observing that the leaves of trees were of a more weak sort of green here than in other places, &c."
*3 Taubes Abschilderung der Englischen handlung. Wien 1777. 8vo. i. p. 86. "For some time past the marquis of Lepri has farmed the alum-works at Civita Vecchia for 37,000 seudi. The Apostolical Chamber supplies the necessary wood, which the marquis must be at the expense of cutting down and transporting. About two hundred men are employed in the works; and alum to the amount of from forty-five to fifty thousand seudi is sold annually, particularly to the English and the French." See Observations faites pendant un voyage en Italie, par le Baron de R. (Riesch). Dresden 1781, 2 vol. 8vo.
*4 Voyages metallurgiques, par M. Jars. Paris 1781, 4to. vol.iii. p. 297.
In England, the first alum-work was erected at Gisborough in Yorkshire, in the reign of queen Elizabeth, though Anderson * says in 1608. Sir Thomas Chaloner, who had an estate there, conjecturing from the nature of the plants which grew wild, that there must be minerals in the neighbourhood, after making some search, at length discovered alum. As there was, however, no one in England at that time who understood the method of preparing it, he privately engaged workmen belonging to the Pope's alum-works; and it is said, that as soon as the Pontiff heard this, he endeavoured to recall them by threats and anathemas. These, however, did no injury to the heretics; and in a little time the alum-work succeeded so well, that several more of the same kind were soon after established.*2 But what more dishonoured the Pontiff's denunciations was, that, in later times, the proprietors of the English alum-works farmed those of the Apostolic Chamber, and increased, in various ways, the benefit derived from them.*3

At what period alum-works were established in other countries I have not been able to learn. I however know that one was erected at Andradum*4 in Sweden, in 1630. Roman alum costs at present in Holland from 40 to 48 schillings per cent; that of Liege from 25 to 30; that of Smyrna from 36 to 40; and English, Danish, and Swedish alum from 30 to 35.


A History of Inventions and Discoveries: Saffron.

A History of Inventions and Discoveries.
By John Beckmann,
Public professor of economy in the University of Gottingen.
Translated from the German, by William Johnston.
Third edition, carefully corrected, enlarged by the addition of several new articles.
In four volumes.
Vol. 1.
Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; R. Priestley; R. Scholey; T. Hamilton; W. Otridge; J. Walker; R. Fenner; J. Bell; J. Booker; E. Edwards; and J. Harding.

* Plin. lib. xxi. cap. 6. Geopon. lib. xi. cap. 26, and Theophrast. Histor. plant. lib. vi. cap. 6.; where Joh. Bod. von Stapel, p. 661, has collected, though not in good order, every thing to be found in the ancients respecting saffron. The small aromatic threads, abundant in colour, the only parts of the whole plant sought after, were by the Greeks called ----- or ----; and by the Romans spicæ. They are properly the end of the pistil, which is elect into three divisions. A very distinct representation of this part of the flower may be seen in plate 184 of Tournefort's Intitut, rei herbariæ.
*2 On this account we often find in presciprions: Recipe croci Orientalis - - -
*3 Crocologia, seu curiosa croci enucleatio, congesta a J. F. Hertodt. Jenæ 1670, 8vo.
*4 See Beroald's Observations on the 54th chapter of the Life of Nero by Suetonius. Spartian, in the Life of Adrian, chap. 19, says: Romæ post cæteras immensissimas voluptates in honorem socrus suæ, aromatica populo donavit. In honorem Trajani balsama et crocum per gradus theatri fluere jussit.
*5 Lucan, in the ninth book of hi Pharsalia, verse 809, describing how the blood flows from every vein of a person bit by a kind of serpent found in Africa, says, that it spouts out in the same manner as the sweet-smelling essence of saffron issues from the limbs of a statue.
Utque solet pariter totis se effundere signis
Corycii pressura croci; sic omnia membra
Emisere simul rutilum pro sanguine virus
*6 Omnes placentæ omniaque poma, etiam minima vexatione contacta, coeperunt effundere crocum. Petron. Satyr. cap. 60.
*7 Of the method of preparing this salve or balsam, mentioned by Athenæ, Cicero, and others, an account is to be found in Dioscorides, lib. i. c. 26.
*8 Catulos lactentes adeo puros existimabant ad cibum, ut etiana placandis numinibus hostiarum vice uterentur his. Genitæ Manæ catulo res divina fit, et in coenis Deum etumanum ponitur catulina. Aditialibus quidem epulis celebrem fuisse, Plauti fabulæ indicio sunt. Plin. lib. xxix. cap. 4. And Festus says: Catulinam carnem esitavisse, hoc est comedisse, Romanos, Plautus in Saturione refert.
That the Latin word crocus signified the same plant which we at present call saffron, and which, in botany, still retains the ancient name, has, as far as I know, never been doubted; and indeed I know no reason why it should, however mistrustful I may be when natural objects are given out for those which formerly had the like names. The moderns often apply ancient names to things very different from those which were known under them by the Greeks and the Romans: but what we read in ancient authors concerning crocus agrees, in every respect, with our saffron, and can scarcely be applied to any other vegetable production. Crocus was a bulbous-plant, which grew wild in the mountains. There were two species of it, one of which blowed in spring, and the other in autumn. The flowers of the latter, which appeared earlier than the green leaves that remained through the winter, contained those small threads or filaments which were used as a medicine and a paint, and employed also for seasoning various kinds of food.*

It appears that the medicinal use, as well as the name of this plant, has always continued among the Orientals; and the Europeans, who adopted the medicine of the Greeks, sent to the levant for saffron,*2 until they learned the art of rearing it themselves; and employed it very much until they were made acquainted with the use of more beneficial articles, which they substituted in its stead. Those who are desirous of knowing the pharmaceutical preparation of saffron, and the diseases in the curing of which it was employed, may read Hertodt's Crocologia, where the author has collected all the receipts, and even the simplest, for preparing it. *3
What in the ancient use of saffron, is most discordant with our taste, at present, is the employing it as a perfume. Not only were halls, theatres, and courts, through which one wished to diffuse an agreeable smell, strewed with this plant,*4 but it entered into the composition of many vinous extracts, which retained the same scent; and these costly smelling waters were often made to flow in small streams, which spread abroad their much admired odour.*5 Luxurious people even moistened or filled with them all those things with which they were desirous of surprising their guests in an agreeable manner,*6 or with which they ornamented their apartments. From saffron, with the addition of wax and other ingredients, the Greeks as well as the Romans prepared also scented salves, which they used in the same manner as our ancestors their balsams.*7

Notwithstanding the fondness which the ancients showed for the smell of saffron, it does not appear that in modern times it was ever much esteemed. As a perfume, it would undoubtedly be as little relished at present as the greater part of the dishes of Apicius, fricassees of sucking puppies, *8 sausages, and other parts of swine, which one could not even mention with decency in gen----
[puuttuu kaksi sivua]
them more and more, till they have at length become indispensable wants. Some have taken snuff rendered so sharp by salts, antimony, sugar of lead, and other poisonous drugs, that the olfactory nerves have been rendered callous, and entirely destroyed by it.

* Le saffran doit être mis en tous les potages, sauces, et viandes quadragésimales. Sans le saffran, nous n'aurions jamais bonne purée, bon pois passés, ni bonne sauce. Apologie pour Herodote, par H. Estiene. A la Haye 1735, 2 vol. 8vo.
*2 Meninski, in his Turkis Lexion, p. 2448 of the old edition, has Zae feran, crocus. Golius in his Dictionary gives it as a Persian word. That much saffron is also cultivated in Persia, and that it is of the best kind, appears from Chardin. See his Travels, printed at Rouen 1723, 10 vol. 12mo. iv. p. 37. That the Spaniards borrowed the word safran from the Vandals is much more improbable. It is to be found in Joh. Marianæ Histor. de rebus Hispaniæ. Hagæ 1733, fol. i. p. 147. The author, speaking of foreign words introduced into the Spanish language, says, Vandalis aliæ coves acceptæ feruntur, camara, azafran, &c.
*3 Cours complet d' agriculture, redigé par Rozier, Paris 1781, 4to. i. p. 266.
*4 It is reported at Saffron-Walden, that a pilgrim, proposing to do good to his country, stole a head of saffron, and hid the same in his palmer's staff, which he had made hollow before on purpose, and so he brought this root into this realm, with venture of his life, for if he had been taken, by the law of the country from whence it came, he had died for the fact. Voyages collected by Hakluyt, vol. ii. p. 164. The same thing, extracted from Harrison's History of Britain, book iii. chap. 14, is related in The Political Survey of Britain by J. Campbell. London 1774, 4to, ii. p. 101.
*5 Breslaeur Samlun, 1720. November, p. 536,
*6 Sexta species primum Germaniæ innotuit post annum 1579, Stephani van Hausen Noribergensis diligentia, qui ejus anni initio Constantinopoli rediens in comitatu generosi viri Ulrichi a Kunnigsperg (qui præcedente anno honorarium eo tulerat) in Servia, sive Moesia superiore, sub Belgrado florentem eruit, Martio mense. Clusii Rar. plant. hist. Antwerp 1601, fol. p. 207.
That saffron was as much employed in seasoning dishes as for a perfume, appears from the oldest work on cookery which has been handled down to us, and which is ascribed to Apicius. Its use, in this respect, has been long continued, and, in many countries, is till more prevalent than physicians wish it to be. Henry Stephen says, "Saffron must be put into all Lent soups, sauces, and dishes; without saffron we cannot have well-cooked peas.*

It may readily be supposed that the great use made of this plant in cookery must have induced people to attempt to cultivate it in Europe; and, in my opinion, it was first introduced into - by the Arabs, as may be conjectured from its name, which is Arabic, or rather Persian.*2 From Spain it was, according to every appearance, carried afterwards to France, perhaps to Albigeois, and thence dispersed into various other parts.*3 Some travelers also may, perhaps, have brought bulbs of this plant from the Levant. We are, at least, assured that a piligrim brought from the Levant to England, under the reign of Edward III. the first root of saffron, which he had found means to conceal in his staff, made hollow for that purpose.*4 At what period this plant began to be cultivated in Germany I do not know; but that this was first done in Austria, in 1579, is certainly false. Some say that Stephen von Hausen, a native of Nuremberg, who, about that time, accompanied the imperial ambassador to Constantinople, brought the first bulbs to Vienna, from the neighbourhood of Belgrade.*5 This opinion is founded on the account of Clusius, who, however, does not speak of the autumnal saffron used as a spice, but of an early sort, esteemed on account of the beauty of its flowers.*5 Clusius has collected more species of this plant than any of his redecessors; and has given an account by whom each of them was first made known.

* Pietro Crescentio d'agricoltura. In Venetia 1542, 8vo. lib. vi. cap. 25.
*2 Le théatre d'agricultureet mesnage des champs, d' Olivier de Serres. Seconde edit. Paris 1603, 4to. p. 662.
*3 Rei rusticæ libri quotuor, conscripti a Conr. Heresbachio. Spiræ Nemetum 1595, 8vo. p. 252.
*4 Georgica curiosa.
*5 Oeconomus prudens et legalis.
*6 The whole order may be seen in Traité de Police, par De la Mare, iii. p. 428.
In the fifteenth and following century, the cultivation of saffron was so important an article in the European husbandry, that it was omitted by no writer on that subject; and an account of it is to be found in Crescentio,* Serres,*2 Heresbach,*3 Von Hohberg,*4 Florinus,*5 and others. In those periods, when it was an important object of trade, it was adulterated with various and in part noxious substances; and attempts were made in several countries to prevent this imposition by severe penalties. In the year 1550, Henry II, king of France, issued an order for the express purpose of preventing such frauds, the following extract from which will show some of the methods employed to impose on the public in the sale of this article:*5 "For some time past," says the order, "a certain quantity of the said saffron has been found altered, disguised, and sophisticated, by being mixed with oil, honey, and other mixtures, in order that the said saffron, which is sold by weight, may be rendered heavier; and some add to it other herbs, similar in colour and substance to beef over boiled, and reduced to threads, which saffron, thus mixed and adulterated, cannot be long kept, and is highly prejudicial to the human body; which, besides the said injury, may prevent the above-said foreign merchants from purchasing it, to the great diminution of our revenues, and to the great detriment of our revenues, and to the great detriment of foreign nations, against which we ought to provide," &c.


A History of Inventions and Discoveries: Verdigrise, or Spanish Green.

A History of Inventions and Discoveries.
By John Beckmann,
Public professor of economy in the University of Gottingen.
Translated from the German, by William Johnston.
Third edition, carefully corrected, enlarged by the addition of several new articles.
In four volumes.
Vol. 1.
Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; R. Priestley; R. Scholey; T. Hamilton; W. Otridge; J. Walker; R. Fenner; J. Bell; J. Booker; E. Edwards; and J. Harding.

* Dioscorid. lib. v. cap. 91, 92. Theophrastus de lapidibus, edit. Heinsii, p. 399. Plin. lib. xxxiv. cap. 11, 12. Oribasius, Medie. collect. lib. xiii. Stephani Medicæ artis principes, p. 453. Vitruv. lib. vii. cap. 12.
*2 Bruckmann, Epistolæ itinerar, cent. i. p. 76.
*3 Delius, Anleitung zur Bergbaukunst. Wien, 1773, 4to. p. 425.
Respecting the preparation of verdigrise, various and in part contradictory opinions have been entertained; and at present, when it is with certainty known, it appears that the process is almost the same as that employed in the time of Theophrastus, Dioscorides, and Vitruvius. * At that period, however, every natural green copper calx was comprehended under the name of ærugo. Dioscorides and Pliny say expressly, that a substance of the nature of those stones which yielded copper when fused, was scraped off in the mines of Cyprus; as is still practised in Hungary, where the outer coat of the copper ore is collected in the like manner, and afterwards purified by being washed in water. *2 Another species, according to the account of Dioscorides, was procured from the water of a grotto in the same island; and the most saleable natural verdigrise is still collected by a similar method in Hungary. The clear water which runs from old copper-works is put into large vessels, and after some time the green earth falls to the bottom as a sediment. *3

* Dioscorides: --- Plinius: Squame, delimata æris scobs.
*2 Dioscorides: ----
*3 Plinius: vinacea. Dioscorides: --- Theophrastus: --- .The last word has various meanings: sometimes it signifies squeezed grapes; sometimes wine lees, &c. of which Niclas gives examples, in his Observations on Geop. lib. vi. c. 13. p. 457; but it can never be translated by amurca, though that word is used by Furlanus, the translator of Theophrastus. The old glossary says, ----- . Oil, however, has nothing to do with verdigrise.
*4 This kind was called therefore ------, ærugo rasilis.
*5 ------ , atramentum sutorium.
The artificial ærugo of the ancients, however, was out verdigrise, or copper converted into a green calx by vinous acid. To discover the method of procuring this substance could not be difficult, as that metal contracts a green rust oftener than is wished, when in the least exposed to acids. The ancients, for this purpose, used either vessels and plates of copper, or only shavings and filings; *2 and the acid they employed was either the sourest vinegar *2 or the sour remains left when they made wine: such as grapes become sour, or the stalks and skins after the juice had been pressed from them. *3 Sometimes the copper was only exposed to the vapour of vinegar in close vessels, so that it did not come into immediate contact with the acid, in the same manner as was practised with plates of lead in the time of Theophrastus, when white-lead was made, and as is still practised at present. Sometimes the metal was entirely covered with vinegar, or frequently besprinkled with it, and the green rust was from time to time scraped off;*4 and sometimes copper filings were pounded with vinegar in a copper mortar, till they were changed into the wished-for green calx. This article was frequently adulterated, sometimes with stones, particularly pumice-stone reduced to powder, and sometimes with copperas. *5 The first deception was easily discovered; and to detect the second, nothing was necessary but roast the verdigrise, which betrayed the iron by becoming red; or to add to the verdigrise some gall-nut, the astringent particles of which, united with the ferruginous vitriol of the copperas, formed an ink, which communicated a black colour to paper dipped into it.

* ----- ærugo scolacea, or vermicularis.
*2 Should this explanation be just, we ought for æruca, the name given by Vitruvius to verdigrise, to read eruga: though the conjecture of Marcellus Vergilius (Dioscorides, interprete Mar. Vergilio. Coloniæ 1529, fol. p. 656), that the reading should be anea or ærea, is no less probable; for by this epithet its difference from ærugo ferri was frequently distinguished.
In early periods verdigrise was used principally for making plasters, and for other medicinal purposes; but it was employed also as a colour, and on that account it is by Vitruvius reckoned among the pigments. When applied to the former purpose, it appears that the copper calx was mixed with various salts and other ingredients. One mixture of this kind was called vermicular verdigrise,* the accounts of which in ancient authors seem to some commertators to be obscure; but in my opinion we are to understand by them, that the ingredients were pounded together till the paste they formed assumed the appearance of pieces or threads like worms; and that from this resemblance they obtained their name. For the same reason the Italians give the name of vermicelli to wire-drawn paste of flour used in cookery.*2 When the process for making this kind of verdigrise did not succeed, the workmen frequently added gum to it, by which the paste was rendered more viscous; but this mixture is censured both by Pliny and Dioscorides. It appears that the greater part of the verdigrise in ancient times was made in Cyprus, which was celebrated for its copper-works, and in the island of Rhodes.

*The latest writers on this art are mentioned in Weigel's Chemie, p. 527, and Krünitz, Ockonom. Encycloped. xx. p. 241.
*2 This is mentioned by Serane in his treatise, a translation of which may be found in the Mineralogischen Belustigungen, ii. p. 251.
*3 Journal oeconom. 1759, p. 311
At present the greater part of our verdigrise is manufactured at Montpellier in France, and by processes more advantageous than those known to the ancients. The dried stalks of grapes are steeped in strong wine, and with it brought to a sour fermentation. When the fermentation has ceased, they are put into an earthen pot, in alternate layers with plates of copper, the surface of which, in a few days, is corroded by the vinous acid, and the calx is then scraped off.* The manufacturers of this article use only Swedish copper, for which they send to Hamburgh; and it is believed that no wine is so proper for the above purpose as that of Languedoc. However this may be, it is certain, that, even in the fifteenth century, the making of verdigrise was on old and profitable branch of commerce in France. The city of Montpellier having been obliged to expand large sums in erecting more extensive buildings to carry it on, and having had very small profits for some years before, received, by letters patent from Charles VI, in 1411, permission to demand sixteen sous for every hundred weight of verdigrise made there.*2 In latter times this trade has decayed very much. Between the years 1748 and 1755, from nine to ten thousand quintals were manufactured annually, by which the proprietors had a clear profit of 50,000 crowns; but a sudden change seems to have taken place, for in 1759 the quantity manufactured was estimated at only three thousand quintals. This quantity required 630 quintals of copper, valued at 78.750 livres: the expenses of labour amounted to 1,323 livres; the necessary quantity of wine, 1033 measures, to 46,485 livres, and extraordinaries to 10,330 livres; so that the three thousand quintals cost the manufacturers about 136,888 livres. In the year 1759, the pound of verdigrise sold for nine sous six deniers; so that the three thousand quintals produced 142,500 livres, which have a neat profit of only 5612 livres.*3 Other nations, who till that period had purchased at least three-fourths of the French verdigrise, made a variety of experiments in order to discover a method of corroding copper by mineral acid, which might be cheaper; and some have so far succeeded that they can supply themselves without the French paint in cases of necessity. As one instance, I shall mention only the verdigrise manufactured by Gravenhorst and brothers at Brusnwick.

* An account of the method of making distilled verdigrise may be found in the following works; L'art du distillateur d'eaux-fortes, par Demachy. Paris, 1773, fol. p. 168. Mémoires de l'Academ. des Sciences à Paris, année 1776. p. 724.
*2 Frisch's Worterbuch, p. 291. In the works of George Agricola, printed together at Basle 1546, fol. we find in page 473, where the terms of art are explained: Ærugo, Grünspan, or Spansch-grün, quod primo ab Hispanis ad Germanos sit allata; barbari nominant viride æ:;ris.
*3 By Conrad Zeniger Nuremberg. In that scarce work, Josua Maaler, Teutsche Sprach oder Dictonarium Germano-Latinum, Zurich 1561, 4to. arugo is called Spangrüne.
In commerce there is a kind of this substance known under the name of distilled verdigrise, which properly is nothing else than verdigrise purified, and somewhat crystallized by being again dissolved in vinegar. This article has been hitherto manufactured by the Dutch, and affords an additional example of the industry of that people. Formerly there was only one person at Grenoble acquainted with this art, which he kept secret and practised alone; but for some years past there have been manufactories of the same kind at Montpellier, and another has been established at Paris by Baumé.*

The German name of verdigrise (spangrün) has by most authors been translated Spanish green; and it has thence been concluded that we received that paint first from the Spaniards. This word and the explanation of it are both old; for we find ærugo, and viride Hispanicum translated Spangrün, Spongrün, or Spansgrün, in many of the earliest dictionaries,*2 such as that printed in 1480.*3 For this meaning, however, I know no other proof than the above etymology, which carries with it very little probability; and I do not remember that I ever read in any other works than verdigrise first came from Spaniards.


A History of Inventions and Discoveries: Sealing-Wax.

A History of Inventions and Discoveries.
By John Beckmann,
Public professor of economy in the University of Gottingen.
Translated from the German, by William Johnston.
Third edition, carefully corrected, enlarged by the addition of several new articles.
In four volumes.
Vol. 1.
Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; R. Priestley; R. Scholey; T. Hamilton; W. Otridge; J. Walker; R. Fenner; J. Bell; J. Booker; E. Edwards; and J. Harding.

* Gattereri Elementa artis diplomaticæ. Goettingæ 1765, 4to. p. 283.
*2 It is singular that Pliny denies that the Egyptians used seals: Non signat Oriens aut Ægyptus etiam nunc, litteris contenta solis. Lib. xxxiii. c. 1. Herodotus however, and others, prove the contrary; and Moses speaks of the seal-rings of the Egyptians. See Goguet.
*3 -- Herodot. lib. ii. c.38. edit. Francofurti 1608, fol.
*4 -- Lucian. in Peudomant.
*5 - - Act. iv. ap. Bin. tom. iii. Colcin. part. i.p. 356. Whether the ---- , however, of Herodotus and the ---- of Lucian and of the Byzantine be the same kind of earth, can be determined with as little certainty as whether the creta, called by some Roman authors a sealing-earth, be different from both.
Writers on diplomatics mention, besides metals, five other substances on which impressions were made, or with which letters and public acts were sealed, viz. terra sigillaris, cement, paste, common wax, and sealing-wax.* The terra sigillaris was used by the Egyptians, and appears to have been the first substance employed for sealing.*2 The Egyptian priests bound to the horns of the cattle fit for sacrifice a piece of paper; stuck upon it some sealing-earth, on which they made an impression with their seal; and such cattle only could be offered up as victims. *3

Lucian speaks of a fortune-teller who ordered those who came to consult him to write down on a bit of paper the questions they wished to ask, to fold it up, and to seal it with clay, or any other substance of the like kind. *4 Such earth seems to have been employed in sealing by the Byzantine emperors; for we are told, that at the second council of Nice, a certain person defended the worship of images by saying, no one believed that those who received written orders from the emperor, and venerated the seal, worshipped on that account the sealing-earth, the paper, or the lead. *5

* Cum Valentino ejus interpreti epistola Agrigento allata esset, casu signum iste animadvertit in cretula; placuit ei; exquisivit unde esset epistola; respondit, Agrigento: iste litteras ad quos solebat, misit, ut is annulus ad se primo quoque tempore afferretur. Ita litteris istius patrifamilias, L. Titio cuidam, civi Romano, annulus de digito detractus est. Orat. in Verrem, iv. c. 9.
In the above passage, some instead of cretula read cerula. I shall here take occasion to remark, also, that in the Acts of the Council of Nice before mentioned, instead of --- some read ---: but I do not see a sufficient reason for this alteration, as in the before-quoted passage of Lucian it is expressly said, that people sealed ----. Reiske himself, who proposes that amendment, says that --- may be retained. Stephen, however, does not give that meaning to this word in his Lexicon. Pollux and Hesychius tell us, that the Athenians called sealing-earth also ----. The former, Onomast. x. 14. 59, says, Non ignorandum, quod ceram sgnando idoneam, -------, veteres --- nominaverunt et ----, ut in Lysistrate Aristophanes: et nihil ita bene conclusum esse, quin onsignations, ---, avellatis: and the latter, ------: Attici --- vocant ceram cujus ad sigilla usus est. Stephen says, in his Lexicon, vol. iii. p. 727, that rhypos, in this sense, occurs in Cicero's Letters to Atticus: In v. l. annotatur, legi et apud Cic. in ep. ad Att rhypos pro ceris sive formis under sigilla fiebant, fortase a situ vetustatis. But thought Coelius Rhodiginus mentions the same thing, Lection. Antiq. xxi. 23, in the following words, Pro caeris quoque in epistolis ad Atticum legimus rhypos, de vetustatis ratione nomenclatura accersita; that expression is not to be found, at present, in Cicero.
*2 Hæc quæ a nobis prolata laudatio, obsignata erat creta illa Asiatica, quæ fere est omnibus nota nobis, qua utuntur omnes non modo in publicis, sed etiam in privatis litteris, quas quotidie videmus mitti a publicanis, sæpe unicuique nostrum. Neque enim testis ipse, signo inspecto, fasum nos proferre dixit; sed leviatem totius Asiæ protulit, de qua nos et libenter et facile concedimus. Nostra igitur laudatio - - - consignata creta est; in illo autem testimonio, quod accusatori dicitur datum, ceram esse videmus. - Orat. pro Flacco, c. 16.
*3 Sibyllam Apollo pio more dilexit, et ei obtulit poscendi quod vellet arbitrium. Illa hausit arenam manibus, et tam longam vitam poposcit. Cui Apollo respondit, id fieri posse, si Erythræam, in qua habitabat, insulam relinquerent, et eam nunquam videret. Profecta igitur, Cumas tenuit; et illic defecta corporis viribus vitam in sola voce retinuit. Quod cum cived ejus cognovissent, sive invidia sive commiseratione commmoti, ei epistolam miserunt creta antiquo more signatam; qua visa, quia erat de ejus insula, in mortem soluta est. Serv. ad lib. vi. Æneid. p. 1037.
Cicero relates, that Verres having seen in the hands of one of his servants, a letter written to him from Agrigentum, and having observed on it an impression in sealing-earth (cretula) he was so pleased with it that he caused the seal-ring with which it was made to be taken from the possessor.* The same orator, in his defence of Flaccus, produced an attestation sent from Asia, and proved its authenticity by its being sealed with Asiatic sealing-earth; with which, said he to the auditors, as you daily see, all public and private letters in Asia are sealed: and he showed, on the other hand, that the testimony brought by the accuser was false, because it was sealed with wax, and for that reason could not have come from Asia. *2 The scholiast Servius relates, that a sibyl received a promise from Apollo, that he should live as long as she did not see the earth of the island Erythræa where she resided; that she therefore quitted the place, and retired to Cumæ, where she became old and decrepid; but that having received a letter sealed with Erythræan earth (creta), when she saw the seal she instantly expired. *3

* Ex ea creta qua fiunt amphoræ, lata vass in modum patina rum fieri jubebat. Lib. xii. c. 43.
*2 Et creta solidanda tenaci. Georg. i. v. 179.
*3 Creta fossica, qua stereorantur agri. Varro, i. 7, 8. - It appears also, that the --- of the Greeks signified a kind of potters-earth. Those who do not choose to rely on our dictionaries, need only to read the ancient Greek writers on husbandry, who speak of -----. See Geopon. x. c. 75. 12, and ix. c. 10. 4. That many kinds of sealing-earth, without being burnt, will long retain an impression, is proved by the sealed-earths preserved in our apothecaries' shops, and collections of natural history.
No one, however, will suppose that this earth was the same as that to which we at present give the name of creta, chalk; for if it was a natural earth it must have been of that kind called pottersclay, as that clay is capable of receiving an impression and of retaining it after it is hardened by drying. That the Romans, under the indefinite name of creta, often understood a kind of pottersearth can be proved by many passages of their writers. Columella speaks of a kind of chalk of which win-jars and dishes were made.* Virgil calls it tough;*2 and the ancient writers on agriculture give the same name to marl which was employed to manure land.*3 Notwithstanding all these authorities, I do not clearly comprehend how letters could be sealed with potters-clay, as it does not adhere with sufficient force either to linen, of which, in ancient times, the covers of letters were made, or to parchment; as it must be laid on very thick to have a distinct impression; as it is long in drying, and is again easily softened by moisture; and, at any rate, if conveyed by post at present, it would be crumbled to dust in going only from Hamburg to Altona. I can readily believe that the Roman messengers employed more skill and attention to preserve the letters committed to their care than are employed by our postmen; but the distance from Asia to Rome is much greater than that from Hamburg to Altona.

* I piombi antichi, opera di Francesco de Ficoroni. In Roma 1740, 4to. p. 16. sigilli de creta, tanto più curiosi, quanto più rari.*2 Heineccius and others think that the amphore vitraæ diligenter gypsatæ, in Potronius, were sealed; but it is much more probable that they were only daubed over or closed with gypsum, for the same reason that we pitch out casks But may there not be as little foundation for the ancient expression creta Asiatica, Asiatic earth, as for the modern expression, cera Hispanica, Spanish wax? May not the former have signified a kind of coarse artificial cement? These questions might be answered by those who have had an opportunity of examining, or only seeing, the sigilla cretacea in collections of antiquities. We are assured that such are still preserved; at least we find in Ficoroni* the representation of six impressions which, as he tells us, consisted of that earth. In that author, however, I find nothing to clear up my doubts; he says only that some of these seals were white; others of a gray colour, like ashes; others red, and others brown. They seem all to have been enclosed in leaden cases. Could it be proved that each letter was wrapped round with a thread, and that the thread, as in the seals affixed to diplomas, was drawn through the covering of the seal, the difficulty which I think occurs in the use of these earths, as mentioned by the ancients, would entirely disappear.*2 It seems to me remarkable that neither Theophrastus nor Pliny says any thing of the Asiatic creta, or speaks at all of sealing-earth; though they have carefully enumerated all those kinds of earth which are worth notice on account of any use.

In Europe, as far as I know, wax has been every where used for sealing since the earliest ages. Writers on diplomatics, however, are not agreed whether yellow or white wax was first employed; but it appears that the former, on account of its low price, must have been first and principally used, at least by private persons. It is probable, also, that the seals of diplomas were more durable when they consisted of yellow wax; for it is certain that white wax, which loses a great part of its inflammable substance, is more brittle, and much less durable. Many seals also may at present be considered white which were at first yellow; for not only does wax highly bleached resume, in time, a dirty yellow colour, but yellow wax also, in the course of years, loses so much of its colour as to become almost like white wax. This perhaps may account for the oldest seals appearing to be of white, and the more modern of yellow wax. These, however, are conjectures which I submit, with deference, to the determination of those versed in diplomatics.

In the course of time, sealing-wax was coloured red; and a good deal later, at least in Germany, but not before the fourteenth century, it was coloured green, and sometimes black. I find it remarked that blue wax never appears on diplomas; and I may, indeed, say it is impossible it should appear, for the art of giving a blue colour to wax has never yet been discovered; and in old books, such as that of Wecker, we find no receipt for that purpose. Later authors have pretended to give directions how to communicate that colour to wax: but they are altogether false; for vegetable dyes, when united with wax, become greenish, so that the wax almost resembles the hip-stone; and earthy colours do not combine with it, but, in melting, fall again to the bottom. A seal of blue wax, not coloured blue merely on the outer surface, would be as great a rarity in the arts as in diplomatics, and would afford matter of speculation for our chemists; but I can give them no hopes that such a thing can ever be produced.

* Ceruleæ ceræ licet nullus fere usus sit, refert tamen Diether ad Besold, voce wax, Carolum V Imp. doctori Stockhamero Norimbergense anno 1524 privilegium tali cera utendi dedisse. J. M. Heineccii Syntagma de veteribus sigilis. Francof. et Lips. 1719, fol. p. 55.
*2 Farina qua chartæ glutinantur. Plin. lib. xxii. c. 25.
*3 Trotz, Not. in prim. schribendi origine, p. 73, 74.
The emperor Charles V in the year 1524 granted to Dr. Stockamar, of Nuremberg, the privilege of using blue wax in seals: a favour like that conferred, in 1704, on the manufactories in the principality of Halberstadt and the county of Reinstein, to make indigo from minerals. It was, certainly, as difficult for the doctor to find blue wax for seals, as for the proprietors of these manufactories to discover indigo in the earth.*
Much later are impressions made on paste or dough, which perhaps could not be employed on the ancient parchment or the linen covers of letters, though in Pliny's time the paper then in use was joined together with flour paste.*2 Proper diplomas were never sealed with wafers; and in the matchless diplomatic collection of H. Gatterer there are no wafer seals much above two hundred years old. From that collection I have now in my possession one of these seals, around the impression of which is the following inscription, Secretum civium in Ulma , 1474; but it is only a new copy of a very old impression. Kings, however, before the invention of sealing-wax, were accustomed to seal their letters with this paste.*3

* Maltha dicitur a Græcis pix cum cera mixta. Festi et Flacci de verb. sig.. lib. xx. edit. Dacerii, Lut. Par. 1681, 4to. p. 224. Hesychius calls this cement - Pallad. lib. i. c. 17. Plin. lib. xxxvi. c. 24.
*2 Lib. viii. e. 4.
*3 Nouveau traité de diplomatique, par deux Religieux Bénedictins. Paris 1758, 4to. iv. p. 33.
*4 Mémoires concernant l'histoire d'Auxerre, par Lebeuf. Paris 1743, ii. p. 517.
*5 Bibliotheque des auteurs de Bourgogne, par l'abbé Papillon. Dijon 1745, 2 vol. fol. ii. p. 217.
*6 Histoire générale des drogues, par le Sieur Pomet. Paris 1735, 2 vol. 4to. ii. p. 44. i. p. 28.
Heineccius and others relate that maltha also was employed for seals. This word signifies a kind of cement, formed chiefly of inflammable substances, and used to make reservois, pipes, &c. watertight. Directions how to prepare it may be found in the writers on agriculture, Pliny, Festus, and others. The latter tells how to make it on a composition of pitch and wax:* but neither in that author nor in any other have I found proofs that letters were sealed with it, or that seals of it were affixed to diplomas; for the words of Pollux cera qua tabella judicium obliniebatur,*2 will admit of a different explanation. If maltha has been, in reality, used for seals, that mixture may be considered as the first or oldest sealing-wax, as what of it is still preserved has been composed of resinous substances.

Some writers*3 assert, upon the authority of Lebeuf*4, the sealing-wax was invented about the year 1640, by a Frenchman named Rousseau; but that author refers his readers to Papillon, *5 who refers again to Pomet, *6 so that the last appears to be the first person who broached that opinion.

* This Rousseau appears also in the History of cochineal, as he sent to Pomet a paper on that subject, which was contradicted by the well-known Plumier, in the Journal des Sccedil;avans for 1694. He is mentioned laso by Labat, who says he saw him at Rochelle; but at that time he must have been nearly a hundred years of age.
*2 Mr. Ven Murr, in his learned Beschreibung der merkwürdigkeiten in Nürnberg, Nurnb. 1778, 8vo. p. 702, says, that Spanish wax was not invented, or at least not known, before the year 1559. This appears also from a manuscript of the same year, which contains various receipts in the arts and medicine. There are some in it for making the common white sealing-wax green or red.
*3 Quod si in sigillo antiquiori prætenseo reperiatur adhuc sua ceræ pinguedo, magnaque hinc ejusdem vel aliqualis saltem mollities et tractabilitas; signum est sigillum tale partum esse supposititium ævisequioris. Pari quoque ratione, si pars sigilli posterior, qua diplomati annexum antiquitus sigillum exitit, simile vel pinguedinis vei mollitici et tractabilitis signum præ se ferat, cum facies anterior teliquas habet genuinæ ætatis antiquitatisque suæ notas et characteres: dubium vix remanet, sigillum ex antiquiori diplomate desumptum, et a manu recentiori sigillo alteri annexum fuisse. Chronic. Godvic. p. 102.
*4 Wecker gives directions also to make an impression with calcined gypsum, and a solution of gum or isinglass. Porta knew that this could be done to greater perfection with amalgam of quicksilver; an art employed even at present.
*5 Tavernier, in his Travels, says, that in Surat gum lac is melted, and formed into sticks like sealing-wax. Compare with this Doppers Aria oder Ausfürliche beschreibumng, &c . Nuremberg, 1681, fol. p. 237.
According to his account Francis Rousseau, born not far from Auxerres; who travelled a long time in Persia, Pegu, and other parts of the East Indies; and who in 1692 resided in St. Domingo, was the inventor of sealing-wax. Having , while he lived at Paris as a merchant, during the latter years of the reign of Louis XIII, who died in 1643, lost all his property by a fire, he bethought himself of preparing sealing-wax from gum lac, as he had seen it prepared in India, in order to maintain his wife and five children. A lady, of the name of Longueville, made this wax known at court, and caused Louis XIII to use it; after which it was purchases and used throughout all Paris. By this article Rousseau, before the expiration of a year, gained 50,000 livres. It acquired the name of cire d'Espagne, Spanish wax, because at that time a kind of gum lac, which was only once melted, and coloured a little red, was called Portugal wax, cire de Portugal.*

The sealing-wax was either very little or not at all known in Germany, in the beginning of the sixteenth century, may be concluded from its not being mentioned either by Porta or Wecker; though in the works of both these authors there are various receipts respecting common wax, and little-known methods of writing and sealing.*2 The former says, that to open letters, in such a manner as not to be perceived the wax seal must be heated a little, and must be then carefully separated from the letter by a horse's hair; and when the letter has been read and folded up, the seal must be again dexterously fastened to it. This manoeuvre, as the writers on diplomatics remark, has been often made use of to forge public acts; and they have, therefore, given directions how to discover such frauds.*3 The above method of opening letters, however, can be applied only to common wax, and not to sealing-wax; had the latter been used in Wecker's time, he would have mentioned this limitation. *4

Whether sealing-wax was used earlier in the East Indies than in Europe, as the French think, I cannot with certainty determine. Tavernier, *5 however, seems to say that the gum lac produced in the kingdom of Asem is employed there not only for lackering, but also for making Spanish sealing-wax. I must confess also that I do not know whether the Turks and other eastern nations use it, in general. In the collection of natural curiosities belonging to our university, there are two sticks of sealing-wax which professor Butner procured from Constantinople, under the name of Turkish wax. They are angular, bent like a bow, are neither stamped nor glazed, and are of a dark but pure red colour. Two other sticks which came from the East Indies are straight, glazed, made somewhat thin at both ends, have no stamp, and are of a dark and dirtier red colour. All these four sticks seem to be lighter than ours, and I receive that by rubbing they do not acquire soon, nor so strong, an electrical quality as out German wax of moderate fineness. But whether the first were made in Turkey and the latter in the East Indies; or whether the whole four were made in Europe, is not known. That sealing-wax, however, was made and used in Germany a hundred years before Rousseau's time, and that the merit of that Frenchman consisted, probably, only in this, that he first made it in France, or made the first good wax, will appear in the course of what follows.

* Bruchstücke betreffend die beobachtung der pflichten eines staatsdieners; aus den handlungen des Raths Dreitzz, nebst bemerkungen von ältesten gebrauche des Spanischen siegelwachses - Frankfort on the Mayne 1785, 4to. p. 86; where the use of these antiquarian researches is illustrated by examples worthy of notice.
*2 Historische untersuchungen gesamlet von J. G. Meusel, i. 3. p. 240.
*3 Original letters written during the reign of Henry VI. London 1787, 2 vol. 4to. i. p. xxi. and p. 87 and 92.
The oldest known seal of our common sealing-wax is that found by Mr. Roos, on a letter written from London, Aug. 3d, 1554, to the rheingrave Philip Francis von Daun, by his agent in England, Gerrard Herman* The colour of the wax is a dark red; it is very shining, and the impression bears the initials of the writer's name G. H. The next seal, in the order of time, is one of the year 1561, on a letter written to the council of Breslau. This letter was found among the ancient records of Gorlitz by Dr. Anton, and is three times sealed with beautiful red wax. *2 Among the archives of the before-mentioned family Mr. Roos found two other letters of the year 1566, both addressed to the rheingrave Frederick von Daun, from Orchamp in Picardy, by his steward Charles de Pousol; the one dated September the 2d, and the other September the 7th. Another letter, written by the same person to the same rheingrave, but dated Paris January 22d, 1567, is likewise sealed with red wax, which is of a higher colour, and appears to be of a coarser quality. As the oldest seals of this kind came from France and England, Mr. Roos conjectures that the invention, as the name seems to indicate, belongs to the Spaniards. This conjecture appears to me, however, improbable, especially as sealing-wax was used at Breslau so early as 1561; but this matter can be best determined, perhaps, by the Spanish literati. It is much to be lamented that John Fen, in his Original letters of the last half of the fifteenth century, *3 when he gives an account of the size and shape of the seals, does not inform us of what substances they are composed. Respecting a letter of the year 1455 he says, only, "The seal is of red wax;" by which is to be understood, undoubtedly, common wax.

* Des Geschichtforscher, published by Meusel. Halle. 8vo. vi. p. 270.
*2 Des Geschichtforscher, iv. p. 231.
*3 Ibid.
Among the records of the landgraviate of Cassel, Mr. Ledderhose found two letters of count Louis of Nassau to the landgrave Wiliam IV, one of which, dated March the 3d, 1563, is sealed with red wax, ant the other, dated November 7th, the same year, is sealed with black wax. * MR. Neuberger, private keeper of the archives at Weymar, found among the records of that duchy a letter sealed with red wax, and written at Paris, May the 15th, 1571, by a French nobleman name Vulcob, who the year before had been ambassador from the king of France to the court of Weymar. It is worthy of remark, that the same person had sealed nine letters of a prior date with common wax, and that the tenth is sealed with Spanish wax.. *2 Mr. P. L. Spiess, principal keeper of the records at Plessenburg, who gave rise to this research by this queries, saw a letter of the year 1574 sealed with red sealing-wax, and another of the year 1620 sealed with black sealing-wax. He found also in an old expense-book, of 1616, that Spanish wax, expressly, and other materials for writing were ordered from a manufacturer of sealing-wax at Nuremberg, for the personal use of Christian margrave of Brandenburg.

*Halleri Bibliotheca botan. i. p. 332. Aromatum et simplicum aliquot historia, Garcia ab Horto auctore. Antverpiæ 1574m 8vo. p. 33. Ex ea bacilli illi, quibus in obsignandis epistolis utimur, conficiuntur.
*2 The whole title is: New Titularbuch, - sambt etlichen hinzugethanen gehaimnüssen und künsten, das lesen und die schreiberey betreffendt. Durch Samuelen Zimmerman, burger zu Augspurg, 4to, 1579, p. 112.
The oldest mention of sealing-wax which I have hitherto observed in printed books, is in the well known work of Garcia ab Orto,* where the author remarks, speaking of gum lac, that those sticks used for sealing letters were made of it. This book was first printed in 1563, about which time it appears that the use of sealing-wax was very common among the Portuguese.

The oldest printed receipt for making sealing-wax was found by Mr. von Murr, in a work by Samuel Zimmerman, citizen of Augsburg, printed in 1579.*2 The copy which I have from the library of our university is signed at the end by the author himself. His receipts for making red and green sealing-wax I shall here transcribe.
To make hard sealing-wax, called Spanish wax, with which if letters be sealed they cannot be opened without breaking the seal: Take beautiful clear resin, the whitest you can procure, and melt it over a slow coal fire. When it is properly melted, take it from the fire, and for every pounds of resin add two ounces of cinnabar pounded very fine, stirring it about. Then let the whole cool, or pour it into cold water. Thus you will have beautiful red sealing-wax.

If you are desirous of having black wax, add lamp black to it. With smalt or azure you may make it blue; with white-lead white, and with orpiment yellow.
IF instead of resin you melt purified turpentine, in a glass vessel, and give it any colour you choose, you will have a harder kind of sealing-wax, and not so brittle as the former.

What appears to me worthy of remark in these receipts for sealing-wax is, that there is no mention in them of gum lac, which, at present, is the principal ingredient, at least in that of the best quality; and that Zimmerman's sealing-wax approaches very near to that which, in diplomatics, is called mathla. One may almost conclude, therefore, that this invention was not brought from the East Indies.

The expression Spanish wax is of little more import than the words Spanish-green, Spanish-flies, Spanish-grass, Spanish-reed, and several others, as it was formerly customary to give to all new things, particularly those which excited wonder, the appellation of Spanish; and, in the like manner, many of foreign or new articles have been called Turkish; such as Turkish wheat, Turkish paper, &c.

* Archivische nebenarbeiten un nachrichted, geliefert von Phil. Ernest Spiess. Halle 1785, 4to. ii. p.3. Respecting the antiquity of wafers, Mr. Spiess has made an observation, * which may lead to further researches, that the oldest seal with a red wafer, he has ever yet found, is on a letter written by D. Krapf, at Spires, in the year 1624, to the government at Bayreuth. Me. Spiess has found also, that some years after Forstenhäusser, the Brandenburg factor at Nuremberg, sent such wafers to a bailiff at Osterbohe. It appears, however, that wafers were not used during the whole of the seventeenth century, in the chancery of Brandenburg, but only by private persons, and by these even seldom; because, as Spiess says, people were fonder of Spanish wax. The first wafers with which the chancery of Bayreuth began to make seals were, according to an expense account of the year 1705, sent from Nuremberg. The use of wax, however, was still continued; and among the Plassenburg archives there is a descript of 1722, sealed with proper wax. The use of wax must have been continued longer in the duchy of Weymar; for in the Electa juris publici there is an order of the year 1716, by which the introduct8ion of wafers in law matters is forbidden, and the use to wax commanded. This order, however, was abolished by duke Ernest Augustus in 1742, and wafers again introduced.