30.11.19

Vår handelsflagg.

Wasa-Posten 34, 27.4.1918

Vasa d 27 April 1918

Vi stå inför sjöfartens omedelbara öppnande och ha att emotse en friare och livligare trafik än under de föregående somrarna. Vi behöva alltså med det första en egen handelsflagg.

Det nyaste förslaget distanserar obetingat alla föregående. Duken är röd med gult kors. I ett blått falt upptill närmast stången finnas nio vita rosor, insatta i samma ordning som i Finlands vapen.

Duken är verkningsfull och skiljer sig distinkt från alla andra länders flaggor, vilket är nödvändigt på sjön, där flaggan måste kunna igenkännas på långa håll och i alla belysningar. Här står sig det stora och klara mönstret bättre än det småbrokiga i det tidigare förslaget, som hade korset garnerat med en blå vit rand.

De heraldiska färgerna, rött och gult, måste givetvis dominera. Alla nationer ha salt ill sina färger ofta sina heraldiska tecken med uti flaggan. Ty denna, i all synnerhet handelsflaggan, som skall svaja på alla hav och lysa i alla hamnar, är en sinnebild för nationens företagsamhet o. duglighet, en symbol i lika hög grad som ett igenkänningstecken. Rött och gult få vi alltså ej ge avkall på. De lysa ju i lejonbanéret, som väl ändå sist och slutligen kommer att bli riksbaner i det fria Finland.

Emellertid finnes det en så stark opinion för införandet även av vitt och blått i handelsflaggan, att förslaget knappast kunde gå igenom ulan all delta krav bleve tillgodosett. Och i don nya flaggan är uppgiften lyckligt löst.

Man har förstått att göra en dygd av nödvändigheten.

Den rena gulröda flaggan ville, sa. tilltalande den annars vore, förväxlas med andra länders. De längsgående våderna återfinnas i spanska flaggan och gult kors på röd bolten blir i stark belysning och på avstånd förvillande likt Dannebrogen. Det senare alternativet har dessutom olägenheten att beteckna bokstaven It i det internationella flaggsystemet, och huru republikanskt sinnade vi än må vara, så ha vi ändå icke lust att segla under det tecknet.

Det blå fältet är sålunda ett välbehövligt och starkt i ögonenfallande igenkänningsmärke. Vad de nio rosorna vidkommer, så har man ställt dem i samband med landskapen och låtit dem symbolisera en gammal historisk tradition. Utslaggivande är dock att de lånats ur landets vapen. Därigenom försvara de sin plats bättre än ett blå-vitt ordensband omkring korset.

Det blå fältet med rosorna höjer starkt flaggans dekorativa verkan, förutsatt att färgen hålles så lätt att den stämmer överens med dukens lyskraft i övrigt. Ty dekorativ är den nya flaggan, och den står sin ypperligt i bredd med vilken annan som helst. När den en tid fått följa våra fartyg åt, när vi sett den svaja i våra hamnar och fått hälsa den på främmande vatten, skall den om spinnas av alla de känslor och föreställningar, som göra nationens flagg till vad den är. Ty det är ändå i sista hand patriotismen, som ger flaggan dess estetiska valör, dess säregna nyans och innebörd.

Vi uttala förhoppningen, att senaten med det snaraste måtte fastställa det vackra och praktiska förslaget.

29.11.19

Vähemmän myrkyllisten wäriaineiden kauppa.

Wiipurin Sanomat 7, 21.1.1909

Kauppias A. S. Uschanoffille on läänin kuwernöri myöntänyt oikeuden saada sekatawarakaupassaan Muolan pitäjän Kyyrölän kylässä myydä wähemmän myrkyllisiä wäri- ja maaliaineita.

28.11.19

The Young Botanists; in thirteen dialogues. (Maininta sienten väriaineista)

The Young Botanists; in thirteen dialogues.
London: Printed for Richard Phillips,
and to be had of all Booksellers.
1810.
Appendix, containing Mr. Roscoe's address to the proprietors of the Botanic Garden at Liverpool.

[---]

Nor, as we descend to the minuter specimens of the vegetable world, does their utility seem to decrease. The Musci Algæ, and probably the Fungi contain an infinite variety of dyes, which by proper processes may be extracted for the use of the manufacturer. From some of the Lichens important materials are already obtained, nor is it improbable that many others, if exposed to proper experiments, would be found, equally useful. These qualities although so generally neglected, are frequently indicated ina most striking manner. On breaking the Boletus luteus, a large fleshy production of the fungus kind, the part so broken discloses a fine yellow surface, which by the operation of the air, is in the space of one minute converted into a most beautiful blue.

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27.11.19

Närings- och njutningsmedels förfalskningar.

Västra Nyland 120, 21.10.1913

Vid å Helsingfors laboratorium för sanitära undersökningar under senaste år verkställda undersökningar av till salu hållna näringsoch njutningsmedel har framgått följande missbruk:

I smöret inblandas annat fett och dess vattenhalt är alltför hög. Vid vältmargarins konservering användes bor- och benzoesyra. Helmjölk utspädes med vatten och skummad, mjölk. Grädde utblandas med helmjölk. För konservering av köttet, som ofta härstammar från av nödtvång nedslaktade djur, användes sulfit. Korvarna färgas med tjärfärgämnen och konserveras med sulfit. Dessutom insattes i dem stärkelse och deras vattenhalt är alltför hög. Bröd bakas av förskämda ämnen. I sött bröd tillsattes dessutom saccarin, socker tillblandas med mjöl. Fruktsafter färgas med tjärfärgämnen. Dessutom tillsättas essenser, och användes vid deras tillverkning stärkelsesirap. Limonader ges namn efter frukter, ehuru de icke utgöras av motsvarande fruktsafter, varjämte i dem tillsättes saccarin. Marmelader ges likaledes namn efter frukter utan att de innehålla motsvarande fruktsafter. I honnung tillsättes invertsocker. Kaffebönor färgas och deras vikt ökas. I målet kaffe inblandas efterapningar, vilka i sin tur ha falska namn. I cikoria blandas andra växtämnen. I te blandas kokade, färgade blad och det säljes ofta smutsigt. I kakao blandas kakaoskal och sand. Konjak tillverkas av spannmåls- och potatissprit och ges ett namn, som antyder att den vore fransk. Svagdricka tillsättes med saccharin och tillverkas av osnygga och förskämda brödbitar. Vinerna, druvvinerna, färgas med tjärfärgämnen och tillblandas med vatten och alkohol. Deras ursprung anges ofta falskt. Detsamma är förhållandet med fruktviner. Punsch färgas med tjärfärgämnen och artificiella essenser tillsättas.

Med anledning av dessa erfarenheter och då Helsingfors stad i främsta rummet utgör försöksfält för förfalskade närings- och njutningsmedel har föreståndaren för stadens laboratorium för sanitära undersökningar ingeniör R. Dillström hos hälsovårdsnämn den gjort framställning om att denne måtte vidtaga vederbörliga åtgärder för tillsättande av en kommitté i och for utarbetande av ett förslag till lag angående tillverkning av och handel med närings- och njutningsmedel.

26.11.19

Finsk färgindustri.

Österbottniska Posten 38, 22.9.1916

(K. C.)
Hittills har den finska industrin tillgodosett sitt behow aw färger uteslutande genom importen aw utländska färgfabrikat. Först under sistlidna juni månad grundades det första bolaget för stortande aw en inhemsk fabrik för tillwerkning aw färger, Wäriteollituus Osakeyhtiö i Tammerfors med ett aktiekapital om 200,000 mk. Bolaget inköpte Näsijärwi ölbryggeris byggnader och apterade dem för färgfabrikation. Den 6 juli lyckades det första försöket att tillwerka inhemsk färg och sedan dess har man kommit så längt, att fabriken nu tillwerkart flere hundra kg färger, huwudsakligen swart färg, som redan kommit till andwändning wid nästan alla linnespinnerier i wårt land. Tillwerkningen är dock tills widare ringa, omkring 80 kg om dagen, men, såsnart redan beställda nya färgkittlar anlänt, kan till-werkningen uppdriwas till 300 kg, med forcerat arbete ända till 500 kg per dygn.

Utom swart och däraw framställd grå färg, har fabriken framställt äwen rödbrun färg för färgning aw inhemskt råmaterial. För närwarande experimenterar man med tillwerkning aw äwen andra färger aw inhemska råmaterial.

Aw färger för ylle har tillwerkats wacker gul färg i twenne nyanser, wilka kunna anwändas äwen för föraning aw papper.

- K. L.

25.11.19

Finlands färger.

Åbo Underrättelser 207, 1.8.1912

Om man i början av 1890-talet frågade efter Finlands rätta färger, blev svaret ur mer än en synpunkt osäkert och trevande. Den blåvita korabinationen stod högst i gunst, men frågade man varför, så dröjdes med svaret. Ja varför?

Det var i början av 1895 diskussionen om nationalfärgerna definitivt bragtes in på fast mark. Omsvängningen i betraktelsesättet föranleddes utav en artikel i Hufvudstadsbladet den 3 februari d. å., författad av statsarkivarien R. Hausen, vilken under hänvisning till den genomgående regeln att ett lands nationalfärger äro bestämda genora huvudfärgerna i dess vapen, gjorde gilllande att rött och gult äro Finlands färger.

Någon tid förut hade forskningen återgivit såväl själva storfurstendömets vapen som landskapsvapnen deras ursprungliga, nktiga utseende och den då företagna normaliseringen synes ha bragt även den allmänna färgfrågan på tal.

Rött och gult äro huvadfärgerna i det Storfurstliga vapen som Johan III gav landet 1581. Till dessa färger kommer ännu såsom mindre väsentlig färg vitt, vilken bifärg (egenliigen Silver) hör till lejonets svärd. Orsaken varför den praktälskaude Johan valde just färgerna rött och gult, står måhända att söka i furstens personliga smak, men det förtjänar erinras om att Sveriges färger från den tidigare medeltiden voro gult och rött (flaggan gul med rött kors).

Av allt att döma blev det den av d:r Hausen författade artikeln för behållet att kraftigt påverka den allmänna opinionen till förmån för Finlands heraldiska färger. Hbl. förklarar sig på hösten 1895 "med glädje hava konstaterat vilket insteg deras begagnande redan under denna korta tid vunnit".

D:r Hausen invecklades snart i tidningspolemik med den blåvita kombinationens uppfinnare, Z. Topelius. Topelius försvarade varmt sinä färger och lämnade bidrag till färgfrågans historik.

Under det nationella nyvaknandets organisationsepok, det minnesvärda året 1863, uppkom frågan om egen finsk handelsflagg och såsom motsättning till den av Helsingfors Dagblad lancerade färgsammansättningen rött, gult, biått, vitt uppställdes av Helsingfors Tidningar den enkla kombinationen biått och vitt, vilken senare utan några sakliga skäl tycktes avgå med ett slags seger. I dikten "Finlands flagga" sökte Topelius ytterligare fastslå dessa färger såsom nationalfärgerna. I polemiken med d:r Hausen säger Z. T. härom: "Vare sig man ansåg blått och vitt såsom den enklaste, vaekraste och sig emellan mest harmoniska färgkombination, eller tillskrev dem en symbolisk betydelse av "sommarsjö och vintersnö", allt nog, de litbredde sig hastigt med makten av en folkopinion, som gläder sig åt det första populära igenkänningstecknet".

Topelius gjore sig mödan att med stöd av en jämförelse mellan olika länders nationalfärger och heraldiska huvudfärger försöka vederlägga Hausens påstående om en regelig bunden överensstämmelse, men hän kom överhuvudtaget till korta på denna punkt. Såsom resultat av polemiken framgick nog ett erkännande av den regel att såsom nationalfärger användes huvudfärgerna i resp. länders statsvapen, därest icke något historiskt förhållande betingat ett frångående av denna regel.

*) Att faktiskt godtydket spelat en stor roll vid de blå-vita färgernas upphöjande till finska nationalfärger, bevisas tillfullo av följande upplysning hos d:r Hansen, vartill Z. T. intet hade att invända:
"Jag påminner mig ha läst en av Z. T. för länge sedan meddelad uppgift, att första tanken på de blåvita färgerna uppstått, då det en sommar vid en svensk badort fer där vistande finnar, bland vilka även Z. T. då befann sig, gälld6 att vid en beramad kappsegling med egna flaggfärger utmärka den av finnarna bemannade bäten. Vid en improviserad "lantdag" (som Z. T. uttrycker sig) vari även det täcka könet hade säte och stämma, förklarade man sig enhälligt för nämnda färger som de finska".
Den från d:r Hausens sida mycket objektivt och hänsynsfullt fortsatta polemiken betonade vikten av ett sakligt stöd för nationalfärgernas antagande i motsats till det visserligen poetiska, men i alla fall fullkomligt subjektiva godtycke, som frammanat fantasikonstruktionen blått—vitt.*)

Härtill genmälte åter Topelius till den verkan det hava kunde, att den blåvita kombinationen icke tillkominit genom en slump eller såsom en godtyeklig smakfråga, utan i verkligheten var ett bestående minne av 1863, med dess nyvaknande liv.

Uti frågans behahdling igenfinnas många kända namn. I Päivälehti voro meningarna delade. Finsk Tidskrift ock. och nov. 1895 innehåller inlägg i frågan och i Åbo Tidning polemiserade G. Granfelt mot G. Cygnaeus. En mycket lidelsefull ppsats skrevs av Gustav von Numers: "Blått för våra blå sjöar och vitt för våra vintrars snö", en serie av häftiga uttalanden om det helgerån och den dödssynd mot det samfällda nationella arbetet (för de blåvita färgernas spridning) som förövats av den rödgula klicken i huvudstaden. "Alltså en bestämd protest mot den redan engång bortvisade främlingen (den rödgula färgen) som kommer till oss i purpur och guld. Dessa, det glödande Spaniens yppiga färger, denna pråliga konungamantel, anstår icke oss".

Men denna artikel i dess värde och andra därjämte kunde icke dölja det faktum att den år 1895 började kampanjen bragt de rödgula färgerna ånyo till heders och i teorin ställt frågan på en saklig grund som konkurrentfärgerna ej kunde berömma sig av.

Det är att märkä alt man under alla dessa meningsbylen icke uppställde som mål någon av alla erkänd och för lamlet officielt flagga. Det återkom ständigt ett medgivande att en officiell flagga för Finland endäst skulle kunna fastställas med monarkens begivande. Diskussionen 1895 rörde i den finska pressen enbart färgerna. Ett upprepande av petitionen vid 1863—64 ärs lantdag om en särskild handelsflagg för Finland, åsyftade man icke.

Men icke förty blev den ryska pressen ailarrnerad såsom inför en riksviktig separatism. Svjät föreslog en förändring av de finska nationalfärgerna - vilka de nu sedan voro - och de riksbevarande tendenserna excederade som vanligt. En korrespondensartikel från S:t Petersburg till Neue Freie Presse - ej ens Europa blev oberört av färgfrågan - bemöttes på grund av sin tendentiösa framställning av d:r Hausen i en saklig artikel, där ali riksvådlig separatism tillbakavisades och frågan fick sin rätta belysning.

En god motivering lämnades för fastställandet överhuvud av färger för Finland. "Varje bildad människa, som har hälst någon liten historisk insikt, vet ju, att det allt från medeltidens riddareväsende varit och fortfarande är sed att varje land, liksom ock varje provins, varje stad, ia varje ätt, som har ett eget vapen ock har sinä egna färger, som det vid tillfällen som angå landet ensamt, äger rätt att använda, utan att det däryid skulle brista i sina skyldigheter med hänsyn till en större statlig enhet".

Det påmintes också i denna uppsats hurusom t. ex. kejsar Wilhelm då hän 1877 fär första gången gjorde besök i de erövrade provinserna Elsass-Lothringen, möttcs av dessa provinsers färger rött och gult vid mottagningarna och till och med i sitt sovrum, samt att forntyska landsknektar klädda i staden Strassburgs färger, vitt ock rött, fungerade som vakt, då kejsaren besökte den Stora studentkommersen. Att detta varken av den godhjärtade kejsaren eller av någon annan uppfattades som separatism, ligger i öppen dag.

*

Intressant är att lägga rjärke till de bäda färgkombinationernas tidigare förekomst helt allmänt, utom partierna. Bnkom de blåvita färgerna stodo såväl finska som svenska folkelement, och då de rödgula färgerna framträdde definitivt, saknade de partibetoning. Ett par decennier tidigare hade visserligen rött och gult - enligt en uppgift som lämnades under tidningspolemiken 1895 - plötsligt framträtt såsom ultrafennomanska (!) färger, utan att dock som sådana bibehålla sig.

Det var först den konstitutionella krisen, som gjorde rött och gult till "konstitutionella" färger och lämnade de blåvita åt suometarpartiet.

*

Den senaste tiden har yppat tali då vårt land utan något som hälst tvivel borde samlas under gemensamma färger och en gemensam flagga. Erkännandet av Finland t. ex. såsom idrottsnation vid de olympiska spelen har ingen annan logisk konsekvens än införandet av en speciell finsk flagga.

I jämförelse med de svårigheter som i princip möta, förefalla de övriga mindre viktiga. Enligt gängse betraktelsesätt och sed, bevisade genom ett överväldigande antal fall och en tydlig regel, äro nationalfärger hos oss huvudfärgerna i storfurstendömet Finlands vapen av 1581, det första och det enää som hänför sig till hela Finland. Rött och gult äro enhetsfärgerna av gammalt, de äro vårt lands färger och böra tvivelsutan gå framom den andra kombinationen, som ju fortfarande kan äga bestånd såsom partifärger.

Vad en event. finsk flaggas form beträffar, är kanske det sista ordet därom ännu icke sagt.

Det gula korset på rött botten är en form, som ju på många hål omfattas. Andra typer kunna möjligen ännu komma ifråga, även om det ej ligger alideles närä till hands att framställa en originell gruppering av de allmänt använda färgerna rött och gult, vilka äro gemensamma för åtminstone tio skilda land.

- S. Dahlström

24.11.19

Små intervjuer om dyrtiden.

Åbo Underrättelser 207, 11.9.1917



- Hur länge tror du det bär kriget egentligen skall räcka, frågar min vän målaren djupt bekymrad, i det hän tar ett steg tillbaka från stafiliet för att granska effekten av sitt sista pensel drag.

- Ja, den saken kan väl ingen profetera om med anspråk på att gissa rätt. Äro ni konstnärer för resten vidare intresserade av att den stora kampen skall taga slut. Kriget har fött pengar i massor och de lyckliga innehavarna av dem ha ju bl. a. blivit varmt intresserade av konst och målarna få sälja mera än någonsin under fredstid, tvärt emot vad man i början av kriget spädde, då några välvilliga personer bl. a. föreslogo, att man skulle inackordera de stackars konstnärerna på jordagodsen landet runt så att de inte skulle svälta ihjäl.

- Det är visst sannt, att konst under kriget fått en oväntat stor marknad. Men det är inte det som är det bekymmersamma. Sälja får man ju nog då och då. Men vi stå inför färgbrist. Mäla nu sedan: Och dessutom äro alla målargrejor så förbannat dyra.

- Till exempel?

- För att börja med duken. Jag preparerar själv min duk, det blir billigare och är mera att lita på. Jag vet för resten inte om man ens får köpa färdigpreparerad duk. Den duk jag använder kostade före kriget ungefär 70 p. per meter, nu får man betala 3 mk. Gelatin använde jag förut för prepareringen. Ett kilo av den varan kostade 3 mk, nu begära de 50 mk, så jag har nödgats avsfå därifrån och i stället använda snikkarlim à 5 mk.

- Och hur är det med färgerna?

- Ja, däri ligger den största svårigheten. Man har ju värit förutseende och har klar en hel del sen gammalt. Men några färgsorter ha tagit slut och nya får man ej, såsom cinnober, gröna färger och ultramarin. Kobolt finnes visserligen, men den kan ei ersätta den sistnämnda färgen. Man får lov att använda svart och blanda med andra färger. För övrigt är också den svarta färgen på upphällningen.

- Den saken beror väl på det nu så moderna svartmålningsmaneret?

- Just det. Och den svarta färgen kostar nu 2:50 mot ungefär 60 p. förut för en liten syndetikontub. Det är nämligen slut på vanliga tuber. Den vita färgen - varav åtminstone jag förbrukar mycket - är också numera embalerad i burkar. Vit färg tillverkas nu för tiden även hos oss. Från utlandet får man inte några färger. I Sverige göres nog utmärkta färger, men de har exportförbud. Och de få tuber utländska färger man kan komma över äro dyra.

- Och hurudan är kvaliteten hos den inhemska färgen.

- I början var den nog inte riktigt god. Seg, men mi måste de ha fått bättre olja, ty kvaliteten har gått uppåt. Också svart har man börjat göra hos oss. En färg, som man har svårt att undvara - och svårt att få - är ljusgult, chrom och cadmium. Sådana färger, som användas endast i ringa utsträckning, finnas ännu på lager, men med dem man mest behöver ser det som sagt hotande ut. Och 2 à 3 gånger mera än under fredstid får man betala. Utländska penslar får man inte häller här, och kvaliteten på de inhemska penslarna är underlägsen.

- Det blir sådeles dyrt att måla!

- Ja visst. Och dyrt är det att leva. Man får säljä då och då, men det är icke alla konstnärer som äro så i ropet att de kunnat grundlägga en förmögenhet. Och de flesta "konstvänner" älska att pruta även på blygsamt tilltagna pris för en tavia.

- Men konstsalongerna, de sälja ju bra.

- Ja och man mäste erkänna, att de gjort mycket för att sätta publiken i närmare kontakt med konstnärerna. De kund nog ha intressanta siffror att omtala under krigstiden.

- Ja, fråga bara Stenman och Löfman och andra.

- Mr. Palett

23.11.19

The British Cyclopaedia: Boragineæ. (Osa)

The British Cyclopaedia
of the arts, sciences, history, geography, literature, natural history and biography; copiously illustrated by engravings on wood and steel by eminent artists.
Edited by Charles F. Partington, professor of mechanical philosphy, author of various works on natural and experimental philosophy, &c., assisted by authors of eminence in the various departments of science.
Complete in ten volumes.
Volume VI.
Natural history.
ABA to CET.
London: WM. S. Orr and Co., Amen Corner, Paternoster Row.
MDCCCXXXVIII.
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The roots of the Anchusa tinctoria, alkanet or dyer's bugloss, are imported into this country from France and Germany in a dried state, for the purpose of being used in dyeing. The alkanet is a native of Europe, and is frequently cultivated in Britain, Its roots have a bitter taste, and their bark yields a reddish-brown matter resembling resin, which is used for giving a red colour to oils, ointments, plasters and salves. The corks of Port-wine bottles are sometimes stained with it by way of deception. To alcohol it imparts a carmine-red colour, which by evaporation changes to blue, and then to green. This root is also used in compositions for rubbing and giving colour to furniture made of mahogany. Wax dyed with it and applied to the surface of warm marble, tinges it of a flesh-colour, which sinks deep into the stone. The small roots are best for dyeing. Anchusa sempervirens, or evergreen alkanet, is found in waste ground and among ruins in many places, both in England and Scotland, and is often cultivated in gardens on account of its beautiful blue flowers.

Lithospermum arvense, Corn gromwell, or bastard Alkanet, is also a native of Britain. The bark of its root abounds in a red dye, which imparts a fine colour to wax and oils. The country girls in Sweden and the north of Europe, are said to stain their faces with it on days of festivity. The seeds of the Lithospermum officinale, from their stony hardness, were gormerly supposed to be useful in calculous disorders. The roots of Anchusa virginica, Lithospermum tinctorum, Onosma echicoides, and Echium nitrum, are used by dyers.

[---]

Symphytum officinale, common comfrey, grows frequently on the banks of rivers, and in watery places in Britain. The plant abounds in mucilage, and may be conveniently substituted for the althea or marsh mallow. It is used in bowel complaints, haemoptysis, and pulmonary catarrh. The leaves give an agreeable flavour to cakes and panada. The young stems and leaves, when boiled, are employed as articles of food. The root is emollient, and has a somewhat astringent taste. A decoction of it is used by dyers, to extract the colouring matter of gum-lac.

[---]

22.11.19

The British Cyclopaedia: Bixineæ. The Arnotto family.

The British Cyclopaedia
of the arts, sciences, history, geography, literature, natural history and biography; copiously illustrated by engravings on wood and steel by eminent artists.
Edited by Charles F. Partington, professor of mechanical philosphy, author of various works on natural and experimental philosophy, &c., assisted by authors of eminence in the various departments of science.
Complete in ten volumes.
Volume VI.
Natural history.
ABA to CET.
London: WM. S. Orr and Co., Amen Corner, Paternoster Row.
MDCCCXXXVIII.
A natural order of dicotyledonous plants, containing six genera and upwards of twenty species. The order is by some included under the Flacourtianeae. It is nearly allied to the Cistineae and Homalineae.

Its botanical characters are: — Sepals or leaves of the calyx varying from four to seven, with an imbri cated aestivation; petals five, sometimes wanting; stamens indefinite, inserted on a disk; anthers two celled; ovary superior, sessile, one-celled; style single, or in two or four divisions; fruit, a many-seeded, single-celled capsule or berry. The plants See Pitch, Coal, 505 hotter parts of America and in the Mauritius. They are not remarkable for their beauty, or for the useful purposes to which they are applied.

Their properties will be best shown by the following examples — The chief genus (whence the order is named) is called Bixa, a term derived from the American name of the plants. The red pulp which covers the seeds of the Bira Orellana yields the sub stance known by the name of arnotto. It used to be denominated Terra orellana, or orleana, and is called by the French, rocou. The seeds are separated from the pulp by maceration in hot water, and the pulp is then made into balls or cakes, which when dried constitute the arnotto of commerce. Good arnotto is soft to the touch, and dissolves entirely in water. It is slightly purgative and stomachic, and is used in Jamaica and other warm countries as a remedy for dysentery and disorders of the kidneys. Dyers form with it the colour called aurora, and when mixed with lemon juice and a gum it forms a crimson paint with which the Indians adorn their persons. By the Spaniards it is used for the purpose of adding to the colour and flavour of chocolate and soups. In Gloucestershire and other counties it is employed to colour cheese, and in Holland butter is dyed with it. The bark of the tree is made into ropes in the West Indies, and the wood is used for the purpose of procuring fire by friction. The other genera of the order are, Ludia, Laetia, Prockia, Banara, and Azara. The bark of Ludia heterophylla and sessiliflora has emetic properties. The azaras are Chilian shrubs, with fragrant flowers not known in the gardens of Europe.

21.11.19

Yhtä toista kemiallisesta teollisuudesta.

Turun Sanomat 6454, 10.5.1925

Mitenkä kemiallinen teollisuus on kehittynyt kotoisesta tarwetyöstä suurteollisuudeksi ja sen mahdollisuuksista meillä.

Kemiallinen teollisuus käsittää kaikki ne eri teollisuusalat, joissa tuotteiden walmistus tapahtuu kemiallisten prosessien awulla. Kemiallisen teollisuuden alaan kuuluwat niinmuodoin esim. metallien walmistus malmeista eli metallurgia, selluloosateollisuus, lasi-, saippua-, sementti- ja käymisteollisuus, wärjäys, nahkateollisuus, kemikalioiden ja kaikenlaisten kemiallisten preparaattien walmistus, kiwihiilen, ruskohiilen, puun y.m. kuiwatislaus, samoin sokeriteollisuus, wäriaineiden walmistus, kiwennäiswesiteollisuus y.m. Näin laajaksi ei yleisessä tietoisuudessa kemiallista teollisuutta sentään monastikaan käsitetä, ja esimerkiksi meidän teollisuustilastomme tekee teollisuusjaoituksensa kokonaan tästä poikkeawasti. Teollisuustilaston jaoitus saattaa olla wääräkin, mutta huomattawa on, että sitä woidaan myös hywillä syillä perustellakin. Niinpä lienee oikeutuksensa esim. sellaisilla ryhmiin sijoituksilla, että selluloosateollisuus luetaan puunjalostusteollisuuksiin, sokeriteollisuus
nautintoaineteollisuuksiin j. n. e.


Wähän historiaa.

Kemiallinen teollisuus on ikiwanhaa, yhtä wanhaa kuin ihmiskunnan kulttuuri. Jo wanhassa Egyptissä oli kemiallinen teollisuus kehittynyt korkealle. Tämän saamme selwille sekä säilyneistä hieroglyyfikirjoituksista, joita jo on wuosikymmenien ajan pystytty tulkitsemaan, että säilyneistä muistomerkeistä ja esineistä, joissa on kemiallisen teollisuuden jälkiä.

Egyptin kemiallisista teollisuuksista mainittakoot esimerkiksi käymis-, purkitus- ja öljynpuristusteollisuudesta sekä kosmetiikka, osittain kemiallista teollisuustuotetta oli kai myöskin papyrus, sen ajan kirjoituspaperi, joka kylläkin tehtiin papyrusruo'osta, mutta jonka muokkaamiseen kaikesta päättäen tarwittiin joitakin kemiallisia prosesseja. Oluen keksimisen kertowat hieroglyyfit Osiriksen ansioksi. Myöskin etikkaa osasiwat muinaiset egyptiläiset walmistaa. Wärjäys kaswiwäreillä oli werraten korkealla kannalla. Tämä on todettu m.m. haudoista löydettyjen muumiositeiden amulla. Indigoa käylettiin jo 1,000 wuotta ennen Kristuksen
syntymää. Purppurawäriä eiwät egyptiläiset wielä tunteneet. Koulujen historian oppikirjoissa on
meille opetettukin, että se olisi foinikialaisten keksimä, mutta uusimmat tutkijat owat tulleet toisiin tuloksiin ja wäittäwät, että purppura olisi keksitty Kreetan saarella, mistä foinikialaiset sitten oppiwat tämän taidon.

Egyptin kosmeettisesta teollisuudesta kertowat papyruskääröt, että menettelytawat siinä oliwat sangen kehittyneitä. Niinpä sowellutettiin esim. öljyihin nähden keittoa, puristusta, kirkastusta y.m.

Kun Egyptissä ei tunnettu purppuraa, jäljiteltiin sitä useiden kaswiwärien seoksilla. Egyptin kemiallisen teollisuuden kiistämätön keskus oli Aleksandria, jolla oli tärkeä asema koko silloisen tunnetun maailman teollisuuskaupunkina. Niinpä sieltä wietiin papyrusta niin paljon, että sillä tyydytettiin koko maailman tarwe. Egyptin merkitys kemiallisen teollisuuden maana kesti aina turkkilaisten walloitukseen saakka.

Kreikan ja Rooman myöhäisempi kemiallinen teollisuus ei jaksanut saawuttaa sitä korkeata tasoa, missä Egyptin wastaawa teollisuus oli. Kreikassa se ei kohonnut juuri lainkaan käsiteollisuusasteen yläpuolelle, ja tuotanto pysyi siis werraten mitättömänä. Roomalaiset eiwät taas esim. wärjäyksessä kyenneet pääsemään omawaraisuuteen, ja esim. painettuja kankaita ostettiin Egyptistä. Purppurawäri taas ostettiin Tyruksesta Foinikiasta, joka tuotti parhaan laadun. Tyruksessa sijaitsi sitäpaitsi suuri roomalainen keisarillinen wärjäämö. Näitä keisarillisia wärjäämöjä oli muuten muillakin paikkakunnilla ympäri Rooman waltakuntaa.

Muinaisajan kemiallisesta teollisuudesta puhuttaessa ei sowi unohtaa alkemiaa, jonka kullantekoyrityiset käyttiwät kemiallisia menetelmiä.

Arabialaiset, jotka waltasiwat Egyptin, eiwät suuriakaan kohottaneet kemiallista teollisuutta, ja wasta venetsialaiset, jotka arabialaisten jälleen alkoiwat harjoittaa kauppaa Wälimerellä, antoiwat alun itsenäiselle kemialliselle teollisuudelle Europassa.

Näin olemmekin jo ennättäneet keskiaikaan, jonka alussa kemian teollisuus oli pesiytynyt pääasiassa luostareihin, joissa sen tarkoituksena oli ensi sijassa kirkollisten tarpeiden tyydyttäminen.

1200-luwulla alkoi Europan kemiallisessa teollisuudessa uusi ajanjakso, ja warsinkin Flanderi ja saksalaiset hansakaupungit tuliwat tunnetuiksi sen keskuksina. Mainittakoon esim. mineraalihappojen käyttö ja apteekkien kehittyminen pieniksi teollisuuslaitoksiksi. Saksa oli 16:nnelle wuosisadalle saakka metallurgian päämaa, mutta esim. saippuan, preparaattien ja tuontitawaroiden jalostuksessa oli ensi sijalla Italia, etenkin Venetsia. Mutta sitten menetti Italia wuorostaan waikutuksensa. Sitä eiwät heikentäneet europpalaiset tapahtumat, waan Amerikan löytö. Waikuttawia tekijöitä oliwat myös meritien löytö Intiaan ja Egyptin walloitus. Myöskin Saksan kemiallinen teollisuus kärsi näistä tapahtumista, jotka lamauttiwat warsinkin Saksan wuoriteollisuutta ja siihen liittywiä kemiallisia teollisuulsia.

Mutta tämä europpalainen kemiallisen teollisuuden ajanjakso, joka tunnetaan kemian historiansa italialais-saksalaisen waltakauden nimellä, oli perin wähän tieteellistä, ja wasta seuraawana ajanjaksona, joka luetaan 30-wuotisesta sodasta ja joka tunnetaan hollantilais-ranskalais-englantilaisen waltakauden nimellä, joutuiwat kemia ja teollisuus läheisempään kosketukseen. J1600-luwulla syntyiwät myös ensimmäiset warsinaiset kemialliset tehtaat. Useat kuuluisat tiedemiehet, m.m. ranskalaiset Lavoisier ja Leblanc tekiwät suuria palweluksia kemian teollisuudelle, mutta warsinaisesti Englanti jaksoi pitemmän ajan waikuttaa tämän teollisuuden hywäksi ja wiedä sitä eteenpäin. Englantiin nähden oli asia jo suuressa määrässä raaka- ja tarweainekysymys, ja niin onkin jouduttu siihen, mikä sittemmin on warsin huomattawassa määrässä eri maissa waikuttanut siihen, miten suureksi ja elinmoimaiseksi kemiallinen teollisuus on woinut kohota.

Puhtaasti tieteeseen perustuwaa organis-kemiallista teollisuutta ei wielä 1700-luwulla ollut. Sen sijaan oli epäorgaaninen teollisuus paljon enemmän kehittynyttä. Kemian teollisuuden muutti suurteollisuudeksi ja asetti järkiperäiselle pohjalle tieteellisyys. Edistysaskeleet owat olleet suorastaan suurenmoisia esim. puhtaasti tieteellisesti kiwihiiliterwan tutkimusten johdosta. Tätä raakaainetta koskewat teoreettiset työt juuri owat olleet pääasiallisena syynä siihen, että Saksa on nyt muutamia wuosikymmeniä ollut hywinkin määrääwässä asemassa yleensä kemian tekniikkaan nähden.


Kemian teollisuuden kehityksestä Suomessa.

Kemiallinen teollisuus on Suomessakin ikiwanhaa. Tahdomme wain mainita terwanpolton, jota meillä jo wuosisatoja on harjoitettu ulkomaille myyntiäkin warten. Saippuan keittämistaito on myöskin tunnettu meillä jo ammoin.

Wasta wiime wuosisadan alkupuoliskolla alkoi kemiallinen teollisuus muuttua meillä warsinaiseksi tehdasteollisuudeksi, ja aiwan wiime wuosikymmeninä on kehitys käynyt muuttamaan sitä suurteollisuudeksi. W. 1909 nousi kemiallisen teollisuuden - siihen ei silloin luettu esim. selluloosa- ja sokeriteollisuutta - tuotannon bruttoarwo 10,000,000 markkaan ja w. 1913, wiimeisenä rauhanwuonna, 12,600,000 markkaan. Wiimemainitusta summasta tuli saippua- ja kynttiläteollisuuden osalle 3,600,000 markkaa, öljyteollisuuden 2,400,000 mk., tulitikkuteollisuuden 1,100,000 mk., kloraatti-, hiilihappo- ja soodateollisuuden 1,100,000 mk., wäri- ja wernissateollisuuden 1,000,000 mk. j.n.e.

Kun maailmansota merkitsi suunnatonta rajoitusta kemiallisen teollisuuden tuotteiden tuonnissa, tapahtui maamme kemiallisessa teollisuudessa silloin melkoinen nousu. Uusia aloja alettiin walloittaa. Näitä walloituksia on sittemmin ulkomaisen tuonnin taas wapauduttuakin jatkettu, ja näin kehitys edistynyt sikäli että edellisessä kappaleessa mainittujen teollisuusalojen tuotannon bruttoarwo w. 1922 nousi jo noin 200,000,000 markkaan ja m. 1923 noin 310,000,000 markkaan.

W. 1923 oli maassamme 147 kemiallista tehdasta, joiden yhteinen työläismäärä oli 3,344. Näistä oli saippua- ja suopatehtaita 17, ja niiden työntekijämäärä oli 183. Raaka-aineita käyttiwät nämä tehtaat kaikkiaan 147,165,900 markan arwosta. Siitä oli kotimaisia raaka-aineita ja puoliwalmisteita 52,210,300 markan ja ulkomaisia siis lähes 95,000,000 markan arwosta. Kuten nähdään, näyttelee ulkomaiden osuus raaka-aineen muodossa werraten tärkeätä tekijää kotimaisessa kemiallisessa teollisuudessamme. Saippua-, suopa- ja kynttilätehtaat esimerkiksi käyttäwät melkein yksinomaan ulkomaisia raaka-aineita. Sama on asian laita maamme ainoan kumitehtaan, Nokian kumitehtaan, jonka wuoden 1923 tuotannon bruttoarwo teki kokonaista 48,472,000 mk.

Kemiallisen teollisuutemme uusimmassa kehityksessä on mainittawa puun kuiwatislauksen, tärpätin, metyylialkoholin, etikkahapon, hartsin y.m. tuottamisen, kehitys. Tällä alalla on muuten meillä suuria edellytyksiäkin, ennen kaikkea huokean raaka-aineen wuoksi. Muuten on waltion osuus tällä alalla melkoinen. Wielä huomattamampi on waltion osuus kuitenkin eräillä muilla kemiallisen teollisuuden aloilla. Se omistaa nimittäin kolme suurta erikoistehdasta, kuten Lappeenrannan rikkihappotehtaan ja Kotkan superfosfaattitehtaan, joiden yhteinen
tuotanto jo w. 1923 nousi yli 21,659,000 markan. Siitä lähtien on näiden teollisuuslaitosten tuotanto huomattawasti kohonnut, niin että superfosfaattitehdas suuresti lisääntyneestä menekistä huolimatta pystyy tyydyttämään suurimman osan kotimaista tarwetta. Näiden tehtaiden merkitys on sitäkin suurempi, kun niissä pyritään mahdollisimman paljon käyttämään hywäksi kotimaista raaka-ainetta. Niinpä Lappeenrannan tehdas käyttää kotimaista kiisua, joka on wasken ja rikin yhdistystä. Kotkan tehdas taas käyttää sen tuottamaa rikkihappoa.

Saippuateollisuuden ohessa on kemiallisen teollisuuden aloista meillä kehittynyt todelliseksi suurteollisuudetsi myöskin tulitikkuteollisuus, jonka saawutuksista äskettäin teimme laajalti selkoa.


Kemian teollisuuden mahdollisuudet.
Kemiallinen teollisuus ei kuitenkaan ole wielä päässyt saawuttamaan erikoisen suurta merkitystä. Wesiwoiman runsas saanti ei esimerkiksi ole wielä kyennyt luomaan meillä kuten Sweitsissä ja Norjassa kukoistawaa sähkökemiallista teollisuutta. Woitaneen pitää tähän kehityksen wiipymiseen ratkaisewimpana syynä sitä, että meillä owat useimmat sen tarwitsewat raaka-aineet tuotettawat ulkoa. Meillä on nimittäin kiinnitetty aiwan liian wähän huomiota monenkin raaka-aineen hankkimiseen. Kuwaawana esimerkkinä mainittakoon, että Suomen kaltaisessa karjatalousmaassa ei saada kunnollista talia saippuateollisuutemme tarpeisiin, waan että se on tuotettawa ulkoa. Kemiallisen teollisuuden kehitystä haittaa myöskin tuntuwasti se seikka, ettei tällä alalla ole wielä yleisöä saatu aina kysymään kotimaista. Tämä juuri on niitä teollisuusaloja, joilla meillä tuodaan maahan suunnattomia määriä sellaista tawaraa, mikä woitaisiin walmistaa kotimaassa. W. 1923 esim. nousi kemiallisen teollisuuden walmisteiden tuonnin arwo noin 260,000,000 markkaan.

Kemiallisen teollisuuden tulewaisuuden suhteen meillä ei pitäisi olla epäilyksiä. Sen mahdollisuudet ja edellytykset owat kieltämättömät. Woimakysymys on huokeasti ratkaistawissa, ja raaka-aineitakin meillä on runsaasti, kunhan wain opitaan tekemään ne käyttökelpoisiksi. Suomalaiset kemistit owat myöskin tehokkaalla tawalla arwokkailla keksinnöillä ja kokeiluilla edistäneet tätä alaa. Kaikkein selwintä kieltä puhuwat loppujen lopuksi luwut, jotka kemiallisen teollisuuden eri aloilla lyhyissä ajoissa owat moninkertaistuneet.

20.11.19

The adulteration of tea.

The Living age 915, 14.12.1861

The London Lancet gives the result of the microscopical and chemical analysis of forty-eight samples of tea.

Of the twentyfour specimens of black tea analyzed, every one was found to be genuine. Of a like number of green teas all were adultrated. The adulterations are mainly a coloring matter with which the tea leaf is faced, painted or glazed. Ferro cyanide of iron or Prussiau blue is the article most commonly used for this purpose. Sometimes, however, indigo, kaolin, or China clay, and tumeric powder were found in addition. That species of tea which is denominated gunpowder, was adulterated in other ways by admixture with leaves not those of tea, with paddy husk, and particularly with "lie tea," so called, a leaf which resembles the tea leaf closely, and is sent to this country from China in vast quantities, to be employed in adulteration here. Tho coloring of the tea is almost entirely done in China, and probably because it improves its appearance, and, perhaps, renders its sale more sure and rapid.

Such is the result of a thorough analyzation of this article by eminent scientific men in England, and it is certainly not very flattering to the tastes of those who drink green tea for the love of it. There is no such article as an unadulterated green tea. Let the lovers of the herb remember that fact, and as they sip the delicious beverage, and fancy that they find in it a solvent for their itches and pains, let them also remember that they are sipping with it a solution of Prussian blue and indigo, as well as sundry other little peccadilloes that neither add to its exhilarating properties, nor yet are entirely harmless to the system. On the other band, the black teas are not adulterated, and are the only ones used by the Chinese. Knowing the impurities that are in the best green teas, they send them to foreign ports to tickle the palates of the English, the French, and the American, who, in their view, fancy the bright lively appearance imparted by the coloring compositions they use.

19.11.19

The British Cyclopaedia: Bignonoaceæ (the trumpet-flower family).

The British Cyclopaedia
of the arts, sciences, history, geography, literature, natural history and biography; copiously illustrated by engravings on wood and steel by eminent artists.
Edited by Charles F. Partington, professor of mechanical philosphy, author of various works on natural and experimental philosophy, &c., assisted by authors of eminence in the various departments of science.
Complete in ten volumes.
Volume VI.
Natural history.
ABA to CET.
London: WM. S. Orr and Co., Amen Corner, Paternoster Row.
MDCCCXXXVIII.
A natural order of dicotyledonous plants, containing about a dozen genera, and nearly one hundred species. The order is very closely allied to the Pedalineae and Cyrtandraeae, and bears a considerable affinity to the Scrophularinae and Acanthaceae. Its essential characters are — calyx monophyllous, divided or entire, sometimes in the form of a sheath; corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, frequently irregular; stamens five; anthers two-celled; ovary surrounded with a glandular disk, generally two-celled, and many-seeded; one style; stigma formed of two plates; capsule superior, two-celled and two-valved; seeds compressed, often winged, not provided with albumen.

The plants included in this order are trees or shrubs, frequently twining or climbing, and inhabiting the tropical regions of both heumispheres. Virginia and Japan are said to be the farthest points to which they recede from the equator, and none of the species are found in Europe. They are much cultivated and prized on account of their beautiful trumpet-shaped flowers, and their broad pinnated leaves. They are propagated by cuttings or layers, sometimes by seeds. Their properties are scarcely known. The wood of some of the species is said to resist the attack of worms.

The chief genus, and that which gives name to the order, is Bignonia, or trumpet-flower. It contains numerous species, most of which are highly ornamental. The name Bignonia was given in honour of the Abbé John Paul Bignon, who was librarian to Louis XIV., and a particular friend of the celebrated botanist Tournefort. Bignonia grandifolia, gigantic-leaved trumpet-flower, is a rapid-growing climber, found in the province of Caraccas, in South America. Its flowers are of a deep, bright-yellow colour, and its leaves are occasionally a foot and a half long, and nine inches broad. Bignonia venusta, welted trumpet-flower, is a climbing shrub of Rio Janeiro, producing flowers of a vivid orange-vermilion colour.

The bitter juice and tender shoots of Bignonia leucozylon, or white-wood of Jamaica, are supposed to be an antidote against the poisonous juice of the manchineel. Bignonia telfairiae is cultivated in Madagascar for the sake of its fleshy fruit, which has an agreeable flavour, and is prized as an article of food. The leaves of Bignonia chica yield by decoction a red resinous-like matter, called chica, which is used by dyers, and is employed by the Indians of Rio Meta and Qrinoco to paint their bodies red. In commerce it is met with in the form of round cakes, five or six inches in diameter, and two or three inches thick. To cotton, it imparts an orange-red colour. The tough shoots of Bignonia heterophylla, or chirire, a native of Guiana, are woven as wicker-work. The leaves of Bignonia Indica are deemed emollient. Several species of bignonia found in Brazil, yield excellent timber, used in the construc tion of houses and ships, as well as in the manufac ture of bows.

Tecoma, formerly Bignonia radicans, is a hardy climbing plant of great beauty, which ascends the tallest trees and the highest rocks, and is capable of being reared in the open air in this country against a wall. Iacaranda, another genus of the order, furnishes species remarkable for the elegance of their foliage, and their beautiful blue or purple flowers.

Catalpa syringifolia, an American tree belonging to this order, furnishes a most useful and durable wood. This tree sometimes attains a height of fifty feet, with a diameter of a foot and a half or two feet. Its leaves are very large, while its flowers are showy and white with violet and yellow spots. Its bark, which is of a silver-grey colour, is said to be tonic and stimulant. Honey collected from the flowers is said to be poisonous. An old catalpa exists in Grays Inn Gardens, which is reported to have been planted by Lord Bacon. Catalpa longissima is a most important timber tree found in the West Indies. The French call it Chéne noir, or black oak.

The root of Spathodea longiflora has an agreeable taste, and, along with the fragrant flowers of the tree, is used in some parts of India, in the form of infusion, as a cooling drink in fevers. The purple sweet smelling flowers are considered by the Hindoos as acceptable to their gods, and are offered by them in their temples.

The genus Eccremocarpus differs from the other genera in this order, in having a single-celled ovary and capsule. The remaining genera are Amphilobium, Fieldia, Chilopsis, Calampelis, and Streptocarpus.

18.11.19

The British Cyclopaedia: Betulineæ. The Birch and Alder Tribe.

The British Cyclopaedia
of the arts, sciences, history, geography, literature, natural history and biography; copiously illustrated by engravings on wood and steel by eminent artists.
Edited by Charles F. Partington, professor of mechanical philosphy, author of various works on natural and experimental philosophy, &c., assisted by authors of eminence in the various departments of science.
Complete in ten volumes.
Volume VI.
Natural history.
ABA to CET.
London: WM. S. Orr and Co., Amen Corner, Paternoster Row.
MDCCCXXXVIII.
A natural suborder of dicotyledonous vegetables, containing five genera and about fifty species. By some authors it is included along with the willow and oak tribe, under the Amentaceae. It is allied to the Cupuliferae. Its essential characters are:- flowers monoecious, growing in aments or catkins: stamens distinct, rarely united together; anthers two celled; ovary superior, two-celled; style single, or wanting; two stigmas; fruit membranaceous, inde hiscent; seeds pendulous, naked.

The plants of this order are trees or shrubs which shed their leaves every season, and which are found abundantly in the tenuperate and colder regions of the globe. Several species are found in the woods of Europe, North America, and the northern parts of Asia, and some are said to grow on the mountains of Peru and Colombia. The order contains many trees which are used in ornamenting landscapes, and which furnish valuable timber. They are propagated by layers and seeds.

The Betulineae, like the willows, contain much tannin, and possess astringent and tonic properties.

The principal genus is Betula or birch, whence the name of the order is derived. This genus contains numerous species which are highly interesting, and have been applied to important uses. Betula alba, common European or white birch, is an elegant tree familiar to every one. It is found in woods and in moist heathy mountainous situations in Britain. It grows in almost any kind of soil, moist, dry, gravelly, or chalky, and it is frequently seen issuing from the crevices of rocks. It endures the cold of northern regions well, and is found even at the seventieth degree of north latitude. It thrives well in Lapland, Norway, Sweden, and the northern parts of Russia. It is seldom met with farther south than the forty-fifth degree of latitude, unless upon lofty mountains. On the Alps it grows at an eleva tion considerably above that at which other trees thrive, but in such elevated situations it becomes very diminutive in size. In general it reaches a height of fifty or sixty feet, with a diameter of a foot and a half or two feet. It blooms early in spring, and sends forth pendulous catkins of flowers. The wood of the birch is hard, tough and white, and is used by wheel-wrights, turners, and carpenters, in the manufacture of various useful and ornamental articles. In some countries wooden shoes are made from it. The bark is thick, and is covered with a white scaly cuticle. It is astringent and bitter, and has been used in the cure of intermittent fever. On account of the resinous matter which it contains, it serves for torches to the inhabitants of the Alps. A decoction of the bark is used by the Laplanders in the preparation of reindeer skins. An empyreumatic oil also is obtained from it, which the Russians employ in tanning, and it is from this oil that Russia leather derives its peculiar odour. The inner part of the bark in its young state contains a quantity of fecula or starch, and from it the inhabitants of the northern regions make a sort of cake, which, along with smoked salt-fish, constitutes their food during the winter. The leaves of the birch are bitter, and have been used as a substitute for tea. They dye wool of a yellow colour. A decoction of them is said to possess vermifuge and diuretic qualities, and has been praised in calculous complaints and scurvy. A spirituous infusion of them is emloyed by the Russians and Swedes as an embrocation in rheumatism. By tapping the birch in spring, a sweetish sap is procured in great abundance, which by fermentation yields a sort of wine called birch-wine or mead. The tops and twigs of the birch are commonly used for brooms. Betula pendula, or the weeping birch, by some considered as a variety of the common birch, is the most graceful of the genus, and is easily recognised by its elegant drooping branches. Betula mana, or dwarf birch, is another European species found in northern climates, and approaching, in Norway and Lapland, very near the limits of perpetual snow. It is a small diminutive shrub, and is found on the Scottish mountains in considerable abundance. In summer, when the Laplander lives on the mountains, this plant furnishes his fuel, and, when covered with rein-deer skin, forms his bed. Its leaves dye a finer yellow than the common birch. Several species of birch are found in North America; of these the most important is the Betula nigra, or black birch, which furnishes a very hard and valuable wood. This wood when recently cut, has a rosy hue, which deepens by exposure to light. It receives a fine polish, and may be made to assume the appearance of mahogany: hence the tree is often called mountain mahogany. The twigs of the black birch, when bruised, give out a sweet scent. Betula papyracea is another useful North American species. From the wood of this species many articles of furniture are made, and its bark, which is white and indestructible, is used for the formation of canoes. On this account the tree is denominated the canoe birch. The name papyracea, or paper birch, is derived from the circumstance that the bark, when divided into thin sheets, is used as a substitute for paper. The red and yellow birch, two other American species, are not put to any particular use.

Another genus of this order is Alnus, or the alder. The alders in general grow in marshy, boggy situa tions by the sides of rivers, requiring black mould with plenty of moisture. They are often planted in places which cannot be drained. They are propa gated by layers.

Alnus glutinosa, or common alder, is a quick growing tree found in swamps and meadows in Europe, North America and the northern parts of Asia. It attains a height of fifty feet, and furnishes a compact wood capable of receiving a considerable polish. In France, wooden shoes, or sabots, are made from it, which are seasoned by fire before they are sold. From being able to resist the action of water, the wood is employed in the formation of durable water pipes, and in Holland it is used for piles, upon which buildings are erected in marshy places. It is said that piles of this nature were driven in under the old London bridge. The wood takes a black colour well, and can be made to resemble ebony. With green vitriol, it dyes wool of a black colour. It yields excellent charcoal, which is employed in making gunpowder. The juice of the alder is astringent, and the bark is used for tanning, and for detergent gargles.

Alnus incana, hoary alder, grows in several parts of Europe, and has received the name of cold alder, from not being found south of latitude sixty degrees. Alnus senulata, notch-leaved alder, and Alnus glauca, are two species found abundantly in North America.

Carpinus betulus, hornbeam, a tree of humble growth, and useful in the formation of hedges for shelter, belongs to the betulineae. It is found in woods and hedges in England, growing in damp, tenacious, meagre soil. It forms the principal part of the ancient forests on the north and east of London, such as Epping and Finchley. Its wood is hard and used for furniture, and its inner bark yields a yellow dye. Ostrya, another genus of the order, receives the name of hop-hornbeam, from its scaly catkins being similar to the hop. Ostrya Virginica is a small tree found in the shady woods of America. It supplies a hard heavy wood, called iron-wood or lever-wood.

Corylus is the fifth genus of this order. Corylus avellana, or hazel-nut tree, must be familiar to all, as furnishing the fruit commonly known by the name of filberts. This tree flowers early in spring, and its leaves do not appear till after the blossoms. Its wood is used for hoops, fishing-rods, walking-sticks, &c., and furnishes excellent charcoal for drawing. Squirrels live on the nuts, and an oil is prepared from them which is used by painters, and which is said to be efficacious against tooth-ach or worms. Corylus Americana, American hazel, yields also excellent nuts.

We have thus seen that the trees of this important order, are applied to many of the necessities of life. The wood of several of them is used for the construction of houses and vessels, in the works of the wheelwright, turner, and cabinet-maker, and as an article of fuel; the bark is manufactured into canoes and boxes, serves for the covering of houses, and supplies materials for dyeing and tanning; medicinal preparations, useful in various diseases, are obtained from several species; from some a nutritious article of diet is procured, while from others a sap exudes which constitutes a grateful and refreshing beverage.

17.11.19

The British Cyclopaedia: Berberideæ. The Barberry Family.

The British Cyclopaedia
of the arts, sciences, history, geography, literature, natural history and biography; copiously illustrated by engravings on wood and steel by eminent artists.
Edited by Charles F. Partington, professor of mechanical philosphy, author of various works on natural and experimental philosophy, &c., assisted by authors of eminence in the various departments of science.
Complete in ten volumes.
Volume VI.
Natural history.
ABA to CET.
London: WM. S. Orr and Co., Amen Corner, Paternoster Row.
MDCCCXXXVIII.
A natural order of dicotyledonous plants, containing seven known genera and forty-seven species. It is nearly allied to the Menispermaceae, or coculus tribe. The essential characters of the order are: — sepals or leaves of the calyx, three, four, or six, deciduous, in a double series, accompanied by scales; petals hypogynous, equal in number with the sepals, and opposite to them; stamens equal in number to the petals, and opposite to them; filaments short; anthers oblong, two-celled, opening by valves; ovary solitary, one celled; style oblique; stigma orbicular; fruit, a berry or capsule, containing from one to three seeds.

The plants in this order are shrubs or herbs with erennial roots, found in temperate and cold climates in both hemispheres. Species have been met with in Europe, Asia, North and South America, but none have as yet been detected in Africa or the South Sea Islands. They are propagated by cuttings, layers, and seeds. Their properties will be best shown by a few examples.

The chief and most interesting genus is Berberis, whence the name of the order has originated. Berberis vulgaris, the common barberry or pepperidge bush, is common in the hedges an woods of Great Britain. It presents a beautiful appearance in spring, when covered with its yellow clusters of flowers. As the season advances, these are succeeded by bunches of red oblong-shaped berries, which are familiar to all. These berries have a sour taste, owing to the malic acid which they contain. They enter into the composition of various sweetmeats and tarts, and when prepared with sugar they form an excellent jelly. When pickled in vinegar, they are used for garnishing dishes. In consequence of their acidity and astringency they are refused by birds. They form a grateful cooling drink in fevers, and are said to be useful in biliary fluxes and internal haemorrhages. The leaves of the barberry are yellowish or bluish-green, and possess a considerable degree of acidity. The stem and bark are very astringent, and are employed in dyeing; the root resembles that of the pomegranate: it is bitter and styptic, and is used in Poland, for the purpose of imparting a yellow colour to leather. Cows, sheep, and goats eat the plant, while horses refuse it. Varieties are cultivated, with purple, white, yellow, black, and seedless fruit.

A singular irritability has been observed in the filaments of the barberry. If their inner side be touched with a pointed instrument, such as a needle, they immediately contract, move towards the stigma, and scatter the polien if it is ripe. A peculiar fungus also grows on the plant, which is said to be prejudicial to corn growing near it, by causing blight or mildew. (See article Æcidium.)

All the species of barberries are more or less ornamental. The Berberis aristata is a hardy evergreen shrub, found in Nepal. Berberis tinctoria, a native of India, yields a yellow colouring matter, which is used in dyeing. Berberis Siberica (Siberian barberry), is Berberis epimedium, Siberica. a curious species known among the Mongol Tartars under the name of Yellow-wood, and applied by them both to superstitious and medicinal purposes. It is a native of the Altai mountains, growing in the crevices of the highest rocks, and was introduced into Britain by Sir Joseph Banks in 1790. It produces grey or ash-coloured berries, possessing acid properties. The barberries with pinnated leaves, generally shrubs of great beauty and interest, have been lately referred to a separate genus denominated Mahonia. Leontice, or Caulophyllum thalictroides, another plant of this order, is remarkable as being an instance of a plant in which the seeds are not inclosed in any covering whatever. Mandiana domestica is an elegant shrub, found in Japan. Epimedium Alpinum, or Alpine bar renwort is a plant of the barberry tribe, which is found in a few places in Britain. It is a small elegant plant, with handsome dark red flowers, which grows in mountain thickets, and furnishes a considerable quantity of honey.

16.11.19

The British Cyclopaedia: America (osa).

The British Cyclopaedia
of the arts, sciences, history, geography, literature, natural history and biography; copiously illustrated by engravings on wood and steel by eminent artists.
Edited by Charles F. Partington, professor of mechanical philosphy, author of various works on natural and experimental philosophy, &c., assisted by authors of eminence in the various departments of science.
Complete in ten volumes.
Volume VI.
Natural history.
ABA to CET.
London: WM. S. Orr and Co., Amen Corner, Paternoster Row.
MDCCCXXXVIII.
[---]

Passing the isthmus of Panama southward, we come to a country in many respects new in the characters of its vegetation. Here are the same esculent plants as in the hot plains of Mexico; but as the soil is in many places rich, and the surface much diversified, the plants and trees are so numerous, that a mere list of them would occupy a considerable space. The chocolate-tree (Theobroma), the nopal (Cactus opuntia), upon which the cochineal insects, which yield the finest scarlet dye, are fed; and the various species, the juice of which forms caoutchouc, or India rubber, are among the most curious; but the last-mentioned substance is the produce of many trees, some of them natives of other parts of the globe.

[---]

To the south of the Amazon, the vegetable riches of Brazil are even, if possible, more luxuriant than those that have been mentioned. The country stands out more to the sea, and takes the sea-wind loaded with humidity, upon two of its sides. The soil and surface are, however, both very much varied, and that gives much change of scene to the country. There are not, perhaps, in any part of the world finer bowers and forests than those which are met with in the dells and by the watercourses of Brazil, whether we regard the beauty of the trees, or of the plants which those trees support. The dye-woods of Brazil are of much value, and so are the rose-woods, which are the timber of certain species of robinia, the colour and qualities of which are, like those of the mahogany, understood to depend very much on the nature of the soil and situation.


[---]

15.11.19

The British Cyclopaedia: Alder-tree.

The British Cyclopaedia
of the arts, sciences, history, geography, literature, natural history and biography; copiously illustrated by engravings on wood and steel by eminent artists.
Edited by Charles F. Partington, professor of mechanical philosphy, author of various works on natural and experimental philosophy, &c., assisted by authors of eminence in the various departments of science.
Complete in ten volumes.
Volume VI.
Natural history.
ABA to CET.
London: WM. S. Orr and Co., Amen Corner, Paternoster Row.
MDCCCXXXVIII.
A genus of forest trees, indigenous to Britain. Belonging to the Linnaean class and order, Monaccia Tetrandria. Natural order, Amentaceae. Generic character: male flower receptacle of the ament wedge-shaped, truncated, composed of three flowers; calyx, scaly; corolla, four-parted; stamina, four-female flowers; calyx, scaly, or two flowered; corolla, none; seed, compressed, oval, naked. The alder affects moist bog earthy soil on the banks of rivers or water-courses. Its natural habit of growth is to run up with a plurality of stems; and when trained with one, though it forms rather a handsome tree, it is not long-lifed. They are much more valuable as underwood than grown for timber, being, like the willow, more vigorous for being cut down; that is, the roots are more active in yielding supplies to young shoots than to old stems. Alder poles are much used by turners and other small ware artisans; also by charcoal burners for the manufacture of gunpowder; and when butts of good size, and sound throughout, can be obtained, this timber is highly valued for piling and planking to lie constantly under water. The bark in some countries is used for tanning, and some quality used in dyeing is extracted from the young twigs. Of the fourteen species, the heart-leaved, the long leaved, the red, and the saw-leaved, are fit for the arboretum; and among the varieties of the common one, the fringed-leaved, cut-leaved, and oak-leaved, The Alder Tree. are ornamental. The common species are raised from the seed sowed on a moist soil in autumn. The curious varieties are propagated by layering — some times by grafting on the common.

14.11.19

The British Cyclopaedia: Agrimony (Linnaeus).

The British Cyclopaedia
of the arts, sciences, history, geography, literature, natural history and biography; copiously illustrated by engravings on wood and steel by eminent artists.
Edited by Charles F. Partington, professor of mechanical philosphy, author of various works on natural and experimental philosophy, &c., assisted by authors of eminence in the various departments of science.
Complete in ten volumes.
Volume VI.
Natural history.
ABA to CET.
London: WM. S. Orr and Co., Amen Corner, Paternoster Row.
MDCCCXXXVIII.
A genus of herbs found on the northern parts of both continents. Linnaean class and order, Dodecandria Digynia. Natural order, Rosaceae. The A. eupatoria is a British plant, neral common on hedge-banks; formerly of some repute as a medical herb, and still used in herb teas.

The root in spring is sweet-scented, and the flowers fresh gathered smell like apricots. When the plant is coming into flower it dyes wool a dull yellow, and if gathered in September a still deeper shade. Formerly it was used for dressing leather.

13.11.19

The British Cyclopaedia: Acacia.

The British Cyclopaedia
of the arts, sciences, history, geography, literature, natural history and biography; copiously illustrated by engravings on wood and steel by eminent artists.
Edited by Charles F. Partington, professor of mechanical philosphy, author of various works on natural and experimental philosophy, &c., assisted by authors of eminence in the various departments of science.
Complete in ten volumes.
Volume VI.
Natural history.
ABA to CET.
London: WM. S. Orr and Co., Amen Corner, Paternoster Row.
MDCCCXXXVIII.
An extensive genus of exotic trees and shrubs belonging to the Linnaean class and order Polygamia Monaccia; and to the natural order Leguminosae, division Mimoseae, of Jussieu. The name is derived from the Greek word [-] to sharpen, in consequence of many of the species being, thorny. Generic character; flowers, polygamous; calyx, four or five toothed; the petals of the corolla four or five, at one time free, at another coalescing; stamens varying from ten to 200; pods not jointed, juiceless, and two-valved.

Branch of the Acacia. The species included under this genus are very numerous, amounting to about 300. They are shrubs and trees, varying in habit and foliage; and while by their beauty and elegance they contribute not a little to adorn the countries in which they grow, they are found to be of essential service in the arts and manufactures by supplying them with a hard, and durable wood, which is deservedly much valued. They are found in the tropical regions of Asia, Africa, and America, and also abundantly in New Holland, Van Diemen's Land, and New South Wales. They all bear pods like the pea family, but in their blossoms they have a considerable resemblance to the willow tribe. By their airy foliage and golden flowers they throw a charm even over the sterile deserts of Africa: —
"Our rocks are rough; but smiling there
Th’ acacia waves her yellow hair;
Lonely and sweet, nor lov'd the less
For flow'ring in the wilderness.”

The leaves are, as we have already stated, in the greater number of the species, pinnate, that is, having a central stalk and numerous small leaflets on either side of it, as represented in the engraving; in others, however, the leaf-stalks become dilated vertically into hard, leathery expansions, denominated Phyllodia, which seem to serve all the purposes of leaves, and which in their young state generally bear leaflets. From this difference in the foliage, the species have been divided into those having pinnate leaves, and those provided with phyllodia. The latter are of frequent occurrence in New Holland and the other parts of Australia, and may be said, in some degree, to characterise the vegetation of those countries.

We shall notice a few of the important species. The Acacia Arabica, vera, Senegalensis, and Nilotica, &c., are interesting in a commercial point of view, as yielding the substance called Gum-Arabic. This exudes either spontaneously or from incisions made into the bark, and subsequently hardens by exposure to the air. When pure it is transparent and colourless, has neither taste nor smell, and is perfectly soluble in water, forming what is called mucilage. Gum Arabic derives its name from having been originally brought from Arabia; subsequently, how ever, Africa, more especially Senegal, has furnished a considerable quantity. From this circumstance the name of Gum Senegal has been given to some varieties. The Gum Arabic tree is also found in the East Indies. The gum is collected in the months of December and January, and sold in large quantities to French and English merchants. It is capable of being used as an article of food, and is very nutritious. During the time of the gum harvest the collectors subsist upon it entirely, and six ounces are said to be the usual allowance for an adult, in the course of twenty-four hours. Gum is used extensively in medicine, as a bland mucilaginous substance, for the purpose of allaying various irritations. It is made into the form of lozenges and jujubes with several other substances. It is useful in the arts, being employed in calico-printing to give consistency to colours, and to prevent their spreading. For similar reasons it enters into the composition of writing ink, blacking, &c. Botanists employ it to fix the dried specimens of plants upon paper, and it is used in the formation of numerous fancy and ornamental articles, such as seals, rice boxes, &c. The bark of the Gum Arabic tree is employed in India as a tonic for strengthening the stomach, and a decoction of its pods serves for the purpose of washing.

Another species of Acacia, the Acacia Catechu, or Khair tree, a native of the mountainous parts of Hindostan, deserves notice chiefly on account of its yielding a substance which is used in medicine. This substance, which was formerly erroneously denominated Japan Earth, but now receives the name of Catechu, is an extract from the internal part of the wood of this tree prepared in Bengal, and other parts of India, by decoction and evaporation. The extract is also prepared from the pods of the tree, as well as from other plants, such as the Nauclea Gambic and Areca Catechu. It has a reddish brown colour, and its taste is very astringent. On account of its astringent property, it is used in various diseases as a medicinal agent of considerable efficacy.

The Acacia discolor, and several other species known in Van Diemen's Land, under the general name of Wattle, furnish much of the timber used in that part of the world.

From the bark of the Acacias, found in Van Di men's Land, more especially the Acacia decurrens and mollissima, an astringent extract was lately prepared and imported into Britain for the purpose of tanning leather. It was found, however, that the expence of the extract was far too great to render it a marketable commodity, and the bark itself is therefore now substituted. Occasionally a quantity of the Mimosa Bark, as it is termed in commerce, is imported into London. The bark is of little value in Wan Diemen's Land; and although the freight and duty are considerable, still so long as the Acacias continue to be cut down, in that country, for the purpose of clearing the ground for cultivation, the price must remain in some degree moderate. The Mimosa Earth is more astringent, and possesses a more powerful tanning property than the oak bark, but it imparts to the leather a reddish tint, which renders it fit only for sole leather. The Mimosa Bark, however, when mixed with acorns, may be used for the tanning of dressed leather.

The Acacia decipiens, found in New Holland, was formerly mistaken for a fern, and called fern-tree, on account of its long flowerless branches. The Acacia melanoxylon, denominated in Van Diemen's Land, Black-wood, is a beautiful tree, with foliage reaching to the ground. It grows to a considerable height, but does not attain a great diameter. Of late years various new species of acacia have been collected in Australia, by Mr. Allan Cunningham, Mr. Fraser, and Dr. Leber.

The acacias are propagated by seeds, or by cuttings ut into sandy soil, under a bell-glass, and kept warm. The flowers of some of the species of acacia are used by the Chinese for dying a yellow colour.

In our shrubberies the Robinia Pseudo-Acacia, or Locust-tree, an elegantshrub, bearing white pea-shaped blossoms, occasionally tinged with pink, is commonly cultivated under the name of Acacia.

For the better distinguishing this numerous family botanists have arranged the species into five divisions, founded on their different modes of foliation, and these divisions have again been subdivided into sections, founded on their manner of flowering, or on the absence or difference of their armature. A few of the species are climbers, and many, indeed a whole division, are marked dubia, not being sufficiently known to distinguish to which section they belong. The name Acacia has also been given to many other species of plants, viz. to a species of Darlingtonia, to a Gagnebina, and to several of the genus Prosopis.

11.11.19

Suomalaisen käsityön ystäwät... (apuraha-anomus)

Wiipurin Sanomat 27, 2.4.1902

Suomalaisen käsityön ystäwät owat anoneet 1,200 mkn määrärahaa kerta kaikkiaan sekä 3 w. aikana 2,400 mkn wuosiapurahaa wärjäyslaitoksen perustamista warten, jossa opetetaan kansalle kaswiwärien käyttämistä.

10.11.19

The Uses of Mica in the Arts

Manufacturer and builder 7, 1869

Under the term mica is comprised a whole group of minerals, either occurring massive or disseminated in rocks, and all possessing a more or less foliated structure and pearly lustre. They are tough, elastic and transparent or translucent. The color may be white, gray, brown, pale green, violet, yellow, dark olive, or green. The word mica may bo derived from the Latin mica, which means a crumb or grain, or from micare, which, like the German name glimmer, signifies to shine. The term mica was formerly applied particularly to the mica in scales. The micaslate is called in German katzensilber - that is, cat-silver. The variety meet extensively ueed in the arts is the massive. This does not, however, occur in this such as are met with in the trade, but in large plates, which sometimes exceed a yard in diameter; but, being of an eminently banal cleavage, they readily afford very thin, clastic foliæ.

Mica was first need as a substitute for glass in windows; then, on account of its durability when exposed to high temperatures, it came to be extensively used for doors of stoves; and for this purpose, it was largely imported up to the year 1855, when the beds in this country were first taken advantage of. The property just spoken of has induced Mr. Warth, inspector of the royal salines in Wurtemberg to insert plates of mica in the fire-doors of steam-boilers, his aim being, tp allow a continued obeervation of the fires without opening the doors, and so permitting the entrance of cold air. The foliæ are inclosed in small sheet-iron frames, and protested by wire grates stretched over them.

Mica is also made into reflectors, sea-compasses, inlayings for wood, (instead of enamel,) and many other articles. But one of its most important uses is as a substitute for glass in spectacles, which are intended to protect the eyes of fire and metal-workers against sparks, and fragments of metel and rocks. Such spectacles are constructed by The Hermann Cohn, in Breslau, who, in examining the eyes of one thousand two hundred and eighty-three metal-workers, found that a great majority of them had been more or less injured. At first these spectacles were made without hinge, and could net be invoniently carried in the pocket; then rude hinge's were contrived, by bending a wire, and drawing it through the frame of the mica-glass; more recently, however, the inventor has done away entirely with the brass frame, and uses a ribbon to keep the spectacles in place. It may be well to mention that it simple woolen or silk ribbon serves better for this purpose than a band of India-rubber, as the latter causes pain when worn for a long time. These spectacles are, of course, easily carried in the vest-pocket. In order to protect the eyes against the action of gases, Dr. Cohn devieeel spectacles with a plain mica-plate in front, and a brass box behind, which is bent in the form of a nut-shell. They are called "nut-shell mica spectacles," and have given great satisfaction in the fire departments of Upper Silesia, as well as in a factory of artificial fertilisers in Magdeburg, where it is important that the eyes or the workmen ehould be protected from the contact of injurious vapors produced by the action of chemicals. Some firms have expressed a desire, that the brass frames, should be made large enough to protect the sides of the eyes from flying chips, and that openings should be provided in the upper and lower parts of the mounting, so that the evaporation of the moisture of the eye might take place freely. Experiments made in Verescoe and Upper Hungary have shown that mica spectacles are useful to icon peddlers; but they have to be frequently changed during such work, as the mica laminates, and becomes opaque in a very short time. Each workman, therefore, has two pairs of spectacles, and uses them alternately, his work lasting from three to five hours. Cohn at first considered it an advantage that his spectacless were very light, but an establishment in Prussia complained that their men, accustomed to dealing with hundredweights, could not habituate themselves to these light spectacles. Accordingly large mica-plates were adopted, with very massive mountings, covering the whole orbit of the eye, and provided with s second hinge, that they might be fastened to the ears; and although they were more expensive, these spectables found the readiest sale. Some difficulty wae found in meeting a demand for blue mica apectacles, which came from the directors of the royal railway of Upper Silesia. Mica, being very smooth, does not retain paint, at least without varnish, and lacque colors are easily removed by breathing upon the plate and rubbing it. In order to obviate this difficulty, an experiment was made with a solution of gum arabic or albumen, colored with blue ink, which was apread on one mica-plate and covered with another, soas to be inclosed between two floæ. Such spectacles could be cleaned well enough, but the fine air-bubbles which sometimes occurred in the gum arabic solution were not easily removed. Finally the gum Arabic was abandoned, and in its place was used the commercial blue gelatine, of a color corresponding to No. 4 of the blue cobalt glass. The melting-point of this gelatine is 158° Fahrenheit, a temperature higher than any to which the eye is exposed.

M. Puscher, the well-known chemist in Nuremberg, has lately pointed out some other uses for mica. By cleaning thin lamella with sulphuric acid and then silvering them like glass mirrors, we can obtain a very high and exceedingly beautiful lustre, admirably adapted to inlaid and other ornamental articles. Material for ornaments may also be produced by warming mica-plates, and then exposing them in a muffle to s strong red heat; in a short time, they obtain a dull, silver-white lustre when looked upon from above, and a gray, gauzy appearance if light is transmitted through them. To get this effect, the lamina, must be single, and the heat to which they are subjected must not be too strong nor too long continued, or they will turn yellow and 1ose their lustre. Mica thus made into "mica-silver" loses some of its flexibility. It is superior to the metal, inasmuch as it is not tarnished by sulphur compounds, by the action of the light and air, nor by alkalies and acid. The figures should be cut out before heating. They may be painted over with variously colored varnishes and oil paints. The uses to which they may be applied are almost innumerable. The waste of the mica-silver may also be utilized. When small particles of it are scattered over readily cast foliæ of isinglass or gelatine, and these are brushed over with glue water colored with soot, and then allowed to dry, the result is s good imitation of the appearance of granite. Splendid effects may also be produced by spreading crushed mica-silver over foliæ of colored gelatine or paper. A very fine powder rubbed together with gum arabic is used for silver ink. The finest powder of this mica-glass is sold for nine kretzers, or eight cents a pound.

F. Rotter, in Amberg, manufactures mica-brocades, which are extensively used in the production of wall and marble-paper as well as in calico-printing. These brocades contain no ingredients injurious to health; they are very light, may be produced in every shade, and comport themselves with perfect neutrality toward water, varnish, and sulphurous exhalations. Employed either between or on colored gelatine-plates, they give rise to superb crystallizations, which are used as inlayings for buttons and various other articles. Glass upon which brocade has been fixed by means of damar varnish may be employed as a background for photograph, etagères, signs, and glass closets. It is used also for lamp-stands, boxes, carvings, toys, figures of bronze and plaster of Paris, and very extensively in making artificial flowers. Decorators of theatres and churches employ it for imitating gold, rain, snow, etc. Glass pearls melted with this powder look much more like the genuine. These colors may be applied with a paste consisting of four parts of glue and one of glycerine, or of three parts of starch and one of glycerine, or damar, pale copal, and sandarac varnish. The objects are first coated with one of them pastes, and then the brocade is sifted over them. The surplus is removed shortly after by shaking, and the adhering powder is pressed in; finally, after drying, the color which does not adhere is brushed away.

With regard to the occurrence of mica iee this country, it is found in Acworth, Grafton, and Alstead, in New-Hampshire, in perfectly transparent plates, sometimes exceeding a yard in diameter, (Dana.) It is also met with in St. Lawrence County, New-York, eight miles from Potsdam, in plates seven inches across; and near Warwick, in a vein of feldspar, in plates sometimes a foot in diameter, (Dana,) not to mention a multitude of other places.

9.11.19

Lantdagsbrev.

Wasa-Posten 44, 1.6.1918

Vasa den 1 juni 1918.

Helsingfors den 26 maj.

Under senaste vecka blevo flera särskilda lagförslag av lantdagen behandlade. Ehuru tredje behandlingen återstår kan man dock vara säker på att dessa lagförslag komma att bli slutligt godkända i den form de fått i de två första läsningarna.

Först och främst har den segslitna flaggfrågan blivit löst, och inom kort har värt land lyckliggjorts med en officiell flagga.

Denna fråga har ju haft sina märkliga öden. Redan i höstas uppgjordes av en av regeringen tillsatt kommitté förslag till flagga, vilket gick ut på lejonflaggan som statsflagga samt som handelsflagga en röd duk med gult kors. Dessa färger ha historiska traditioner och ha alltid uppburits av den svenska befolkningen i landet. En sådan flagga med gult kors pä röd duk hade dessutom varit vacker och dekorativ och haft den stora praktiska fördelen att den varit väl synlig till sjöss.

En farhåga, som blivit uttalad, att denna flagga möjligen kunde förväxlas med den danska, om den gula färgen blacknar, har tillbakavisats av fackmän med alt denna färg håller sig bra och att förvecklingar till sjöss icke behöver befaras. Det är sålunda många omständigheter som talar för att vår flagga blivit sådan kommittén föreslog.

Emellertid har den finska befolkningen i landet redan i flera årtionden uppburit de blå-vita färgerna som sina nalionalfärger. Att de skulle släppa dessa färger från den officiella flaggan trots allt som talar för den röd-gula, kunde man ju på förhand betvivla.

Delta visade sig också snart. Då senaten avlät till lantdagen proposition i ärendet, var flaggan ändrad från kommitténs förslag därigenom att längs det gula korset dragits blåvita ränder.

Klart var ju dit, att i flaggan må ste ingå också de blåvita färgerna. Huruvida det skulle vara möjligt att med alla dessa färgkombinationer lyckas få såväl cn vacker som en praktisk flagga var en annan sak.

Att det icke skulle råda brist på förslag fick man snart erfara. Det började formligen hagla sådana i alla möjliga sammanställningar. Om det berodde på alt man blev förbryllad av mängden eller om andra orsaker verkade är svårt all säga, men av alla de förslag till flagga, som framkommo, var ingen tilltalande.

Genom upproret fick flaggfrågan som så mycket annat lämnas vilande. Då densamma nu ånyo upptogs märkte man genast, att svårigheterna med de mänga färgerna voro undanrödjade. Den finska majoriteten i grundlagsulskollet utmönstrade nu ulan vidare den röda färgen såsom varande revolutionsfärg, och i ett buj beslöts av denna majoritet att i flaggan skulle ingå endast de blå-vita färgerna sålunda, alt duken skulle vara vit med blått kors.

Det hjälpte icke huru mycket som än invändes frän sjömanuahåll häremot, ehuru man tycker att åsikterna pä detta håll just i denna fråga hade bort vinna något beaktande.

Skräcken för den röda färgen vid flaggfrågans behandling har verkat så överdriven, att man nödgas be fara, al densamma icke varit uägon verklighet, utan en lämplig före vändning för att få den blå-vita flaggan till stånd.

Att de svenska lantdagsmännen höllo pä de gul-röda färgerna var ju klart, men del var lika klart att något avseende icke skulle fästas härvid. Man uppfordrades endast att ställa sig lojal till den flagga, som av lantdagens beslutas.

Det är att hoppas på lojalitet, men med den utgång flaggfrågan nu fått kommer att råda mycket och berättigat missnöje.

*

Lagen angående rätt åt senaten att utfärda interimistiska stadganden till upprätthållande av den allmänna ordningen och säkerheten hör även till de ärenden, som under senaste vecka behandlades.

Enligt den i andra läsningen god kända lagen bemyndigas regeringen att i antytt avseende utfärda nödiga stadganden 1) beträffande inskränkningar i rätten alt utgiva tryckalster, i förenings och församlingsfriheten ävensom i rättigheten att fritt vistas å viss ort samt 2) angående utvidgad rätt att verkställa kvarstad, husundersökning och häktning. Straff lör överträdelser mot de bestämmelser, som sålunda komma alt utfärdas, fir böter eller fängelse icke utöver eli är. Giltigheten av denna lag vafar till 11 juni 1919.

De förhållanden, som nu råda, göra del nödigt att senaten tilldelas sådana befogenheter. Man behöver bara tänka sig följderna att den socialistiska pressen omedelbart skulle få utkomma i samma hetsande ton som förut och agitationsmöten mot den lagliga ordningen utan vidare skulle få avhållas. Del var därför alldeles naturligt att lantdagen skulle godkänna lagen.

Men då det gäller undantagsstadganden, som beröra dyrbara med borgerliga rättigheter, borde dock en viss varsamhet förekomma. På grund av abnorma förhållanden på livsmedlens område har folket redan varit nödsakat avstå från många i lag tillförsäkrade rättigheter. Sedan denna lag nu ytterligare tillkommer, kan det icke vara så alltför många medborgerliga rättigheter som återstå.

Man vill icke tro, att senaten kommer att begagna sig av dessa befogenter längre än vad nödigt är för ordningens återställande, men å andra sidan kan man icke inse, varför giltighetstiden utsiräckes så långt framåt som ett helt år. Lantdagen kommer helt säkert att sammanträda i höst och omöjligt vore del därför icke att åstadkomma särskilda lagar, i vilka hithörande förhållande bleve reglerade, varför liden hade kunnat förkortas till detta års utgång. I värsta fall skulle det icke helle vara omöjligt alt i höst förlänga giltighetstiden, om förhållandena sådant kräva, liksom man nu är tvungen förfara med livsmedellagen. Emellertid kommer undantagslagen nu att gälla till 1 juni 1019.

- G. G.

8.11.19

Tulenkestävillä väreillä tehtyjä kokeiluja.

Vakuutussanomia 10, 1915

N. s. tulenkestäviä värejä esiintyy kaupassa erilaisia, ja viivyttävät ja vaikeuttavat ne puuaineen syttymistä ja palamista. Tämmöisiin väreihin voidaan käyttää esim. punamultaa tai kalkkia, johon sekotetaan vesilasia, kromia, kuparivihtrilliä j. n. e.

"Ruotsalainen tuliväri" nimistä väriaineesta, jolla on tehty kokeita, kertoo Gjallarhornet:

Neljä koirankopin kokoista pienoispuutaloa oli rakennettu Johanneksen paloaseman pihalle Tukholmassa; yksi niistä oli maalaamattomasta puusta, toinen oli maalattu punasella värillä, kolmas oli kahteen kertaan, neljäs kolmeen kertaan maalattu tulivärillä.

Yhtä paljon puita pantiin kunkin rakennuksen alle, valettiin fotogenilla ja sytytettiin. Minuutin kuluttua oli maalaamaton talo täydessä liekissä ja toisen minuutin kuluttua oli se läpeensä palanut. Punaiseksi maalattu vastusti tulen syttymistä muutamaa minuuttia kauvemmin, mutta tuhoutui ennen pitkää kokonaan. Tuliväri osoittautui kuitenkin sangen vastustuskykyiseksi. Kun koe 22 minuutin kuluttua katkaistiin ja valkea sammutettiin olivat kummatkin majat yhä vielä pystyssä vaikka tuli toisin paikoin oli polttanut seinät puhki. Väri oli suojannut puuta niin hyvin, että tuli ainoastaan liitteistä, raoista ja oksien kohdalta oli tunkeutunut läpi.

Tuliväriä voinee senvuoksi oikein käytettynä suositella muuten niin tulenvaaraallisten ullakkojen puuosien maalaamiseen. Hinta on tosin kalliimpi kuin öljyvärin, mutta sen korvannevat hyvin värin tulta vastaan suojaavat ominaisuudet.

7.11.19

The Manufacture and Uses of Nitric Acid.

The Manufacturer and Builder 2, 1881

Next to sulphuric acid in the extent and importance of its applications in the arts and manufacturea, we may solely place nitric acid — the aqua fortis of the early chemists. This acid is manufactured on a commercial scale in enormous quantities, and of late years almost exclusively from the socalled Chilian saltpeter — a nitrate of soda — by decomposing this salt with sulphuric acid. By this treatment the nitric acid is set free, and is collected by condensation in vessels provided for the purpose. The vast expansion that the the chemical industries have attained, have mode the deposits of soda niter that occur abundantly in Chili and Peru, enormously valuable, as this material is the cheapest source of nitric acid that has yet been discovered, in consequeues of which the exportation of the product to Europe and to this country has become one of the leading industries of those countries.

We illustrate on the opposite page the method of manufacturing this important chemical product in one of the leading chemical manufactories of the United States (that of Martin Kalbfleisch's Sons, whose works are located in Brooklyn, N. Y.; Bayonne, N. J.; anti Buffalo, N. Y.)




For the manufacture of nitric mid, a series of cast-iron vessels are provided, suitably mounted over furnace, so that they may be heated. This construction is shown in Fig. 1. Them vessels are charged with a quantity of the before mentioned Chilian saltpeter, to which is then added an equal weight of strong sulphuric acid. The chambers are then closed and the fires started. The sulphuric acid speedily attacks the niter, dispincing the nitric acid, which is liberated in the form of vapor, and forming a bisulphate of soda as the product of the decomposition.

From the rear of each oven a clay-lined pipe projects, which conducts the vapors of nitric acid, all they are given off, into a set of stoneware or glass receivers, the latter being connected with each other by means of earthenware or glass tubes. The acid condensed in the receivers nearest to the ovens is highly concentrated. That which is condensed in the others is weaker, because, in order to condense all the acid given off, some water is introduced into the following ones; the product condensed in these is, therefore, more dilute than that obtained in the others.




Sometimes, instead of the iron vessels above named, the manufacturers employ a series of glass retorts, placed upon a sand-bath, heated by a fire below, as shown in Fig. 2 of our illustrations. The subsequent, operation of condensation in a series of connected vessels, however, remains the same as above described. The proportion of materials employed to produce the best results should be 17 parts of nitrate of soda to 14¼ parts of strong sulphuric acid.

The nitric acid obtained in the above operation, properly conducted, is a colorless, transpsrent liquid, having a specific gravity of 1.55 (water = 1), and boiling at 176° Fahrenheit. When diluted with water the boiling point is higher. An acid containing 100 parts dry acid and 10 parts water boils at 264.2° Fah., but if the dilution with water is continued further, the boiling point is again lowered, consequently when such acid is heated above 212° Fah., the first product of the distillation is water, containing only a trace of acid; and if the process be continued, the boiling-point gradually rises until it reaches about 264° F., at which point,what is known to the trade as double aqua fortis, passesover, which has a specific gravity of from 1.35 to 1.45, while ordinary, or single aqua fortis, has a gravity of 1.19 to 1.25. In contact with the air, nitric acid gives off fumes, owing absorption of moisture from the atmosphere.

The strongest acid made in the process here described is usually of a yellow color, owing to the presence of lower oxides of nitrogen (byponitric acid). To get rid of this, the acid is bleached by exposing it for a time, in suitable glass vessels, on the water-bath to a temperature from 176° to 194° Fah., where it is left until colored fumes cease to be given off, and the acid remaining in the vessels is colorless. If the acid is required to be very pure, the first products coming over are collected in a separate vessel. This will contain most of the hydrochloric acid which may be given off, if the nitrate employed contains chlorides, which it usually does in small quantities. In the bleaching process above described, most of the hydrochloric acid is removed from the acid product as chlorine. To still further purify the product, it is necessary to remove the small quantities of sulphuric acid carried over mechanically from the still. This is effected by distilling the nitric acid over pure nitrate of baryta, while the last traces of hydrochloric acid are removed by distillation over pure nitrate of silver. These last operations are only performed when it is desired to have the nitric acid chemically pure for analytical purposes, but are not carried out in commercial productions.

The residual product remaining in the chambers, or retorts, is a sulphate of soda, used be for the production of fuming sulphuric acid by subjecting it to a red heat, and condensing the acid fumes given off; or it is mixed with common salt and ignited, when muriatic (hydra chloric) acid is evolved, which is collected, and a neutral sulphate of soda remains behind, which can be utilised for the manufacture of soda by the common method, or for other purposes. The uses of nitric acid are extensive, and important both in the laboratory and in the arts and manufactures. Its usefulness is derived from the property which it possesses of yielding very freely a notable proportion of its oxygen to substances having an affinity for the same, a property which renders it one of the most energetic of oxidizing agents. On this account, as well at because of its cheapness, its use for oxidising purposes in the laboratory is very extensive.

We append below a list of the more important technical uses of nitric acid: Its property of energetically dissolving many of the common metals, renders it useful in etching steel, copper, bronze and the like. In the manufacture of sulphuric acid, it is introduced for the purpose of effecting the oxidation of the sulphurous acid given off in the burning of sulphur, or the roasting of pyrites, to sulphuric acid. It has the property of yielding, with certain organic substances, what are called nitro-compounds, which are of great value in the arts. So, for example, nitro-cellulose (gun-cotton), nitro-glycerine, nitro-benzole, nitro-mannite, and a number of analogous products are formed. Owing to its powerful oxidizing action, it acts powerfully upon coloring matters, and on this account has some important applications in dyeing. By prolonged treatment with nitric acid, starch, cellulose (wood fiber), and sugar are converted into oxalic acid; very dilute acid converts starch onto dextrine. The fact that it will not attack gold, while energetically dissolving nearly all the other metals, has long been taken advantage of in the erts, in assaying and metallurgy, to separate gold from silver and base metals.

Nitric acid is employed in the chemical industries in greet quantities in the manufacture of an immense number of chemical products, in addition to those we have already named. Of these, some of the more important are, the preparation of picric acid from carbolic acid, naphthaline yellow from naphthaline; the manufacture of nitro-benzole, nitro-talual, and phthalic acid; the preparation of nitrate of silver (lunar caustic), arsenic acid, fulminate of mercury, and, generally speaking, of the salts known as nitrates.

From the above, it will be seen that nitric acid is one one of the most important chemical agents employed in the arts and manufactures.