Dictionarium polygraphicum. Emerald (colours)

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
To make a paste for an oriental emerald.
It is shewn elsewhere under the article GLASS of LEAD. The way of tinging crystal and glas of lead of a very fair Emerald colour, or to make a stone that shall imitate a true natural gem, which may be us'd in rings or otherwise.

There are divers sorts of Emeralds, but at present they are all distinguish'd into oriental and occidental; the oriental ones are the harder of the two, and the occidental less so.

To imitate them there are several ways as follows:

Take two ounces of natural Crystal prepar'd as directed, and four ounces of common minium or red lead, powdered and searc'd, and forty-eight grains of verdegrease well pounded and of a good colour, with eight grains of crocus martis prepar’d with vinegar. See the article CRYSTAL.

Mix the whole well together, and put it into a good crucible that will resist the fire, leaving an inch of it empty.

Then cover the crucible with an earthen cover, lute it well, Het it be dried, and then put it into the hottest place of a potter's furnace, where they bake their earthen vessels, and let it stand as long as their pots.

When it is grown cold, break the crucible, and you will find within a matter of the colour of a very fine Emerald; which if set in gold, will surpass in beauty the true oriental Emerald.

If it happens that your matter is not enough refined and purified, you must set it in again the second time into the same furnace, where it will be purified as much as it need to be; which may be known by lifting up the cover, if the matter appears shining.

If it is not so, lute the cover on again, and put the whole into the furnace.

You may observe this once for all, that you must not break the crucible, before the matter is thoroughly bak'd and purisy’d; for if you do, and so are oblig'd to put the matter into another crucible, the paste will be painted and full of blisters.

If you cannot easily have the conveniency of using a potter's furnace, you may make one your self with a little charge, wherein you may put twenty crucibles at once, each of different colours; so one baking may serve for a great deal of matter.

You must make use of hard wood to dry and heat the furnace, as is also directed in the baking of glass, and continue the fire twenty-four hours, in which time the matters ought to be bak'd and purified enough; but for more surety, you may continue the fire six hours longer, and they will be certainly bak’d enough.

The matter being thus rightly bak’d, you may have it polish'd at the wheel, and set it in a foil in gold, as is done with true gems, and you will have an emerald brighter than the oriental.

Another deeper EMERALD colour.
That which makes Emerald deeper than the precedent, proceeds stom the smaller quantity of crystal employ'd in it, with more of the other materials, which make it indeed more fair; but at the same time more brittle.
You must bake it at least fix hours longer than the preceding, to take away that imperfection, which lead usually gives.
The dose of this paste is, one ounce of natural crystal prepared, six ounces and a half of red-lead, seventy-five grains of verdegrease, ten grains of crocus martis made with vinegar; the whole pulveriz'd and well mixt together. Then proceed as directed in the article preceding; only let the matter stand lon ger in the fire, and you will have an admirable oriental Emerald colour, which being set in gold with a foil of the same metal underneath, will be inexpressibly fair.

Another way to make a fairer paste for EMERALDS.
This paste will be as brittle as the preceding for the reasons before given; for you must take seven ounces of minium, to two ounces of natural crystal prepar'd; to which add full eighteen grains of verdegrease, ten grains of crocus martis; the whole pulveriz'd and well mix’d.
Then proceed as directed before, and you will have an Emerald fit for all small works; but not so hard as the former, by reason of the great quantity of lead in it. Therefore it ought to be kept longer in the fire, that the pale colour of the lead may vanish.

Another fairer paste for EMERALDS.
The colour of this paste will surpass the others in beauty, if there be care taken in the operation.
Take two ounces of natural crystal prepar’d, six ounces of minium in powder, and eight grains of verdegrease also in powder; mix the whole well together; then put them into a large crucible, cover'd and well luted, and set it in the furnace as before directed, and do all as directed in the first article, and you will have an extraordinary fair Emerald colour.

Another very fair EMERALD colour.
This stone will be far harder and finer than the preceding.
To make it, take four ounces of natural crystal prepar’d, a quarter of an ounce of red-lead, and the same quantity of verdegrease; pulverize the whole, and sift it fine; put them together into a crucible well clos'd and luted in the furnace, as before directed, letting it stand there for thirty-six hours.
After which, if you will, you may cast your melted matter into a marble mould heated, putting it near the fire to cool gently, and you will have a very fine Emerald.

Another way of making a fair EMERALD.
Take two ounces of crystal, add to it forty-eight grains of crocus martis, and two ounces and forty-eight grains of pure salt of tartar prepar'd; the whole reduc’d into fine powder in a brass mortar; put these into a crucible covered with another, lute them well together; then set it into a glass-house fire, and bake it for twenty-four hours, and then in the annealing furnace for twelve hours, that the matter may cool by little and little, which then take out of the crucible, and you may cut and polish, and you will have a perfect Emerald.

Another oriental EMERALD.
Take ten ounces of the prepar'd matter call'd saturnus glorificatus, (which see in letter s) and natural crystal half an ounce, half an ounce of prepar’d verdegrease, half a dram of feretto of Spain also prepar'd: reduce all into fine powder; mix them well together; put them into a crucible covered with another; lute it, and let it dry; then set it in a glass-house furnace for three days, and afterwards in the annealing furnace for twelve hours. Then break the crucible, and you'll find the matter ting'd of a very fine oriental Emerald colour, which cut and polish.

To make glas of lead of a fair EMERALD colour.
The easiness of tinging glass of lead of any colour is the reason of giving it an excellent Emerald green, especially because green is also natural to it.
Take twenty pounds of crystal fritt powdered and searced, and fixteen pounds of calx of lead also sisted; mix them well together; then put them by little and little into a pot heated in a furnace, and in eight or ten hours time it will be melted; then cast the melted matter into water, and earefully take the remaining lees from it; then put the matter after it is dry’d in the same pot again, and in seven or eight hours time it will be melted again.
Repeat this of casting the melted matter into the water, and feparating the lead that sticks to the pot, as before; then this glass will be cleansed and purified from all the foulness and unctuosity the calx and powder would leave in it, and be very resplendent.
You must put it again into the pot, where it will melt and purify again in a little time.
When it is melted, put to it six ounces of scales of copper thrice calcin'd in powder, with twenty-four grains of crocus martis, made with vinegar, also in powder, and mix them together.
This powder must be cast in at six times, always mixing the glass well, and taking at each time an interval of time, as long as while you may repeat over the creed: let it rest for one hour, and then stir it again, and examine if the colour be to your mind; if it be, let it stand eight hours, that the whole may well incorporate.
Then stir it well, and let it rest a little, that the feces may precipitate to the bottom of the pot; then it may be wrought, and the colour can scarce be distinguished from true Emerald.

Another way of making a fairer EMERALD.
For this colour, which will be far fairer than the former, you must change one ingredient in the foregoing, and instead of scales of copper thrice calcin'd, put the same dose of caput mortuum of vitriolum veneris prepar’d; then proceed exactly as before directed and you will have a very excellent green.

To make a green EMERALD colour in glass.
Take common glass well purified from its salt without manganese; put it into a pot in the furnace, and when it is well melted and purified, add to it (as for example) to the proportion of an ounce and half of crocus martis, calcin'd with vinegar to fifty pounds of glass. Mix well the glass at the same time to make it incorporate with the crocus; then let it stand an hour, that it may thoroughly take the colour.
This way nothing will come out yellowish, and it will loose that foulness and blueness, which the common metal always has, and it will become green.
Then add to the same dose fifty pounds of glass, one pound of scales of copper thrice calin'd, and put it in at six divers times, mixing it well each time with the glass, and let it stand two hours to imbibe the tincture.
After the two hours are expir’d, stir it again, and see if it be as you would have it; if the colour be too blue, you must add to it some crocus martis prepar’d, and you will have a very fine Emerald colour.

Another EMERALD green fairer than the preceding.
The more pure the matter is, the finer the work will be that is made with it.

Take crystal fritt without manganese, which has been twice wash’d in water, to take out all the salt, and put it in a pot in the furnace; then add to it half the quantity of common white metal, also without manganese.

These two matters being well melted, mix’d and purified, put to fity pound of metal, a pound and a quarter of powder of copper plates thrice calcin'd, prepar'd with one ounce of crocus martis calcin’d and reverberated with sulphur.

After you have mix’d them well together, then put in those powders at six different times, stirring well the matter each time, observing what has been said in the preceding.

You may make the colour lighter or deeper as you please, adding crocus martis, if it be too blue; and calcin'd powder of Venus, if it be not enough so, and so you will have from this a Burnet green.

Another wonderful green.
Altho' this colour is admirable, yet it is only made of common glass made with pulverine, and without manganese.
This being well melted and purified, you must put in equal parts of powder of scales of copper thrice calcin'd, and scales of iron which fall from the smith's forge or anvil, without any other preparation than well washing them, to cleanse them from ashes and coals that mingle with them; afterwards dry them well, and pound them as fine as you can, and searce them. These scales serve instead of cracus martis.
You must observe the doses and way of proceeding, as has been before directed as to Emerald colours.
These scales of iron will give an admirable green; and they will drive out all the dull, natural green, which is in common glass, and make it become yellowish, or will give it a yellow green, very bright and fair.

Another oriental EMERALD green, finer than the rest.
Put four pounds of common fritt of pulverine, five pounds of common white glass pulveriz'd, five pounds of crystal fritt well wash'd; add to these three pounds of minium, mix them all together, and in a little time they will be pretty well purified.
Afterwards cast all that metal into water to purify it more, taking care that no part of the lead sink to the bottom of the pot wherein it is cast, for it will break it, if speedy care be not taken to take up again what is precipitated.
This glass being thus wash'd and afterwards dry'd, ought to be put into the pot again, to be melted and purified for the space of a day; then you must add to it a little of the caput mortuum of vitriol of Venus, without corrosive, (see VITRIOL) with a little crocus martis, stirring the metal, and proceeding, as has been shewn in the preceding process.
Then you will have an admirable oriental Emerald green, which may be wrought as you please.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Elemi, Elemy.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
As gum Elemi is a pellucid resin of a whitish colour, intermixt with yellowish particles, which give it much the colour and consistence of wax.

It is call'd gum Elemi, but improperly, inasmuch as it takes fire readily enough, and dissolves in liquors of an oily quality, which are the characters of rosin.

It flows from incisions made in the trunk, and large branches of a kind of olive-tree, growing in Ethiopia and Arabia Felix. It is also found in the Pouille, a province of the kingdom of Naples.

Pomet and Lemery in their treatise of drugs, describe Elemi as a white rosin, bordering on green, odoriferous, and brought from Ethiopia, in cakes of two or three pounds a piece, wrapp'd up in the leaves of the Indian cane.

The true gum Elemi is that above describ'd; but there are several spurious ones, some natural, and others factitious, fre quently sold for the same.

The factitious or counterfeit is made of rosin, wash’d with oil of aspic; tho’ the ill-smell and white colour might easily discover the deceit. The natural gums vended for Elemi are,

1. A gum brought from the American islands in barrels of divers weights, cover'd up with the leaves of a plant unknown in Europe.

2. The next might be taken for rosin, but for its smell, which, is something sweeter, and more aromatick.

3. Another is of an ash colour, bordering on brown, brought over in large pieces, very dry and friable.

Pomet does not take any of them for natural; but rather supposes them to be originally Elemi, only impure and coarse, since melted down and made up by fire.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Dust. Brass dust. Silver dust. Gold dust. Tin dust or powder. Copper dust.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
This is commonly call'd gold dust; the best (which comes from Germany) is that which is the brightest and most gold like colour, which is to be perceiv'd by taking a little of it between your finger and thumb, and rubbing them together; if it be good, it will be of a bright, rich, golden lustre; if bad, will be of a dull, clayish colour.
The coarser sort works well, with gold size; but not with gum-water. It is of different prices, according to the goodness; the best is worth twelve or fourteen shillings the ounce, when at the same time some other sorts are not worth above four or five shillings the ounce. The middle sort, which is worth eight or nine shillings the ounce, will work well.

Silver DUST.

The best of this comes from beyond sea, having a lively bright lustre, like that of polish'd, or new coined silver, which is to be perceiv'd by rubbing it between your finger and thumb; whereas the worser sort (which is made in England) is dull, dead, and heavy, more fit for a colour than a metal. The difference is easily perceived by comparing them together.
The best is worth sixteen shillings the ounce; the other counterfeit is not valuable.

Green GOLD DUST is an adulterated or mixt metal, casting a kind of dead, greenish colour, and is worth about six shillings the ounce.
This, as also the following, are us'd in garments, flowers, houses, and the like, making the work more beautiful and sur prizing.

Sullied or dirty coloured GOLD DUST is also a kind of adulterated metal, bearing some resemblance to drossy gold. The price is six shillings the ounce, and is us'd for the same occasions as the former.

Tin DUST or POWDER is made of block tin ground to powder, and is of a dull, dark, but silverish colour; it is us’d in rocks, &c. and is sold for six shillings an ounce.

Natural copper DUST is made of copper ground, without mixture to dust. This is of the true natural colour of copper, and is sold for six or seven shillings the ounce.

Artificial copper DUST.
This exceeds the natural, and is more deep or red; but very clear, and of a bright shining colour, and shews how far art can out-do nature. It is sold for about ten shillings the ounce.

Adulterated copper DUST is of a thick, heavy, dull, metal lick colour, and commonly us’d to work other metals on; for being laid as a ground, you may hatch or heighten with bright gold, or other shining metal, and is sold for about six shillings an Ounce.


Dictionarium Polygraphicum. Containing. Polygraphick Dictionary. C. Ceruss. Chromatick. Copal.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum: Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested. Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV. 1735
CERUSS a preparation of lead, commonly call'd white lead, and by the chymists calx of lead.
Cerus, is made of very thin laminæ or plates of lead, so laid as to receive and imbibe the fumes of vinegar, plac'd in a vessel over a moderate fire.
The laminæ, or plates, are by means hereof converted into a white rust, which is gathered together; and being ground up with water, is formed into little cakes.
Cerus, makes a beautiful white colour, and is much us’d by painters both in oil and water colours.
The best ceruss is that of Venice, but this is rare; that which is chiefly us'd, is either English or Dutch; both of which have more marl in them than white lead; the latter however is the better of the two.

CHROMATICK [in painting] a term used to fignify the colouring, which makes the third part of the art of painting.

COPAL. A gum of an agreeable smell, resembling that of incense brought from New-spain, where it oozes out from in cisions made in the bark of a large tree, much after the manner in which the vine yields its water, when cut in the spring. 'Tis very rare, when good, 'tis of a fine transparent yellow and melts easily. For want of this, there is another kind brought from the An tilles, which is almost the only one known among the druggists. Its chief consumption is in making varnish.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Crocus martis, Crocus ferri.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
Crocus martis, Crocus ferri for colouring of glass. Of this there are several ways of preparing, some more simple, and others more extraordinary and curious, both with and without liquors or menstruums; the effects of which are different both in tinging of glass and other uses to which it is put.

CROCUS MARTIS, made without menstruums, depends on a very fine calcination of the iron, by means of which, the tincture that is extracted gives a very fine red to glass, and so communicates it self to it, that it not only manifests it self, but makes all other metalline colours (which ordinarily are hidden and dead in glass) appear fair and resplendent.

As to the way of menstruums, it may be said, that all acid and corrosive juices which operate on copper, will also do the same on iron; so that you will always have a red colour, more or less bright, and which may be mixt with tinctures of other metals to make other different colours.

The first way of making Crocus Martis is as follows.
Take very fine filings of iron, or those of steel which are better, mix them in a crucible, with three parts of powdered brimstome, laid layer upon layer; calcine them for four hours by a very strong fire, till the sulphur is consum'd; then take the crucible out of the fire, and let the matter cool; then grind it to a very fine powder, and searce it through a very fine sieve; then put that powder into a crucible, and lute it well, and set it into the mouth of a reverberatory furnace for the space of fifteen days or more; and of the jà colour it was before, it will become a very deep red, almost like a purple. Keep it in a very close vessel for the use of glass colours; it will work many wonderful effects.

Another way of making CROCUS MARTIS for colouring of glas.
Though this way of making Crocus Martis be very easy, yet it deserves to be esteem’d, since it tinges glass of the true blood red colour. It is prepar'd as follows.
Take filings of iron, or (which is better) steel, put them into earthen pans with strong vinegar; mix them well, but only sprinkling them so much, that they may be thoroughly wet; spread them abroad in the pans, and set them in the sun to dry, or if the sun be obscur'd by clouds, set them in the open air; then powder them, and sprinkle them again with vinegar, and dry them again as before; then powder them again, repeating this operation eight times; at the last, grind and searce them well, and you will have a very fine powder of the colour of beaten brick, which keep in close vessels for use.
This Crocus Martis thus made with vinegar, complies very much with greens and the emerald colour of glass of lead. It is us'd also in pastes for the same colour with verdigrease, and in blacks.

Another CROCUS MARTIS with aqua fortis.
Put fine filings of iron or steel into well glaz'd earthen pans, sprinkle them with aqua fortis, and set them to dry in the sun, and then reduce them again into powder, and repeat this process several times, as in that made with vinegar; and when it has obtain’d a good red colour as before, powder it, searce, and keep it in a glass vessel close stopp'd for use.
By this the red colour of iron is made more manifest in glass, and is so very resplendent and bright, that it seems almost incredible, but that experience has shewn it.

A CROCUS MARTIS with aqua regalis.
Dissolve filings of iron or steel in a glass body well covered in aqua regalis, that is, in aqua fortis made aqua regalis with sal armoniac. See aqua regalis.
Keep them so for three days, stirring them every day well, during which you may add fresh filings by little and little; in doing which you must be very cautious, for it riseth so much by fermentation in the aqua regalis, that it will endanger the breaking the glass or running over.
After three days, set the cucurbit on a gentle fire, that all the water may evaporate, till it leaves the Crocus behind dry, and it will be admirable for tinging glass, and perhaps the best of all; because in the former you cannot find such diversities of colours as in this.

Another method of making CROCUS MARTIS.
Though this is an easy method, it will make a Crocus of no less beauty and vertue than the former.
Take filings of iron or sleel without any rust, let them stand in a reverberatory furnace with a very strong fire; the heat being at least to the fourth degree, till it becomes of the colour of purple.
Then take it out of the fire, and let it stand by to cool, and then put it into a vessel full of water, and stir it briskly about, and then presently pour off the water into another vessel, which you may also repeat.
Thus there will remain in the first vessel the iron that is not calcin'd, which, if you please, you may put again into a reverberatory furnace.
In the second vessel there will be the Crocus, which set over a gentle fire to evaporate the water.
But you must not decant off the water, tho' it does appear clear, after it has settled to the bottom; yet the water contains the most subtle parts of it imperceptibly suspended in it. Having well evaporated the water, you will have a very red powder, very fine and extraordinary, which keep for use.

Another way of making CROCUS MARTIS.
This last way will be of some use to those who shall desire to have the iron or steel granulated, or in little drops, the metal whereof is difficult to melt.
Take a bar of either of the metals of five or six pounds weight, heat it as hot as is possible in a smith's forge, so that it may sparkle when it comes out of the fire.
At the same time some other person must have a long stick of brimstone ready, and large too, which will be best for this operation, which immediately upon the metals coming out of the fire, they must be thrust one against the other over a great earthen pan full of warm water, into which the metal will drop in small drops or granuli, melting like wax when touch'd by the sulphur.
When this has been done, lay them layer by layer in a crucible with powdered brimstone, and then set them in a reverberatory fire, where they will be reduc’d to a red powder, which grind and scarce and keep for use.

The method of making CROCUS VENERIS.
Take as much ÆS USTUM as you please, add to it its weight of green verdegrease, and as much sal armoniac fix’d and sufil; pound the whole well together, and dry them over the fire in a large iron shovel; then into the shovel pour lee of urine, and make the whole boil till, the lee be intirely consum’d; then put on more of the same lee, boil it again till the lee be consum’d as before, and repeat this a third time.
Then pound or grind this mixture, and put it into a reverberatory that it may calcine well; then pound it again till 'tis reduc’d to an impalpable powder, and put it into an earthen glaz'd pot; pour upon the same lee of urine, wherein you dissolve it, viz. to each pound of lee put four ounces of sal armoniac fix’d and fusile.
Then boil the whole over a gentle fire in ashes for the space of a quarter of an hour; then decant off that lee into some proper vessel, for that will contain the tincture of the acs usium, and of the green, which it has extracted.
Then put more lee upon the matter, and boil it a quarter of an hour more over the same fire; then decant off that lee to the former: continue thus to water it with fresh lee, and decant it off to the former, as long as it will extract any lee from the matter.
Then take all these tinctured lees, and filter them through whited brown paper; then evaporate three quarters over a gentle fire.
Put the remainder into an alembick, with the helm (or head) on, and the receiver, and distil it till it be dry; then will you find at the bottom of the alembick, a Crocus Veneris of a very wonderful virtue for colouring glass, &c.

Another easier way of making CROCUS VENERIS.
Take very thin plates of copper, put them into an earthen pot with common salt, layer upon layer; put this pot on the furnace, where let it stand till the matter be very red; then put the plates with the salt into cold water, and wash them well to take away all blackness.
Repeat the laying of these plates with common salt, calcining them at the fire, and washing them as before, as often as you please. After the last time, pour warm water on that, wherein the plates have been extinguish'd, and let it stand for some time; then empty it, and you will find at the bottom of the vessel a Crocus Veneris as red as blood. Wash it well several times to cleanse it, and dry it well with a linen cloth, and keep it for use for colouring glass.
There are some who content themselves with taking as usium, prepared with sulphur and common salt, heating it red hot in the fire nine times, and quenching it as often in linseed oil; and then dry it and powder it.

Another easy way of making CROCUS VENERIS.
Take of copper simply calcin'd (see COPPER to calcine) one part, of sulphur vivium eight parts; powder them well, and mix them together in a large crucible; set it into a coal fire in a little furnace, stirring the matter continually with an iron rod, till the sulphur be consum’d; repeat this operation five or six times, then cast it thus refin’d into an iron pan of boiling water; stir it often with a stick, while the calx descends to the bottom; then the water being settled and clear, evaporate it to three fourths, to extract the crystals; or rather evaporate the whole, and you will find at the bottom of the vessel a Crocus Veneris very fine and red.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. [To dye] Crimson.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
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To dye cloth, stuff, &c. a brasile crimson.
First dye it as you do flesh colour, but it must be deepened, then pour into the copper fresh spring water, adding lye of pot-ashes, and lye made with calcin'd tartar; stir them well together, and let the cloth soak in it two hours, stirring it about every quarter of an hour, and it will be of a very good Crimson; but if the cloth doth not take the dye kindly you must add more of the lye.

To dye a very good CRIMSON.
Allow half an ounce of cochineal to every pound of wool, half a quartern of oatmeal or wheaten-bran, having first dissolv’d it eight days in water, that it may become sour, and when you go about dying, pour the bran-water into the kettle, and then (the cochineal having been dissolv’d the night before in warm water) make a good fire under the kettle to heat the liquor, and put it into it by little and little, till there is no more of the solution left, stirring it about all the while; and when it begins to boil, add a proportional quantity of lye, and pass the cloth through it three times; or throw half a quartern of wine lees or ashes into the warm suds, and pass the goods through it till they have taken the dye sufficiently.

Another CRIMSON.
Let the stuffs be allum'd as usual, and having heated a sufficient quantity of fair water, and for every pound of stuff or wool, take of cochineal and tartar, each an ounce and half, the former being, as before, first sufficiently dissolv’d, boil these together; put in the goods that you would dye, and keep stirring them about for an hour and a half, then cool and rinse them out.

An extraordinary good CRIMSON.
Take two ounces of fine white wine tartar, beaten very fine, and two ounces of the best alum for every pound of woollen ware, and also half a pail full of clean rain water for each pound, boil them together with the ware for an hour, stir it about and then hang it out; let it dry and rinse it very well in clean water.
Then heat clean rain water in a copper, take out a pailful, and put into it one ounce of cochineal, pounded to an impalpable powder, dissolve it a little and pour it into the kettle again, taking care to rinse the cochineal very well out of the pail; then having reduc’d one ounce and a half of tartar, and a dram of red arsenick also into powder, stir them well together and put them into the copper; then put in the stuff, after them, and a quarter of an hour after, add two ladles full of wheaten-bran, keeping stirring them continually; boil them for a quarter of an hour; then take out the stuffs and rinse them.
But you must take notice, that when you put in bran, you must also put in a spoonful of burnt wine lees, which will give the stuffs an extraordinary lustre.

A purple CRIMSON.
First dye the ware a light blue, still remembring that the lighter the blue is, the finer the purple will be.
Then with an ounce and half of cochineal, and an ounce and half of tartar, work it as other Crimson, and it will be a very beautiful colour; and the lustre will become remarkably brighter and clearer by adding a little bran-dye.

A lavender CRIMSON.
Having first dyed the stuff of a tawny faint blue, rinse it clean, and throw the suds into the purple suds, after they have been us'd in dying. These suds being of very little value, and otherwise useless, produce a good lavender dye at a cheap rate. See LAVENDER.

For a CRIMSON colour in painting use carmine, but it is necessary that the buyer be inform'd, that there are several sorts of it, some darker and some much coarser than others, and therefore it should rever be bought by candle light, unless of such in whom one can confide; for between the best and the worst there is ten shillings an ounce difference; nay, indeed all the money an ounce will cost, because that which is bad will spoil the work.

Of a transparent CRIMSON.
A liquid colour not much in serior to carmine itself, may be made of the raspings of brasile wood, sold at the dry-salters, and at some colour shops.
To make this transparent Crimson colour, boil an ounce of the raspings of brasile wood in twelve ounces of pale stale beer and a little allum, till the colour of the liquor is as strong as you please; which you may discover by dipping into it a slip of white paper, and when this colour is as you would have it, and ’tis cold, pass it through a linen cloth, and put the clear liquor into a bottle for use.
And if you have a mind to bring this colour to a body, take ox blood and dry it, till it can be reduc’d to a powder, which being mixt with it will give a colour, which will not be much inferior to a middling sort of carmine. Some say, that the blood of an ox or cow dry'd, will make a good body for any colour.

Todennäköisesti tämä on mykerösavikka, Chenopodium capitatum = Blitum capitatum, joka tunnetaan myös nimellä Indian paint, Indian ink, Strawberry spinach, blite goosefoot; tai marjasavikka Blitum virgatum, joka myös on tunnettu mansikkapinaattina.A CRIMSON colour from Mr. Boyle.
Take the fruit of the berry bearing spinach, which every gardiner about London knows, press them, and you will have a beautiful, red-colour'd juice from them; boil this and put about a fourth part of allum to it, when you pour it into the vessel where it is to cool, and it will make as fine a colour as any others that are noted, and for a small expence; for it will grow any where, and in one bunch of the fruit, there are seeds enough to sow two or three roods of ground.

The red beet-root bak'd with a little strong vinegar produces an elegant red colour, equal to a tincture of carmine, then pour it on allum, and it is fit for use, where carmine should be us'd in washing of prints: For it is a fine transparent red.

A CRIMSON colour for washing prints, &c.
Put thirty or forty grains of cochineal bruis'd into a gally-pot, and as many drops of tartar-lye [see it under the articles tartar or lye] as will just wet it, and make it give forth its colour; and immediately add to it half a spoonful of water, or more if the colour be yet too deep, and you will have a delicate purple liquor or tincture.
Then take a bit of allum, and with a knife scrape very finely a very little of it into the tincture, and this will take away the purple colour, and make it a delicate Crimson.
Strain this through a fine cloth into a clean gally-pot, and use it as sooh as you can, for this is a colour that always looks most noble, when soon hade use of, but will decay if it stand long.

To dye a common or slight CRIMSON.
For one pound of woollen, take 2 ounces of allum, 2 ounces of white wine tartar, one ounce of aqua fortis temper'd with half an ounce of English tin, a pound of madder, a quarter of a pound of blue wood. Boil the stuffs well in this liquor, then let them cool and rinse them out.
To finish the dye. Put into the liquor a quarter of a pound of blue wood, three ounces of pot-ashes, and stir the stuffs very briskly in it. This dye looks very well and may serve for flight stuffs, and such as are design'd for linings, and that are kept from sweat, wet and weather; but it quickly fades.

To dye a very fine CRIMSON.
For sixteen pound of woollen stuffs, boil twelve gallons of water or rather more, to which put in fixteen handfuls of wheaten-bran; let it stand a night to settle, stirring it very well, and in the morning pour off the clear liquor or rather strain it, that it may be perfectly clear.
Mix one half of this liquor with as much clean water, that the stuffs or wool may be work'd commodiously in it.
Boll this mixt liquër and put into it one pound of allum, and half a pound of tartar; first boil these very well, and then put in the goods, and boil them for two hours, keeping them stirring (especially if they be wool) from top to bottom continually.
To finish it. Boil the remainder of the bran and water, with an equal quantity or rather more fair water, and when it boils apace, put in four ounces of cochineal, and two ounces of pure white wine tartar powder'd; stirring it about, and taking care that it neither runs over or boils too fast, and when it is very well boil'd, put in your ware, and stir it about till you find that it has taken the dye equally every where, then cool and rinse it out.

To dye a natural or lively CRIMSON.
First wet the goods well, and for every pound of stuff to make the suds, use two ounces and a half of temper'd aqua fortis, and three ounces and half of tartar, an ounce and a half of cochineal, and eight ounces of allum; boil the ware with all these for half an hour, let them cool and rinse them out.
To finish the dye. Boil four ounces of cochineal, three ounces of starch, three ounces of white wine tartar, and half an ounce of white arsenick together for a quarter of an hour; then put in the goods, and let them boil for above half an hour, or till they have taken the dye well and equally.

To dye SILK of a CRIMSON.
The silk having been prepar'd as before directed, allow an ounce and half of cochineal to every pound of silk, pound it to powder, and pass it through a hair sieve, then put it into the remaining pail of liquor last mentioned, hang it over the fire again; then with the liquor put it into a brass kettle, and cover it very close that no dust may get in, and hang it over the fire again, and add to it an ounce and a half of white arsenick, and two ounces and a half of tartar, both reduc’d to a fine powder; boil them together for a quarter of an hour; then take it off the fire, and let it stand a very little while, and then put in the silk, stirring it about very well, that the colour may not be variegated when the liquor is cold; then wring out the silk, and if it is not ting'd enough, hang the dye over the fire again, and after the silk has been beaten, put it in again as before.
When the silk is dyed, you must in the first place rinse it out in hot suds, made by putting half a pound of Venice soap, in proportion to every pound of silk, let it be dissolv’d in it, and afterwards put the silk into cold river water; then beat it upon a block and hang it to dry, then spread it abroad, wound and manag'd according to custom, it will be a very beautiful Crimson.
If you would dye Crimson from a violet ground, you may al ways abate one third part of the quantity of the ingredients; that is a pound of silk so grounded will not require above an ounce - of cochineal, as much of arsenick, and two ounces of tartar.

Another cochineal CRIMSON dye.
When the silk has been well boil'd and prepar'd as before directed, take half a pound of crude allum to every pound of raw silk, and when it is dissolv’d, put the silk into the liquor, and let it steep for the space of a night; the - next morning rinse it out very well; and then dye it as follows.
Into a kettle of fair water put in two ounces and a half of cochineal finely powdered for every pound of silk, and three ounces 3 of pounded galls, and three ounces of purified gum, one eighth a part of an ounce of turmerick, and in this liquor boil the silk for two hours; after which, let it remain in it a whole night, and the next morning rinse it and dry it.

To dye SILK a dove CRIMSON.
The silk having been allumed, (as above directed) clean rinsed, and hung upon poles, take a kettle, scour it very clean, fill it with water, and to each pound of silk, put an ounce of cochineal, stir the silk in the liquor, and boil them for an hour, then rinse the silk out, wring it and dry it.
You must take special care that the silk is not party-colour'd or of different colours, by taking the colours better in one place than in another; and for that reason, it must be put in when the liquor is no more than lukewarm.

A slighter sort of dove CRIMSON.
To every pound of silk take four ounces of brasile, boil and strain it as before, then pour cold water to it, till it becomes just lukewarm, then stir the silk in it, till it has extracted the strength out of the dye or liquor, which you may then throw away; and again, put French water, and then a little pot-ashes to it, thus let it dislolve, stir the silk in it, rinse and dry it.

Fill a clean kettle with fair water, and allow three quarters of a pound of Orseille to every pound of silk, stir the silk about in it and wring it out; then add a quarter of a pound of allum, and a handful of white arsenick to every pound of silk.
Let the silk lie in this liquor a whole night, the next morning wring it out carefully and dry it, afterwards take two ounces of cochineal, two ounces of galls, and two ounces of gums, and a little turmerick to every pound of silk; put in the silk and boil it for two hours; then put in a little Zepsie, let the silk lie in it all night, and the next morning rinse it and dry it according to art.

To dye silk a CRIMSON Musk colour.
Fill a clean kettle half full of water, and for every pound of silk, take a quarter of a pound of yellow wood; tye it up in a bag, put it into the kettle, and boil it very well; add to every pound of silk one ounce of blue wood, and boil them together; then put in one pound of galls, and fill up the kettle with stale gall water; then put in the silk, being first allumed and cleansed; stir it about very well, and let it lie in the dye all night, the next morning wring it out, rinse it and beat it, and then rinse it again in warm water and scheiet; and when you find the dye deep enough, cool it, wring it out, rinse it, beat it and hang it up to dry.

Put clean rain water into a very clean kettle, then put four ounces of pot-ashes, and four ounces of orleans, strain them through a sieve into the kettle, and dissolve them very well, then the boil'd and allumed silk (being first well rins'd from the allum) must be stirr'd about in it and boil'd, then wrung out and rins'd and beaten; then to every pound of silk, take twelve ounces of galls, which boil two hours, and then let them cool for two hours, and afterwards lay the silk to soak in it for three or four hours; after which take it out, wring, rinse, beat and dry it.

To dye SILK an Isabella CRIMSON.
Prepare the silk, rinse and beat it very well, then stir it about in the same liquor in which the orange colour is dyed, and so you will have a fine Isabella Crimson.
Then rinse, wring and beat it well, and lay it in the gall suds, which the orange has before been in for three or four hours; and afterwards rinse and dry it very well.
If you have no orange suds, take for every pound of silk one ounce of orleans, half an ounce of pot-ashes, and dye it therein like the orange, then gall it, rinse and dry it.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Of the making of crayons for dry colouring.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
The use of Crayons for dry colours is so necessary in taking of views and prospects, and there are so few Crayons that are good of the sort, that I think the way of making them a necessary article to be known to every one, who is a lover of drawing and painting.


As for white we have no occasion of any other, than that of white soft chalk, which should be saw'd into lengths of an inch and half or two inches, [There are little saws made on purpose for such uses about four inches long and very thin.] When you have sawed out your Crayons of chalk, which should be at most a quarter of an inch thick, round off the corners with a penknife, and point them by drawing your penknife upwards from the place where the point is to be. You ought to have a dozen or two of these to lie in a little case by themselves, or they will be discolour'd by the other colours.


Yellows come next, which should be divided into four or five degrees of colour.

1st Yellow.
Take some grounds of starch and flower of brimstone, mix them well with a knife upon a polish'd marble, so that they produce the colour of straw, or a yellow as will shew itself faintly; then pour a little milk to them, or a little pale ale-wort, till the colour become like a paste; then spread the paste on a smooth piece of chalk, with a broad knife till it is about the third part of an inch thick, and let it lye till 'tis half dry; then with a sharp knife cut it in lengths of an inch and a half, about the fourth part of an inch wide, and roll it thin between two little pieces of board, till they are round like a straw, and point them as I have directed for the chalk. If you please you may use ground chalk instead of grounds of starch.

2d yellow.
It is made of yellow oker, ground well with fair water, and then dried and beat. Mix this with ground chalk, in such quantity as it will be a little deeper than the former colour, and mix them up with pale ale-wort, in which a little white sugar-candy may be dissolv’d; and make these Crayons as the former.

3d yellow.
Grind yellow oker with water, with a stone and muller, and when 'tis dry, beat it very fine, and make it into Pastils or Crayons, with pale ale-wort, or size made with glover's leather, boil'd in water ’till it comes to a jelly; use it as before directed, and roll the Pastils between two boards.

4th yellow.
Take English pink, grind it as the former with water, and when 'tis dry beat it fine, and mix it with a very little ground chalk, till 'tis deeper than the former colour; then put to it some wort of pale ale, and stir all well together, and make it into Pastils or Crayons, by rolling in the foregoing manner.

5th yellow.
English pink is to be ground as the former, and to be made in Pastils or Crayons, by itself with pale ale-wort.

6th Yellow.
Dutch pink is to be us'd as the former, and mixt with pale ale-wort, or milk, and to be roll'd and dried.

7th Yellow.
Orpiment is one of the most poisonous colours that can be us'd; however it is one of the most beautiful sort, and is next to orange-colour. This must have a little ground chalk, mixt with it, well temper'd together, and made up with pale ale-wort, with a little gum-dragon dissolv’d in it; and roll them up into Pastils, as you did the former.


1st Orange-Colour.
Take yellow orpiment, mixt it with pale ale-wort, and when it is in paste, roll it, and make it into Pastels or Crayons.

2d Orange-Colour.
Take orpiment and red-lead, (let the red lead be very finely ground in water, and dried) then mix a little of this with your orpiment, till you have the colour you desire; and putting in it some ale-wort, wherein some gum dra gon has been dissolv’d, make into a paste, and roll it into Pastils or Crayons.

3d. Orange-Colour.
Take English pink, grind it well, and put to it as much vermilion as will make it of the colour you desire; mix these up with ale-wort, that has been boil'd till 'tis more glutinous than ordinary, and make it into Pastils or Crayons as before.

4th Orange-Colour.
Take English pink finely ground, and put to it as much red-lead, well ground, as will make it agree able to your design, mix these well with ale-wort boil'd to a thickness, and make them into Crayons.

5th Orange-Colour.
Take some Dutch pink, well ground, and mix it with some red-lead finely powdered, to the colour you want; then with ale-wort or milk make it into a paste, and make it into Pastils as before.

Note, In the mixture of these colours, observe, that they have as many different shades as possible.


1st Red.
Take red-lead, grind it well with water, then dry it and beat it to a fine powder, and put to it some chalk or white-lead finely ground to brighten it; mix this with ale-wort, wherein a little gum-dragon has been boil'd, make it into a paste, and roll it into Crayons. Of this your Pastils should be made some deeper, others paler.

2d Red.
Take red-lead, and grind it well with a marble and muller, make it into a paste with ale-wort, in which gum dragon has been boil’d.

3d Red.
Red-oker wants no preparation, but sawing as directed for chalk, in the first article.

4th Red.
Take vermilion, ground fine, and mix it with some fine chalk, or white-lead, well pulveriz'd; divide the com position into three parts, and by adding more of the white to one than another, you may make three different colours; then put ale-wort boil'd thick to each, and make them severally into paste, and then into Pastils.

5th Red.
Take vermilion, grind it well, and mix it with ale-wort, that has been boil'd to a thickness with gum-dragon, till it is a paste, then roll it into Crayons or Pastils.

6th Red.
Take some good lake, well ground with water upon a marble, and when 'tis well dried and powdered, divide it into three parcels, and mix with each as much chalk or white-lead ground fine, as will make them of different colours,work them severally into paste; then roll them into Pastill or Crayons.

7th Red.
Take fine lake, and reduce it to as fine a powder as you can with water, and when 'tis dry, and again finely powdered, mix it with ale-wort, and make it into a paste, and roll it into Crayons.

8th Red.
Take Indian red well ground with water, and dry it like the other colours; then mix it with ale-wort that has been boil'd to a thickness with gum-dragon. This alone will be a very strong colour; but to make it of different shades, you must mix it with white, each parcel so as to be shades to one another; then make 'em severally into Pastils.

9th Red.
Take rose-pink, and cut it into the shape of Crayons, without any preparation. Carmine is too dear for them; for twelve penny-worth would make but a small Crayon.


1st Purple.
Take rose-pink finely ground and powdered, mix it well with a little sanders blue, till the powder appears of the colour you desire; then make it into a paste with ale-wort, thickned with gum-dragon, and roll it into Crayons.

2d Purple.
Take lake finely ground and wash'd, add to it as much blue bice as you think convenient to make it of a reddish purple, and you should vary this in two or three manners, each lighter than the other; in the lighter sorts, put a sufficient quantity of chalk or white-lead ground fine, and mix them up with ale-wort boil'd to a thickness with gum-dragon; then roll them into pastils.

3d Purple.
Take some lake well ground, and to it add as much Prussian blue as will make it of the colour you intend; mix those well together in different parcels, making some more inclining to red than the others; and to make the faintest purple of them, add some chalk ground at your discretion, and make 'em severally into paste with ale-wort thickned by boiling; then into Pastils as before directed.


1st Blue.
Blue bice is the lightest blue colour used, and must be well ground with fair water on a fine marble, and when it is dry, reduce it again to a powder; then lay it in four parcels, and put to three of them, in different proportions, some chalk or white-lead ground, so that, when mixt, each may be lighter than the other; mix these separately with ale-wort, thickened with scraps of glover's leather; and when they are made in a paste to your mind, make them into pastils, and the fourth part of the blue bice must be made up by it self in the same manner.

2d Blue.
Take verditer well ground on a fine marble, lay it in four parcels, and mix one of them purely with a thin size, made of white glovers shreds and ale-wort; and the other three parts mix with several proportions of chalk or white-lead well ground, so as to make shades to one another; make these into paste with ale-wort, thickned with gum-dragon, and then into Crayons.

3d Blue.
Take some Prussian blue well ground, and lay it in four parcels on your marble, and with three of them mix some chalk or white-lead well ground to make them of different degrees of colour, and the fourth must be alone. Make the three mixt colours into paste with pale ale-wort boil'd till it thickens; and the plain colour must be made into a paste with some ale-wort boil'd, and thicken'd with white shavings of leather from the glovers. Make all these into Pastils.

4th Blue.
Take rock indigo well ground with water on a marble, dry it and powder it again; then divide it into parcels as before, and with two or three parts of them, mix different proportions of ground-chalk or white-lead ground, to make them deeper or paler; and one part must be the simple colour. Put to the mixt colours some ale-wort thickened with boiling, and mix them to pastes; then make them into pastils.

As for the plain indigo, mix it with ale-wort thickened by boiling with glover's shreds of white leather, then make it into Crayons.


1st Black.
The black that is commonly used as a Crayon, is charcoal cut into lengths; the softest and best is that made of willow. Have at least a dozen or two of these, for black and white are a great deal more used than any other colour.

2d Black.
Take ivory black ground very fine with com mon water, add to it a very little ground indigo; for a bluish cast will enliven the black, and help that deadness, which a plain black always carries with it.


1st Brown.
Take for a light brown some fuller's earth, grind it well with water, and mix with it some ground chalk or white lead, to make it in different colours, that is lighter or darker, as you think proper; mix this up with pale ale-wort boil'd thick, and have at least four sorts of it.

2d Brown.
Take some Spanish brown ground very well, and mix with it some fuller's-earth, to make it lighter, for the Spanish brown is a dark colour of itself; and when you have made this mixture, you may put to some part of it a little chalk or white-lead ground in different proportions, to have them of different shades: These are for the lighter browns, and mix them severally in pastes with a light size of fish glue, or isinglass and water, and some of them with pale ale-wort boil'd thin, or thick water-gruel boil'd with gum-dragon; then make them into Crayons.

3d Brown.
Take Spanish brown ground fine, and some Indian red; mix them well together, and to them put some pale ale-wort, till they become a paste. You may make some of them lighter with chalk, or white-lead ground; then roll them into Pastils.


1st Green.
Take some verdegrease, and boil it in sharp vinegar, and when it boils, add a little tartar powdered, which will so dissolve the verdegrease, that the liquor will be of a fine colour; then set the liquor in little gallipots expos'd to the air, which will dry the colour, and then it will dissolve in common water. This may be taken with as much warm ale-wort as will cover it, and will dissolve the green; then make it into Pastils, with ground white chalk, as much as you think fit.

2d Green.
Take distill'd verdegrease ground with vinegar on a marble, wash it well with water; the manner of which is, to throw the verdegrease into water, and in half a minute to pour off the water into a cup, and let it settle; then pour the water from it, and wash it again in the same way; and when this is dry, make it into Pastils with ale-wort.

3d Green.
Take verdegrease prepar'd as before, finely powdered, and mix it with a little Prussian blue in several proportions. In the lightest sorts, put a little white, or the brightest yellow well ground, to make varieties of colour; mix all these with pale ale-wort boil'd to a thickness.

4th Green.
Take Indigo well ground, and some English pink; mix these well together upon a marble, and when they are well powdered, make them into a paste, and roll them up with a foft size and oil into the shape of crayons, or with pale ale-wort or thick water-gruel; but when you use water-gruel, it must be strain’d and boil'd with some gum-dragon.

5th Green.
Take blue bice ground fine, add to it some Dutch pink well ground; mix them in parcels, and prepare them in shades to one another; then make them into pastes, and roll them into Passils. You may have five or six sorts of these.

Note, The liquid you use to make them into Pastils, must be ale-wort boil'd a little thick.

6th Green.
Take rock indigo ground very fine with water on a marble, and when 'tis dry, beat it fine again; then divide it into parcels on the marble, and to some of them put a little flower of brimstone in greater or lesser quantities; to others flower of brimstone and Dutch pink mixt, so that you may have variety of colours. When you have thus made the different shades you intend, then make them into pastes with ale-wort thickened by boiling with white glover's shreds of leather, or a little gum-dragon; and roll them into Crayons.

7th Green.
Grind rock indigo with water, and put to it in several parcels, as much Dutch pink as you think fit, to make your greens of various shades; when these are well mixt, put to them some ale-wort thickened by boiling, with which make them into pastes; then roll them into Pastels.

Note, The reason why these Pastils are better than those in common which are bought at shops, is because they are generally made too stiff with gums, and so will hardly touch the paper; and all these will work freely, and express the several colours you desire.

The reason why you are to make five or six shades of each colour is, because we cannot mix any when we use them; whereas in oil-painting, and painting in water-colours, we can make what mixtures we please in an instant: And when we are about any painting or drawing in Crayons, which happens to have a great variety of colours in it, we ought to have every sort of colour that can be thought on.

Note, These colours should be kept in a box partition'd, every sort by it self, viz.

The White.

Yellows. Lay the brightest sorts in one, and the deeper sorts in another, till you come to the orange-colours.

Orange-Colours. The lighter sorts in one apartment, and the deeper in another.

Reds. The paler sorts, or flesh colours, in one apartment, the brighter reds in another, the stronger reds in another, and the deepest reds in another; every one with its proper shades, till we come towards purple.

Purples. The paler sorts inclining to red in one apartment; the next sorts, more inclining to blue, in another, with their shades; and those which are next to blue with their shades, in a part by themselves.

Blues should follow the purples; put the lightest in the first apartment, the next degree into another, a third into another, and the fourth to the last into others: But the Prussian blue keep quite by itself, and its mixtures by themselves; it serves very well in this way to supply the place of ultramarine, and it is much cheaper, for a Crayon made of ultramarine would cost not less than half a guinea. And besides in this way of Crayon drawing, the preparation of Prussian blue does very well answer the same end, though that colour will not do in water-colours, nor even last in oil-colours, if it comes to be exposed to the weather, for in either case it changes to a dirty yellow-colour; but I find the Crayons hold, by being imbodied as I have directed.

Greens should be divided into three or four sorts, and, with their shades, be laid in several apartments.

Browns should also be put in three or four parcels, with their proper shades, to be laid in each apartment of one great box. And you should never be without Crayons of charcoal in another ease.

With all these you will be compleately furnished; and when you go out to take any view, have one of every sort in a little box, divided as the foregoing, to carry in your pocket.

The Paper which you should use on this occasion, should be Venice rough paper, almost like our whited brown paper, or even the whited brown paper sold at every chandler's shop; the stiffer it is, the better; that which they call cap-paper is the best, as you will find by exprerience, for upon such the colours easily distribute themselves. And by this means you may take figures in their proper colours as you see them, for you may match the colours as they appear with the Crayons you have by you; and, as the Crayons are dry, they will not alter their colour, whereas the wetted colours will appear deeper when they are wet, than when they are dry, which will deceive the eye of a young beginner.

Instructions for the use of CRAYONs.

Remember when you use these Crayons, that you point them from the bottom upwards, and make not the points too sharp, except in the white chalk, the red oker, and the charcoal.

You may make a pretty drawing on blue paper, with only chalk and charcoal; the strong lights and the dark shades make a fine contrast, and a pleasant appearance in a drawing.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. To make crayons or pastils of which there are different methods.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
Some direct to take plaister of Paris or alabafter calcin'd, and of the colour of which you intend to make your Crayons a sufficient quantity; to grind them first asunder, and then together, and with a little water to make them into paste; then to roll them with your hand upon the grinding stone into long pieces like black lead pencils, and then to dry them mode rately in the air; which when they are to be us'd, are to be scrap'd or shav'd to a point like a common pencil.

Thus Crayons may be made of what colour you please, fitting them for the faces of men, women, landscapes, clouds, sun-beams, buildings and shadows.

Another way.
Take tobacco-pipe clay, and temper it with a little water with what colour you please, making several according to the heights of colours you would make use of, which mix with the said tobacco-pipe clay, so much as the clay will bear, work all well together, form them into Crayons, and set them to dry for use.

The manner of laying the ground Flesh-Colour for a face to be wrought upon with CRAYONs.
The best way, says Mr. Brown, is to colour the paper that you intend to draw on with a carnation or flesh-colour, near the complexion of the party you intend to draw after; and to cover the whole paper with the same complexion, which is made of ceruss, meny and a little yellow-oker ground with a little gum arabick.
When you prepare them make a good parcel of various complexions together, it being not worth while to make one at a time.
You are to lay on this ground colour with a wet spunge, but let the colour be so bound with gum, that it will not stir from the paper by rubbing with your finger on it.
When this ground is dry, then sketch or draw the first rough draught with coal, that being as you would have it, draw over the same lines again more perfectly with red-chalk, then with your several Crayons you are to rub in your colours first, then with your fingers you are to sweeten and mix them together, scumbling them one into another after the manner of the oi painters.

And because many times the Crayons will not sharpen to so good a point as black or red chalk, you must be extremely careful to close and finish all your work at last with red and black chalk, which you may sharpen at your pleasure.

Hans Holben, painter to King Henry VIII. drew in Crayons the pictures of most of the English nobility both Lords and Ladies; and these were the patterns whereby he painted his pictures in oil.

There is another ordinary way of drawing in Crayons on blue paper, the ground colours are to be rubb’d in first with a pencil, and afterwards with a stubbed pencil or your finger.

And if you please you may work upon parchment exceeding neat and curious. In this manner, says our author, I have seen little pieces extremely well done by the hand of that great master Hen. Goltzius (the faces were about the bigness of a Jacobus) and also some done by the same hand in Crayons, which at a small distance you would have taken for limning.

Some he drew upon the rough side of velum, and some on the smooth side of parchment, being rubb'd in with small stubbed pencils, and finish’d with sharp pointed red or black chalk.

His Crayons were about the length of a finger, and about the thickness of a goose quill.

Mr. Brown says, he has observ'd, that CRAYONs or dry colours are wrought in several manners or ways.

The first is that of Valyant, whose manner was to place several heaps of colours in powder upon white paper, of several temperatures, according to the object he drew after, whether the life or painting.

His out-lines being first drawn, he made use of several rolls of white paper, roll’d up very hard and close, about the length of a pencil stick'us'd in limning, and some of them about the thickness of the same, bigger or lesser according as his work requir’d with which he rubb’d in the several colours. And that his work is reasonably neat, and had a pretty good force.

And that some of the French masters have a manner, which differs but in two things from the former.

Instead of the rolls of paper they make use of stubbed pencils, some of which are stuff'd with cotton, and others with bombast, and instead of placing the colours on paper, they put them into small boxes.

But he rather esteems the way of drawing with a Crayon about the length of a finger, compos'd of several colours and mixtures, ground together of a good consistence and stiffness, and roll’d up and dried.

That though they us'd formerly to temper them with milk, beer or ale, and some have anciently made use of stale size to bind the colours together, yet he approves not of any of these; for either they bind the colours so hard that you cannot draw at all with them, or else they are so brittle or loose that you can not sharpen them to a point.

Another way.
Grind your colours very fine upon a marble, sift them through a tiffany sieve; then take a piece of tobacco pipe clay, and lay it on the grinding-stone, and temper it and your colours together with strong ale-wort.
Great care must be taken not to make them too wet, but of an even temper like moist clay, so that you may roll them up with your hand upon a stone.
Then lay them on a piece of paper, and set them to dry in an oven after the bread has been drawn out, or else you may dry them on a fire-shovel by degrees, till they are of a due hardness, which you may know by trying them on a piece of paper; and if they cast, they are not dry enough, and if so you must dry them longer, till they will not cast; then take a feather and some sallet oil, and oil them lightly over, and then lay them by to dry again; till they have thoroughly imbib'd the oil, which will render then excellent, and work free and easy.

Mr. Brown tells us, that he has taken yellow-oker burnt, and roll'd it up into a Crayon, and dried it with a moderate heat, and when it was thoroughly dry, he made it very warm, and then dipp'd it into linseed oil, and being thoroughly soak'd, he drew with it, and rubbing it with his finger, it would not rub out, nor any part of it stir, and he believes all the rest of the colours may be made to have the same quality; and adds, he doubts not but the German masters and others of the low Dutch had that art, he having by him drawings in Crayons of Goltzius and others, which were extremely neat, and would not rub out, being strong and like oil painting.

He recommends the following as the best manner of making Crayons.

First temper as many Crayons as there are varieties and changes of colourings in flesh, or faces, or draperies, or landscapes, &c. making them deeper or lighter as you please, as

If you were to make a Crayon for a brown glowing complexion, grind upon your stone ceruss; and vermilion, English oker and a little pink, you need not be over curious to grind them extremely fine, but reasonably to bruise and mix them well together; to this add a proportionable quantity of plaister of Paris burnt, and finely sifted through a fine tiffany sive; then mix that and incorporate it with all the colours indifferently thick and stiff like moist clay; and then take it from the stone and roll it up in a lump, out of which lump you may make your Crayons, by rolling with the palm of your hand upon the stone a small quantity of it, as much as will make a Crayon the length of a finger, and about the thickness of a goose quill; then lay it in the sun to dry or the wind, but not by the fire.

In this manner, and with this mixture of plaister of Paris, with all the other colours and shadows in general, you will make them of a gentle quality and bind the colours together, and make them hold a sharpening to a fine point which otherwise would be too loose and brittle. The colour most difficult to work in this kind is crimson, if you make use of lake, which you may avoid and make use of rosset.

Another way to make a crimson Crayon to prevent it from being brittle or hard, you may temper it with a lighter mixture, which will make it more soft and gentle.

Be sure to mix ceruss, with all the other colours and shadows whatever.

The temperatures for greens are made of pink and bice, and masticot and smalt, and masticot and indigo, with which colours you may make them lighter or deeper as you please, remembring that where you are to temper firm colours, as umber, oker, indigo, &c. you are to take the less plaister of Paris; and where the colours are loose there bind them stronger and faster, by adding more plaister of Paris.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Copperas, coperas.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
A mineral form'd in copper mines, and which is properly a kind of vitriol.

Copperas is purified and prepar'd in the same manner as alum and salt petre, by passing thro' several lixiviums till it be wholly reduc’d to crystal.

There is Copperas of England, of Pisa, Germany, Cyprus, Hungary and Italy; which only differ from each other in colour and perfection, being all the same mineral.

White Copperas is the Copperas of Germany, calcin'd, laid in water, then filtrated and reduc’d to salt; of which as it coagulates, they form cakes of forty or fifty pounds each. Such are those brought from Goslelar in Germany.

The saxon Copperas, before it is whiten'd, is of a bluish green, clear and transparent.

The English Copperas is of a fine green; that of Cyprus and Hungary of a sky blue, in pieces cut like the point of a diamond; that of Pisa and Italy is likewise green, and the last is as transparent as glass.

Copperas is of considerable use in many preparations; but especially in dying. The hatters also use it in their dye, and this and galls are the ingredients that compose writing ink.

The ordinary English Copperas is made of a kind of stones found on the sea shore in Essex, Hampshire, and so westward, ordinarily call'd gold stones, from the colour; they abound with much iron.
To prepare the Copperas from them, they are laid in heaps or beds under ground. In process of time, they swell and ferment, and by degrees a humour distils out, which drawn into a cistern, and being afterwards boil'd, in the boiling shoots into those crystals we see it in.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Copper Green.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
To make this, take a pound of right French verdegrease made at Montpelier, that being the best, because the verdegrease made at any other place will fade.

To this add three ounces of cream of tartar; let them be both reduc’d to a very fine powder; but be sure to take care to stop your nose while the verdegrease is pounding, and hold a bunch of fine linen in your mouth, to breathe through; or otherwise the subtil powder of the verdegrease will offend you.

When this is done, mix both the powders in two quarts of water, and boil them in an earthen pipkin to the consumption of one half; then set it by till it is cold; then strain it, and put the liquor into a glass bottle; stop it up, and let it stand to settle till the liquor be very clear, and so you will have a delicate green water for washing prints, &c.

But the verdegrease not being always of a goodness, some times the colour may not prove so deep as you would have it for some uses.

To remedy this, put some of it into a broad earthen dish, and set it over a chafing dish of coals, and by a gentle heat, cause so much of the liquid part to evaporate, till by trying on a paper, and letting of it dry, the colour is as you would have 1t. Here you may note, that if it shine too much when dry, it is not as it ought to be, for it is not rightly made, if it does any more than just shine; and if you cannot make the colour by evaporating it (as before) without making it shine too much, the best way will be to add some more verdegrease, and boil it up again, till it becomes a transparent deep willow green.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Copper.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
COPPER, a hard, dry, heavy, ductile metal, found in mines in several parts of Europe; but most abundantly in Sweden.

Copper is of all metals the most ductile and malleable, after gold and silver.

By an analysis it appears to be compos'd of a sulphur ill digested, a yellowish mercury and a red salt.

It is found both in dust and in stones; each of which are first well wash'd, to separate them from the earth, wherewith they are mixt. In this state ’tis call'd Virgin Copper.

After it has been wash'd, 'tis melted, and the melted matter is run into a kind of moulds, to form large blocks, by some call'd Salmons, and by others Pigs of Copper.

In order to render it more pure and beautiful, they melt it again once or twice; some of its coarse, earthy parts being left each fusion, and a quantity of tin and antimony added in each. In this state it is call'd Rose Copper.

Of a mixture of this and lapis calaminaris is form'd brass.

Copper melted together with twenty two or twenty three pounds of fine tin per quintal makes bell metal.

Copper melted with calamine quantity for quantity makes brass.

Copper and brass melted in equal quantities make what the French call Bronze, us’d for figures, statues, &c.

Copper turns white by an unction of spirit of wine and orpiment.

Pliny says there is a Copper naturally white, found underneath the silver mines.

The use of Copper is very extensive; among other works of Copper may be reckon'd those of brass, bell metal, pot metal, &c. which are all compositions where Copper makes the prevailing ingredient.

To blanch COPPER.
Take arsenick eight ounces, sal-nitre and white tartar, of each two ounces, borax one ounce, reduce them to fine powder, cement the Copper there with, by laying thin plates, layer upon layer, after forty eight hours of a cementing heat, (the crucible being strong, well stopt, cover'd and strongly luted) encrease the fire and cause it to melt all down together.

Another way to do the same.
Take white wine vinegar, strong lye made of wood ashes so strong as to bear an egg, of each four pounds, sulphur and hog's blood of each one pound, powder the sulphur and mix all together, and digest in an earthen pot close covered for eight days, then strain it.
2. Take eight pounds of Copper, melt it and quench it in the aforesaid lye, do this four times, and then will the Copper be in measure prepar’d.
3. Take white arsenick, sheeps suet tied up of each a pound, white lead four ounces, put them all together in a kettle keeping continually stirring them till they boil to a powder which keep for use.
4. Take the Copper before prepar’d, and melt it again a fifth time, to which put a little of your prepar’d powder of arsenick by little and fittle at a time (the Copper being first melted) stirring it with a wooden stick till it is dislolv’d in the metal, then cast it into an ingot.
The former powder will serve for eight pounds of Copper.

Another way.
Take sublim’d arsenick two ounces, common salt two ounces, sublime them together three times, then is it fixed.
2. Take fine silver in filings or leaves half an ounce, mercury sublimate a sufficient quantity, grind them well upon a marble stone, to which add the former prepar'd arsenick with some fixed sal armoniac.
3. Grind them well together with wine vinegar distill'd, in which some borax has been dissolv’d; then let them dry, when they are dry wet them again with the said vinegar, and dry them again upon a soft fire, do so five times.
4. Take fine silver one ounce, and as much of the aforesaid composition, of the prepar’d Copper eight ounces, mix and melt them together, and it will be in appearance next to perfect.

To fix SAL ARMONIAC for this work.
Take sal armoniac sublim'd to a perfect whiteness, put it into a glass alembick with head and receiver, casting upon the sal Armoniac some good distill'd vinegar, so as to cover it a hand's breadth, and distil it with a soft fire.
2. Then put upon it more fresh vinegar and distil again, repeat this till the sal Armoniac remains in the bottom, afterwards let the fire go out of itself, and keep the oil close stopt for use.
3. If you take mercury two ounces, and make it hot in the fire, then drop on it three drops of the oil, and the mercury will be congeal’d into a pure metal; of this one part will make ten parts of Copper, as fair as silver; the ten parts of Copper being first melted and the mercury one part being cast upon it.

Take a strong lye of ashes and quick lime, filter it and dissolve Arsenick with it, then evaporate the humidity by boiling, and the Arsenick will be prepar'd and fixt.

To whiten COPPER or BRASS superficially.
Take sal armoniac, alum, nitre of each alike quantity, put to them a little filings of silver refin'd or leaf silver; mix them well together, and put it into the fire till it be red hot in a crucible, and till it has done smoaking. Then moisten this powder with spittle, and rub either Copper or Bras, with it, and it will be white.

To whiten COPPER or IRON.
Take calx of silver, grind it with two parts of calcin'd precipitate of arsenick, and one part of white precipitate mercury, imbibe them with water made of sal nitre, sal armoniac, and litharge of each equal parts, and this till they have drunk up their weight of the water, put one part of it on four parts of prepar'd Copper or Iron.

Another way to do the same.
Take calcin’d silver, tin calcin'd . and dissolv'd of each a like quantity, mix, dry and cover it with twice as much sublimed arsenick.

Another way.
Take calcin'd silver, arsenick, sulphur sublim'd and ground, sal armoniac of each a like quantity, mix and sub lime all three times, and cast one part upon fix parts of prepar'd Iron or Copper.

Take realgar one ounce, quicksilver sublim'd three ounces, tartar calcin'd one ounce, grind and incorporate them, and put them into a vial with a neck twelve inches long, and its orifice so wide that two fingers may enter; lute it and set it over a fire cover'd with a cloth.
First make a gentle fire for a quarter of an hour; afterwards augment the fire underneath, and round about till the furnace be very hot and red; when all is cold, break the vessel and take out the metalline matter. This may easily be brought to perfection.

Another for the same purpose.
Upon tutia sublime one part of mercury sublimate, and two parts of arsenick sublim’d until it shall have ingress. This clearly and very speciously sublimes Copper.

The way to calcine little plates of COPPER to tinge glass of a blue colour.
We have shewn the way to make crocus martis for colouring glass, and now we will shew that of copper, which is very near in nature to the other, and which dissolves in the same acids and corrosives. Venus as well as Mars (or copper as well as iron) give us different colours, which proceed from different ways of preparing them.

Merret pretends that brass gives us a finer blue than copper, by reason of the lapis calaminaris, which is mixt with it, and partly causes the colour.

Of all metals, Copper is only used (as allay) to give malleability to gold and silver in coin; it melts easy in an indifferent heat, but it is calcined into powder with difficulty. There are several ways of calcining copper; here follows five of them, by help of fire. The first is of Copper alone, without any addi tion; the second, by the addition of sulphur; the third, by vitriol; the fourth, of bras, alone divers ways; the fifth, by a preparation of vitriol of Venus. These preparations are the best; and of more value than those prepared by spirits and corrosives.

The little plates or leaves, whereof we are now to shew the preparation, afe a sort of copper or brass exceeding thin, approaching the colour of gold called festoons; these plates are made of this colour by lapis calaminaris, which does not only colour the Copper, but augments its weight. This brass being well calcin'd, tinges glass of a blue and sea green; the way to calcine it is thus.

To avoid the expence of buying new, you may make use of those leaves which have been already used and work'd, they being good, and cut them with scissars into little pieces, and put them into a crucible covered and luted in the mouth of a furnace to calcine, and let them stand there four days, at a coal fire, so that the leaves may not melt, for then they would be unfit for this use. The four days being expired, the whole will be calcined; beat them on a porphyry stone, and searce them through a fine sieve, and you will have a blackish powder, which you must spread on tiles, and put it into the same furnace for four days longer; then take it off, and blow off the ashes that may be fallen on it; then reduce it again into powder, searcing it through a fine sieve as before, and keep it for use.

You may know when it is well calcined, if the glass rises and swells when you put it upon it; if it does not, you must calcine other leaves, those being not serviceable, by reason they are burnt in the calcination.

Another way of calcining these leaves of COPPER, to make a very transparent red, yellow and chalcedony.
Take the same leaves as before-mentioned, cut them into small pieces, and stratify them with sulphur pulverized in a crucible, covered and luted; then set them on burning coals at the mouth of the oven to calcine for twenty four hours; then take it out, and grind it small; then put it into an earthen vessel in a reverberatory furnace, where leaving it ten hours, take it out and powder it, then keep it for use.

COPPER, to calcine to a red powder, which serves in several processes for colouring glass.
Altho' copper be of the same nature as brass, which serves to colour glass blue, yet there is some difference between them; for the latter will tinge it of several colours, which proceeds from the lapis calaminaris, and some other mixtures in the preparation.
To make this powder, take copper in thin plates, what quantity you please, put it in a large crucible, and set it into a furnace, ’till it be calcin'd, without melting; then being cool’d, reduce it into powder, which will be very red, and searce it; of this divers uses may be made, as will be shewn in many placess.

To calcine COPPER thrice for colouring glass.
The same red powder in the preceding chapter serves here.
Lay that powder on tiles, and calcine it again in the furnace for four days, and it will become black, and coagulated into one mass.
Reduce it to powder and searce it, and calcine it again for five or six days in the same furnace, and it will become grey, without coagulating any more, or running into lumps, and will be in a condition fit to be dissolv’d.
This powder the Italians call ramina di trecotte, and of it is made a sky colour’d blue, the colour of turkois, the green of emerald, and several other colours.
It must not be calcin’d above three times, because it would no longer colour glass.
It may be known whether it be calcin'd well, by casting some of it into a pot of boiling glass; if it swells, it is enough; if not, it must be set again into the furnace for twenty four hours, or rather begin a new process.

An easier and left chargeable way of making thrice calcin'd COPPER.
This, as it is less expensive, will also be almost equal in beauty.
Take scales made by braziers in making pots, kettles, and other works of brass, which is cheaper by far then new copper.
These scales need not be stratified, like the copper before mentioned, which is troublesome; there is no need of any thing but to wash them from all filth, to dry them well, and to put them into one or more crucibles, and to set them into the mouth of a reverberatory furnace for the space of four days. Then being at length cool’d, they are to be pounded or ground and searc’d.
Then the powder is to be set a second time into the same furnace to reverberate for four days more, and you will have little balls of a black colour, which must be pounded and searc'd again, and then put the third time into the reverberatory; then after four other days, reduce them to powder as before.
Thus will it be prepar'd with less expence, and as good for colouring of glass; which may be known very easily, by making a trial of it on melted glass; for if it makes it rise when you cast it on, it is right.

To tinge COPPER of a gold colour.
Take copper and lapis calaminaris, of each eight drams, of tutty four drams. Heat the copper red hot twice, quenching it in urine, doing the like by the lapis and the tutty. Take of the dissolv’d copper an ounce, adding to it two ounces of honey; boil them till the honey look black, and is so dry, that it may be powdered, when beat with the lapis and tutty; then boil them again till the copper is melted, and it is done.

Another way.
Take the gall of a goat and arsenick of each a sufficient quantity, and distil them; then wash the copper, being first made bright in this water, and it will change into the colour of gold.

Another way.
Melt Copper, and put in a little zink in fileings, and the Copper will have a glorious golden colour.

To make COPPER of a white colour.
Take sublimate and sal armoniack of each a like quantity, boil them in vinegar, in which quench the copper, having first been made red hot, and it will be like silver.

Another way.
Heat copper red hot divers times, and quench it in oil of tartar per deliquium, and it will be white.

Another way.
Take arsenick an ounce and a half, mercury sublimate an ounce, of azure half an ounce; mix them with good and pure grease like an ointment, and with this anoint any copper vessel; then put that vessel into another, and set it into a digestive heat, letting it stand for two months; after which, cleanse it with a brush and water, and it is done.

Another way.
Take calcin’d arsenick with salt-petre, and mercury sublimate, which cast upon melted copper, and it wil be white like silver.

To soften COPPER.
Melt burnt brass in a crucible with borax, quench it in linseed oil, and then beat it gently on an anvil; then boil it again, and quench it in oil as before; doing this five or six times till it is soft enough, and this will neat 1y unite with gold, of which you may put in more by half than you can of other brass.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. The use and nature of dry colours.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
1. Blue bice is the most excellent blue next to ultramarine, which is too good to wash withal, and therefore I leave it out here, and put in blue bice, which will very well serve instead of it; and indeed, you may leave out both, and use smalt instead of them, but that it will not work as well as bice. Bice is too good to use upon all occasions, but when you intend to bestow some cost and pains upon a piece; otherwise you may use no other blue in your work than blue verditer, with which you may make a very good shift, without any other blue, I mean in any ordinary work.

2. Indigo is a dark blue which is used principally to shadow with upon your other blue; indigo and yellow berries mixt together make a dark green to shadow other greens in the darkest laces.

3. Blue verditer is a very bright pleasant blue, and the easiest to work with in water; it is somewhat inclining to a green, and being mix’d with yellow berries it makes a good green; this is most used.

4. Verdegreese is a good green, but subject to decay; when it is dry upon the paper, it will be of a lighter colour than it was when you lay’d it first on; therefore, to preserve it from that fault, put some sap-green amongst it to dissolve in it, and it will make it keep its colour. There is distill'd verdigrease to be bought at the colour-shops, that is a far better green than the other, but it is somewhat dearer, and the other will serve instead of it.

5. Verditer-green is a light green, seldom used in anything but in colouring landscapes, and those places that should shew afar off; and it is good for such a purpose, because it is somewhat inclining to a blue; but you may make shift to do any thing well enough without it; for a little blue verditer, mixed with copper green and a little white, make just such another green.

6. Sap Green is a dark, dirty green, and never used but to shadow other greens in the darkest places, or else to lay upon some dark ground behind a picture which requires to be coloured with a dark green; but you may make shift well enough with out this green, for indigo and yellow-berries make just such an other colour.

7. Copper Green is an excellent transparent green, of a shining nature, if it be thickened in the sun, or upon a gentle fire; and it is most used of any green in washing, especially in colouring of the grass, ground, or trees, for it is a most perfect grass green.

8. Vermilion is the perfectest scarlet colour; you need not grind it nor wash it; it is fine enough of it self, only temper it with your finger in a gallipot, or oyster-shell, with gum-water, and it will be ready for use; if you put a little yellow berries amongst it, it will make the brighter colour; this is principally used for garments.

9. Lake is an excellent crimson colour; with it you may shadow vermilion, or your yellow garments in the darkest places; with it you may make a sky colour, being mixed only with white; with it you may make a flesh colour, sometimes mixed together with white and a little red-lead; it is an excellent colour itself, to colour garments or the like.

Indian lake is the best lake, but too good to be used to wash prints with, unless you intend to bestow great curiosity upon your works; but the best sort of ordinary lake will serve well enough for ordinary uses, but that also will be somewhat more costly.
Therefore, instead thereof, you may use red ink thickened upon the fire, and it will serve very well for your purpose, and better than lake, unless it be very good.

Note, if you would make a light sky colour of your red ink, or if you would mix it amongst your flesh colour, you must not thicken it; you should rather chuse to shadow your vermilion with Spanish brown, than thick red ink, which will serve well for that purpose, but is not altogether so bright a colour and clean.

10. Red-lead is the nearest to an orange colour, and putting a little yellow berries into some of it, will make a perfect orange colour; but if you mean to make flesh colour of it, you must put no yellow, but only when you would make an orange colour. This colour is used in colouring of buildings, or high-ways in landscape, being mixed with a little white
Also it is the only bright colour to shadow yellow garments with, to make them shew like changeable taffety. It is good also to colour any light ground in a picture, taking only the thin water of it, and so for several other uses, as you shall see occasion for it.

11. Yellow berries are most used in washing of all other colours; they are bright and transparent, fit for all uses, and will be sufficient, without the use of any other yellow.

12. Saffron is a deep yellow, if you let it stand a pretty while; it is good principally to shadow yellow berries with instead of red-lead, and it is somewhat of a brighter shadow; but you may make shift well enough without this colour, for red-lead and yellow berries make just such another colour.

13. Masticote is a light yellow just like yellow berries and white, and therefore you may make shift well enough without it, only for saving you a labour to mix your yellow berries with white, when you have occasion for a light yellow, which you may sometimes make use of to colour a light ground in a picture, and then shadow it with the water of burnt umber or red-lead, that is the thinnest part of the colour.

14. Ceruss is the best white, if it be good and finely ground, or for want of it, white lead picked; either of these will serve well enough, for either of them being mingled with another colour make it lighter, and the more you put, the lighter they will be.

15. Spanish brown is a dirty brown colour, but of no great use to colour any garment with, unless it be an old man's gown; to shadow vermilion, or to lay upon any dark ground behind a picture, or to shadow yellow berries in the darkest places, when you want lake or thin red ink.

16. It is the best and brightest colour, when it is burnt in the fire till it be red hot; tho' if you would colour any hare, horse, dog, or the like, you must not burn it; but for other uses, it is best when it is burnt; for instance, to colour any wooden post, bodies of trees, or any thing else of wood, or any dark ground in a picture. It is not to be used about any garments, unless you would colour many old mens gowns or caps standing together, because they must not be all of one colour; therefore, for distinction and variety's sake, you may use umber unburnt for some of them.

17. Printer's black is most used, because it is easiest to be had, and serves very well in washing.

Note, You must not put any black amongst your colours to make them dark, for it will make them dirty; neither should you shadow any colour with black, unless it be Spanish brown, when you would colour an old man's gown that requires to be done of a sad colour; for whatsoever is shadowed with black, will look black, and not bright, fair and beautiful.

18. Ivory burnt, or for want of that, bone burnt is the blackest black, and is thus made; take ivory, or for want of it, some white bone, and put it into the fire till it be thoroughly burned; then take it out, and let it cool; slit it, take out the blackest of it in the middle, and grind it for your use.