Dictionarium Polygraphicum. Blue.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
BLUE is one of the primitive colours, otherwise call’d Azure.

Painters Blue is made different, according to the different kinds of painting.

In limning, fresco, and miniature, they use indifferently ultramarine, blue ashes, and smalt; these are their natural Blues, excepting the last, which is partly natural, and partly artificial.

In oil and miniature they also use indigo prepared: see INDIGO. As also a factitious ULTRAMARINE, which see.

Enamellers and painters upon glass have Blues proper to themselves, each preparing them after their own manner.

Turnsole BLUE is a Blue us'd in painting on wood, made of the seed of that plant. The way of preparing it is to boil four ounces of Turnsole in a pint and half of water, in which lime has been slack'd.

Flanders BLUE is a colour bordering on green, and seldom us’d but in landskips.

To write on paper or parchment with BLUE ink.
Grind Blue with honey, then temper it with glair of eggs or gum water made of ising-glass.

BLUEING of metals, is perform'd by heating them in the fire till they assume a Blue colour; particularly practis'd by gilders, who blue their metals before they apply the gold and silver leaf.

To dye skins BLUE.
Boil elder-berries or dwarf-elder, then smear, and wash the skins therewith, and wring them out; then boil the berries as before in a dissolution of alum water, and wet the skins in the same manner once or twice, dry them, and they will be very blue.

Another way to dye skins BLUE.
Steep the best indigo in urine for a day, then boil it with alum, and it will be good; or temper the indigo with red wine, and wash the skins therewith.

The Prussian BLUE.
This Blue is next to ultramarine for beauty, if it be used in oil; tho’ I am not certain whether it will hold so well as the other, confidering it has not the body of ultramarine.
This colour'd does not grind well in water; because there is such an oily quality in it, that it does not mix kindly with water, and at the best will change, as it is now prepared in the common way.
Attempts have been made to make of it a blue ink; which indeed has held the colour for a month or two, but then turn'd to a muddy yellow.
And when you put your pencil with gum water into a shell of this Blue, you will find where the water spreads, the Blue will change yellowish, till the body of the Blue is well stirred up.
And after all that can be done with this colour in water, it will only serve to shade ultramarine with; but in oil it will serve very well for the present to supply the place of ultramarine.

BLUE BICE is a colour of a good brightness next to Prussian Blue, and also a colour of a body, and will flow pretty well in the pencil; especially if it be well wash'd, as is directed to be done of the whites and minium.

Saunders BLUE is also of very good use, and may serve as a shade to ultramarine, or the blue bice, where the shades are not required to be very deep; and is of it self a pleasant Blue, to be laid between the lights and shades of such a flower, as is of a mazarine Blue.

A fine BLUE from Mr. Boyle.
Take the blue leaves of rue, and beat them a little in a stone mortar, with a wooden pestle; then put them in water, juice and all, for fourteen days or more, washing them every day till they are rotten; and at last beat them and the water together, till they become a pulp, and let them dry in the sun.
This will produce as good a Blue as indigo, and be much foster; but in order to keep it a long time, when you beat it the last time, add to it a little powder of gum Arabick; of which you may put more or less, as you would have it more free or tenacious in the working.
This is a fine blue for shading, has a good body, and runs warm in the pencil.

This makes the strongest shade for Blues of any other, and is a soft warm colour, when it has been well ground and wash'd, with gum water, by means of a stone and muller.
It is made of what lightness you please, by putting more m water to it; and by how much there is less, the darker it will be.
Before you use it upon a print, it will be proper to try it upon a Dutch tile, for it runs warmly in the pencil, and so perhaps may otherwise prove too strong for your design, which is always to be taken care of, when a flowing colour is to be laid over a dark shade of a print; which shade will much heighten its blackness, and even make it appear quite black.

This is a beautiful blue and will run in a pen as free as ink. It is made of lacmus, or as some call it Litmus, which may be had at the druggists.
But as this colour is never to be met with prepar’d, I shall here set down the method of preparing it.
Take an ounce of Lacmus, and boil it in about a pint of small beer wort, till the colour is as strong as you would have it; then pour off the liquor into a gallipot, and let it cool for use; it will soon become a jelly, and by degrees grow hard.
But this colour is to be opened again, and made liquid by water, so as to be us’d as ink; and will be either paler or darker, as it is made thicker or thinner.
This affords a bright colour, and has extraordinary effects; for it is not only a beautiful, but a holding colour.
This colour if it be touch'd with aqua fortis, immediately changes to a fine crimson, little inferior to carmine, and sinks guite through the paper, so as not to be got out.
So that when this colour is us'd as blue, it is best to preserve it from aqua fortis, or such strong acids.
It is a good shade for ultramarine, or blue bice, where the strongest shades should not be extremely deep; and for colouring of prints it is very good, as it is a transparent colour, and goes a great way.


Dictionarium Polygraphicum. To dye an Ox-Blood colour, To dye Silk a Blood colour

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
To dye an Ox-BLOOD colour.
First tinge the stuff yellow, with a quartern and a half of madder to a pound of woollen stuffs, alum them and work them till they are of as beautiful a colour, as you would have them, then rinse them well out, and put into the kettle a tub of stale urine, and boil it again, till they take the dye; then roll the stuffs three or four times thro' it, and rinse them very clean.

To dye SILK a BLOOD colour.
Soak the silk as before directed, and for each pound of it take half a pound of allum, and a quarter of a pound of tartar, beat them small and boil them in the quantity of a pail full of prepar'd liquor for a quarter of an hour; then put in the silk and let it steep for two hours; then take it out, rinse it and beat it on a block, and hang it up to dry.
Then put four ounces of galls powder'd into the quantity of a pail of water, set it on the fire, till it is just so warm as you can bear your hand in it, then put in the silk, and let it lie for two hours; then take it out and dry it.
This being done, put a pound and half of brasile in a linen bag, and put in with it some good wheaten bran water into a kettle, boil them together, being close cover'd; then take the kettle off the fire, and let it stand a whole night; then add a quarter of an ounce of pot-ashes, and boil it again for an hour; then pour on as much river water, as the liquor.
Then take out the bag of brasile, and put in the silk after it has been a little scumm'd; cover the caldron very close, and let it remain there half an hour; then wring it out and rinse it very clean in river water; wring it out again, and hang it out again, and let it dry, and if it be not enough dyed, boil the dye again, and put in the silk once more and clean it with soap, as in the crimson dye, and afterwards rinse it in the river water, and you will have a beautiful red.


Dictionarium Polygraphicum. Bleaching, blanching.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
BLEACHING, BLANCHING, is the art or method of whitening linens, s stuffs, silks, &c. and is as follows.

For Bleaching fine linens.
When they come from the loom, and while they are yet raw, they are to be steep’d a day in clear water, wash'd out and clear'd of their filth, and then thrown into the bucking tub, fill'd with a cold lixivium or lye.
When these are taken out of the lie, they are to be wash'd in fair water, then spread in a meadow, frequently watered from little dikes or canals interspers'd in the ground, by means of scoops or a sort of long hollow shovels, call'd by the Dutch, who invented them, gieter.
After the linen has lain a certain time on the ground, and every thing has been repeated as before, it is to be pass'd thro' a new lie pour’d on hot, and again wash’d in clear water, and laid a second time on the ground; and then pass'd thro' a soft gentle lie, to dispose it to resume the softness, which the other sharper lies had taken from it, then wash’d in clear water, soap'd with black soap, and that soap is to be wash'd out again in clear water; then it is to be steep'd in cows milk, the cream having been first skimm'd off, which finishes the whitening; and scowring gives it a softness and makes it cast a little nap; when it is taken out of the mill, it is wash’d in clear water for the time.
After all this process, they give the linen its first blue by passing it through a water, wherein a little starch, pale, smalt, and Dutch lapis have been steep'd. In the last place, the proper stiffness and lustre is given with starch, pale, smalt and other gums, the quantity and quality of which may be adjusted according to occasion. The whole process of Bleaching is finish’d in fine weather in a month's time; in ill weather, it takes up six weeks or more.

To BLEACH coarse linens, they are taken from the loom and laid in wooden frames, full of cold water, where they are so beaten by wooden hammers work'd by a water-mill, as to be insensibly wash'd and purg’d from their filth; then they are to be spread upon the ground in order to receive the dew foreight days, which will take off more of the rawness: then they are to be put into a kind of wooden tubs or pans, with hotlye pour’d over them.
Having been thus lixiviated, they are again purg'd in the mill, then laid on the ground again for eight days more, then they are to be pass'd through a second lye; and all things repeated, till such time as they have acquir'd their just degree of whiteness.

BLEACHING woollen stuff.
There are three manners of whitening woollen stuffs; the first is with water and soap, the second is with vapour of sulphur, the third with chalk, indigo and vapour of sulphur.
For the first, when the stuffs are come from the fulling mill, they are to be put into soap'd water, pretty hot, and work'd afresh by force of arms over a bench, which finishes the whiten ing which the fulling mill had begun; in the last place, they are to be wash’d out in fair water and dried; this is call'd the natural way of Bleaching.
The second method is what is commonly call'd Bleaching by the flower, thus; the stuff is first wash’d in river water, and then put to dry on poles, and when it is half dry, spread out in a kind qf stove wherein sulphur is burnt, the vapour of which diffusing itself, sticks by little and little over all the stuffs, and gives it a ine whitening.
The third method is thus; after the stuffs have been wash'd, they are to be thrown into cold water, impregnated with chalk and indigo, in which they are well agitated; they are wash'd afresh in elder water, then half dried on poles, and then spread in a stove to receive the vapour of the sulphur, which finishes the Bleaching.
This method of Bleaching is agreeable enough to the fight, yet is not esteem'd the best method of Bleaching.
This is to be remembred, that when a stuff has once receiv'd the steam of sulphur, it will scarce receive any beautiful dye, except black and blue.

BLEACHING of silk.
The silk being yet raw, is put into a linen bag, and thrown into a vessel of boiling river water, in which soap has been dissolv’d, and thus boil'd for two or three hours; the bag being turn'd several times, taken out and beaten, then wash'd out in cold water, and wrung out slightly, and thrown into a vessel of cold water, mixt with soap and a little indigo.
The indigo gives it the bluish cast that is observable in white Silks.
When it has been taken out of the second vessel, it is wrung out, and all the water and soap squeez'd out, shook out to un twist and separate the threads, and hung up in the air in a kind of stove made on purpose, in which sulphur is burnt, the vapour of which gives the last degree of whiteness to the silk.

BLEACHING HAIR, is done by spreading the hair to be bleach'd upon the grass, after the same manner as linen, after it has been first wash'd out in a lixivious water.
This lye with the force of the sun and air brings the hair to so perfect a whiteness, that the most experienc'd person may be deceiv'd therein; there being scarce any way of detecting the artifice, but by boiling and drying it; which leaves the hair of the colour of a dead walnut tree leaf.
There is also a method of dying hair with bismuth, which renders white hair, which borders too much upon the yellow of a bright silver colour. This also may be prov’d by boiling; the bismuth not being able to stand it


Observations on BLACK Colours.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
Lamp Black, Printer's Black, is the most us'd, because it is the easiest to be had and is good in washing.

But you must never put Black upon other colours, to darken them, for it will make them dirty, nor shadow with Black, unless it be spanish brown, when you would colour an old man's gown, which ought to be done of a sad colour; all other colours ows with Black look dirtily, not bright, fair or beautiful.

Ivory Black, is the deepest Black that is, and is thus made; take Ivory in pieces, put it into a furnace till it be thoroughly burnt, then take it out and let it cool; pare off the outside and take the blackest in the middle.


Dictionarium Polygraphicum. Blackness.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
BLACKNESS, is the quality of a Black body or a colour arising from such a texture, and situation of the superficial parts of the body, as does as it were deaden or rather absorb the light, falling on it without reflecting any or very little of it to the eye.

In which sense Blacknes; stands directly oppos'd to whiteness, which consists in such a texture of parts, as indifferently reflects all the rays thrown upon it, of what colour soever they be.

Sir Isaac Newton has shewn in his opticks, that for the production of Black colours, the corpuscles must be less than whose which inhibit any other colours; because where the sizes of the component particles are greater, there is too much light reflected to constitute this colour; but if there be a little less than is requisite to reflect the white, and the very faint blue of the first order, they will reflect so little light, as to appear intensely Black; and yet may, perhaps, reflect it variously to and fro within them so long, till it happen to be stifled and lost; by which means they will appear Black, in all positions of the eye, without any transparency.

And from hence it appears why fire, and putrefaction by dividing the particles of substances, turn them Black; why small quantities of Black substances impart their colour very freely, and intensely to other substances to which they are apply'd; the minute particles of these by reason of their very great number easily over-spreading the gross particles of others; hence also appears why glass ground very elaborately with sand on a copper plate till it be well polish'd makes the sand, together with what by rubbing is worn off from the glass and copper, become very Black; and why Black substances do soonest of all others become hot in the light of the sun, and burn (which effect may proceed partly from the multitude of refractions in a little room, and partly from the easy commotion of so very small particles;) and also why Blacks are usually a little inclin'd towards a bluish colour; for that they are so, may be seen by illuminating white paper by light reflecting from Black substances, where the paper will usually appear of a bluish white; and the reason is, that Black borders on the obscure blue of the first order of colours, and therefore reflects more rays of that colour than of any other.

It is necessary also to the production of Blacknes; in any bodies, that the rays be stopp'd, retain’d and lost in them; and these conceive heat (by means of a burning glass, &c.) more easily than other bodies; because the light that falls upon them is not reflected outwards, but enters the bodies, and is often reflected and refracted in them, till it be stifled and lost. See LIGHT and COLOUR.


Dictionarium Polygraphicum. Black. (Värjäysohjeita)

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
I. To dye BLACK.
Take six handfuls of alder-bark or alder-tops, more or less, made small, put them into a copper with a sufficient quantity of water, and boil them for an hour with a very good fire; then take them out and put in two pounds of nut-galls bruis'd small, one pound of sumach, and four ounces of log-wood, and boil them; then enter twenty yards of cloth and handle it, and boil it for four hours; then take it out and cool it, and put in a pound of copperas; which when it is melted enter the cloth again and handle it, then boil it an hour and cool it again; then put in two gallons of chamber-lye, and enter the cloth again, and let it boil for half an hour more, then take it out, cool it and wash it well.

II. To dye a Black upon blue.
Take about nine or ten gallons of water, as many ounces of nut-galls beaten: wool, woollen yarn or woollen cloth or flannel, to the weight of about three pounds: let them be boil'd for four hours; after which take the matter out and air it; then put into the liquor eighteen ounces of green copperas, and if there be not liquor enough left, put in more water, as much as will cover the stuff, &c. and boil it for two hours, handling it continually.
Then take it out and air it, then put it in again, and take it out again and air it, and put it in again till it is Black enough; after this cool and wash it.
But take notice if you put in some sumach with the galls, it will make a better Black.

III. Another Black dye.
Take fair water a sufficient quantity, of nut galls bruised a pound, of sumach half a pound; of alder bark and oak bark, of each a quarter of a pound; make them boil, which when the water, &c. begins so to do, put in a little cold water, to break the boiling; stir all well together and enter your cloth, letting it boil for three hours; after this take it out, and put in more fresh water, and make it boil again, adding to it a pound of copperas, which when it is dissolv’d put in your cloth again, and boil it two hours; then take it out  again, and put in some more copperas, and half a pound of ground logwood, make it boil and put in the cloth again, and let it boil an hour.
This quantity of drugs will dye five yards of broad-cloth, or ten yards of cloth three quarters wide.

IV. Another Black dye.
Take water a sufficient quantity, logwood ground, sumach of each a pound, of nut galls bruis'd small two pounds; boil them together for an hour, then enter the cloth, wool, yarn, &c. and when they have boil'd an hour take them out, cool and air them; then put in three pounds of copperas, let it melt, and then put in the cloth, wool, &c. again, and let it boil near an hour, then take it out and wash it.
These quantities of drugs will dye twenty pound weight of any of the former things.

V. Another to dye twenty yards of broad-cloth, &c.
Take water a sufficient quantity, and five handfuls of sumach, two handfuls of logwood ground, two handfuls of alder-bark bruis'd small, boil them all together; then put in your cloth, and let it boil three hours; then take it out, cool and air it, and make it Black with a sufficient quantity of copperas.

VI. Another Black for twenty yards of broad-cloth.
Take water a sufficient quantity, of nut galls bruis'd small two pounds, of alder-bark a pound an half, mix all together in the copper, and  set it a boiling, and when it does so put in the cloth, letting it boil for three hours; then take it out and let it cool; then put in half a pound of copperas, and when it boils, put in your cloth again and boil it for an hour more; handle it and boil it for an hour, then take it out and cool it; after which put in more copperas and some urine, then put the cloth in again, and boil it till it is Black enough.

VII. Another Black colour.
Take a sufficient quantity of water, and a pound of nut galls bruis'd small, of logwood ground and sumach half a pound, of alder-bark a quarter of a pound, make them boil and enter the cloth; then cool and air it, and then darken the colour as you desire it with a pound and half of copperas.
This quantity is enough for fourteen pounds of wool, yarn, cloth, &c.

VIII. To make a firm Black dye.
First wadd it with the blue (see DYING BLUE) then take water thirty quarts, one pound of galls bruis'd small, and of vitriol three pounds; first boil the galls and water with the stuff or cloth for two hours; then put in the copperas as a cooler; heat for one hour, after which take out the cloth or stuff, and cool it and put it in, boiling it for another hour; lastly, take it out again, cool it, and put it in once more.

IX. To recover the colour of Black-cloth when decay’d.
Boil the leaves of fig-trees well in water, wash the cloth in it, dry it in the sun, and it will be a much fairer Black.

To dye Martins skins with long hair of a very good Black, which never fades.
Take a sufficient quantity of water, two pounds of new nut galls, and two ounces of beef marrow; boil them in an earthen pot close covered, stirring often left the galls burn, and boil, till it makes no noise when you stir it, then beat it, and strain out:
Take of this liquor two pounds, copperas twelve ounces, roch allum twelve ounces, litharge eight ounces, verdegrease, sumach and sal armoniack of each four ounces; pound each of them small distinct by itself, then mix and boil them together, and keep the liquor to dye with.
But this is to be minded; before you apply the liquor, the skins must be wash'd two or three times in very pure, clear, lime water; and when you apply the dye you must do it with a pencil against the grains of the hair, and afterwards the other way too.
These skins when dry, differ little or nothing from sables. Some leave the verdegrease out, but it does no hurt to the liquor.

To dye cloth or stuff BLACK.
Take two pound of galls, half a pound of brazile, two pound and a half of madder; boil your cloth three hours with these, then take it out and cool it very well, and put in an ounce and half of sal armoniack, and boil the stuff gently for half an hour, rolling it upon the roller three times every quarter of an hour, then take it out and cool it; and afterwards add two pound and a half of copperas, one third part of a pound of brassle, a quarter of a pound of tallow; boil the stuff in it very well for an hour and a half, and it will be of a beautiful Black colour.

To dye woollen stuffs, &c. BLACK.
Put into a kettle two pound of galls, half a pound of brasile, two pounds and half of madder, with which boil the stuff for three hours; then take it out and cool it very well; then add an ounce and half of sal armoniack, and boil the stuff gently half an hour, rolling it upon the roller three times every quarter of an hour; then take it out and cool it; and afterwards add two pounds and a half of copperas, five or six ounces of brasile, and a quarter of a pound of tallow; boil the stuff very well in it for an hour and a hals, and it will be of a beautiful Black colour.

Another BLACK dye.
Fill a kettle with very clear water, in order for dying ten pieces of frize or coarse stuff, put in it two pound and a half of right Turkish galls, and a pound and half of brown wood or walnut-tree; boil them very well together, then put in the stuffs and let them boil two hours, and also lie a whole night in the liquor; take them out, and if you have any old dye suds, that have been us’d before, pour it to the gall liquor, and add two pound of copperas; let them be boil'd well, then put in these stuffs; let them be boil'd for two hours, and afterwards left a whole night in the liquor, then rinse them out, and hang them up to dry carefully and nicely, if it be in a kiln or stove it will be so much the better; then rub them with a pumice stone, and smooth them very well, then pour the dye out of the kettle and keep it, and repeat the operation mentioned in every particular; iron the stuff a little with a hot iron, and after you have done this, take water and two pound and half of Turkey galls, one pound and a half of brown wood, and dye them a third time after the same manner, and they will be Black enough.
But if you would have the dye more Black and beautiful, take a kettle full of fair clear water, put into it half a pound of calcin’d vitriol, and one pound of tartar, boil the stuffs in this liquor for an hour, then rinse them out, and put fresh water into the kettle, and for every piece of twelve ells, put in half a pound of brown wood, and boil the stuffs half an hour; and if you would have the Black yet finer and better, then dye it once in the following soot dye

The soot dye.
Gall the stuff with alder-bark and galls for three hours, and add lye and suds to blacken the gall dye; boil the stuff in the liquor for 2 hours; then add copperas and leave the ware in a whole night, and then rinse it out.

To dye the Hamburg BLACK.
It is to be suppos'd, that the stuffs have been first blued with woad or indigo, in a manner that is lasting. Take twelve ounces of tartar, one pound of vitriol, boil the stuffs in it for two hours, then rinse it clean and dry it.

Blue it as follows. If your dye be either woad or indigo, yet you must give the stuffs a deep ground, which will give them a brighter luster.
For the second blue, boil woad and brown wood, and blue the stuff to the depth of indigo, or to a sort of iron grey, after which, it will be easy to dye it black; but the nicety lies in the bluing. After the bluing, the stuff must be rinsed clean, and dried again. Then follows -
The Galling. Take six ounces of galls, two ounces of madder, a quarter of an ounce of calcin'd tartar, and therewith gall the stuff for the space of an hour, not rinsed but dry’d; and then gall'd a second time, the suds being a little strengthened, or helped, as followeth.
The second galling. Add half an ounce of galls to the re maining suds, and half an ounce of madder, one ounce of calcin'd vitriol, one ounce, not yet, of gum arabick; when you have done this, before the stuff is rins'd or dried, it must be
Blackened in the gall liquor as followeth. Boil the liquor, then take one pound of vitriol, first dissolv’d in spring water, which must be pour’d into the dye; then add to the alder-black half an ounce of galls, one ounce of madder, one ounce of white gum, one dram of mastick; and after the stuff has been died black in the dye, rinse it out clean and dry it, now as well as after the second blacking, which is to be done as followeth.
Take half a pound of vitriol, and immediately afterwards half an ounce of galls, one dram of massick, half an ounce of gum tragacanth, and both times let the stuff be an hour a blackening, till it hath got a lasting dye; and besides all you may if you please add some brown-wood to give it the better lustre, and preserve it from spoiling.

The way of dying stuffs, the sumach dye, so as it shall be very lasting.
Put the eight following drugs into a large vessel, viz. eight pound of sumach, eight pound of alder-bark, twelve pound of oak shavings, nine pound of vitriol of copperas, two pound of wild or bastard marjoram, six pound of filings of iron, and as much lye as is necessary, six pound of walnut-tree leaves, half a pound of calcin'd tartar, two pound of salt, and four pound of small shot; put all these in when the water is hot, taking care that the vessel is full, and look after it daily.
First boil the stuff in the preparatory suds, compos'd of three quarters of a pound of tartar, and one pound of vitriol, for the space of an hour and half; then rinse and dry it, then follows the galling.
Take one pound and a half of sumach, four ounces of madder, an ounce and half of calcin'd salt petre, one dram of salarmo niack, an ounce and half of vitriol, half an ounce of calcin'd tartar; divide these drugs into two parts, and take two parts of galls also; put in the stuffs, take them out, but do not rinse them, and hang them up to dry; then follows
The Blackening. Fill the sumach copper with prepar'd dye, twice or thrice, and for every time add four ounces of vitriol, two ounces of sumach, one ounce of gum arabick; and the last time superadd half an ounce of gum tragacanth, and a dram of mastick.
The stuff may be also boil'd with brown-wood, by adding six ounces of it to the first suds, as also half an ounce of gum galbanum, and an ounce of calcin'd tartar and vitriol mixt together.

The preparation of the SOOT BLACK, dye.
This dye is prepar'd and wrought the same way as the sumach dye; except ing that the ingredients are different.
The drugs of it are as follow. Take eight pounds of alder bark, six pound of soot, oak-shavings or saw-dust, five pound of vitriol, one pound of wild-majoram, three pound of brown-wood, twelve ounces of calcin’d alum and vitriol mixt together, two pound of filings, as much lye as is necessary, and five pound of walnut shells, if they are to be had.
Put all these in when the water is boiling hot, as in the so mach dye, and the stuff having been first of all prepar’d by boil ing it an hour with six ounces of tartar, and half a pound of vitriol, and rinsed and dry’d; then gall it as follows,
With two ounces and a quarter of galls, and three quarters of an ounce of calcin'd salt-petre and vitriol mixt with this liquor.
It must be gall'd but once and not rinsed, but dried.
Then dye it as follows. Fill a kettle at two or three times, letting the liquor boil an hour every time, adding every time an ounce and half of vitriol, and two ounces of soot, half an ounce of gum arabick, and the last time a quarter of an ounce of gum tragacanth, half a dram of mastick, and a quarter of a pound of salt.
The stuffs may be also blackened with brown-wood.
The Brown-wood dye is thus: Take four ounces of Brown wood first boil'd, a quarter of an ounce of gum albanum, half an ounce of calcin'd salt-petre and vitriol mixt together, and you will have a good Black.

To dye GREEN Thread BLACK.
Take a proper quantity of sharp lye; and put into it three quarters of a pound of brazile-wood, boil them together, and afterwards pour the liquor into a vat, and add gum arabick, alum and verdegrease, of each one ounce; then put in the Green Thread, let it lie for the space of one whole night, and it will become Black.

Pour three pails of water into a copper, and add two pound of beaten galls, and two pound of sumach, and two ounces of madder, four ounces of antimony reduc’d to an impalpable powder, two ox galls, one ounce of gum tragacanth; let them dissolve a proper time, and then put in a proper quantity of dry alder-bark powdered, two pound of vitriol, and twelve ounces of filings of iron; then pour off the water as above, and let them boil together two hours; after which, fill it up with half a pail full of barley or rather malt water, which is drawn off by brewers; let it boil again half an hour, then put in the silk; let it boil gently for half an hour, then take it out and rinse it in a copper full of water, and throw it again into the dye; and afterwards when you take it out, rinse it pure clean in river water; hang it up in the air to dye, then put it into the dye again, and boil it gently for half an hour as before; rinse it also in the copper as before, and afterwards in river water, and when it is dry, take good lye, and add to it the eighth part of a pound of good pot-ashes, rinse the silk very well in this liquor, and lastly in river water, then dry it, &c. This dye will also dye all sorts of woollen stuffs.

An additional improvement to the former dye.
Having dy'd the silks Black as above, then take sal armoniack and antimony powdered two ounces, filings of iron two handfuls; put them together in a copper, that has been drawn off, and hath been us’d before; make it so hot that you cannot bear your hand in it, that this compound help to the dye may the better penetrate.
Then take the Black silk having been well dry’d and put it into the copper; let it lie there for an hour till it is thoroughly moistened, then draw it through water in which a proper quantity of gum tragacanth has been dissolv’d, taking care that it be thoroughly wetted, then dry it as usual.

To give a luftre to Black silks.
After the silk has been dy'd, for every pound of it take an ounce of ising-glass, which steep in water and pass the silk through the liquor, and it will be of a very beautiful lustre.

To dye SILK of a very fine BLACK.
Take a copper of a tun of water, put in three quarters of a sack of bark, three pound of Provence wood, three pound of sumach, boil them for two hours, then strain them into a fat, throw away the dregs and fill up the copper again; and then add seven pound and a half of beaten galls, half a pound of agaric, and a pound and half of pomegranate shells, a pound of calamus, a pound and half of senna leaves, a pound of gentian, and the same quantity of marjoram; boil all these together for two hours, strain the liquor through a sieve into the other dye, and let it digest for four days, stirring it of ten, and then put it into the copper in which you intend to dye; make a fire under it, and when it is hot, put in a pail full of lye, and boil all together very well, and when this is done, add half a pound of antimony, two pound of honey, a quarter of a pound of borax, half a pound of litharge of silver, and a quarter of a pound of litharge of gold, and half a pound of verdogrease; beat these together and put them into the kettle, and when the dye is warm, throw in fifteen pound of locksmith's filings, ten pound of gum, and ten pound of copperas, and let these ingredients stand to settle eight days, stirring it, as occasion requires; and after this you may dye with it, first putting in a pint of brandy.

A receipt to make a dye good.
When it shall happen that the dye begins to work off, you ought to consider what time of the month it was made, and what time work'd; then put three pailfuls of water into a kettle, and add to it two ounces of borax, half a pound of agaric, and a quarter of a pound of litharge of silver; four ounces of madder, half a pint of brandy, and a quarter of a pound of verdegrease; boil these all together for an hour, and then put them into the dye, and let it stand to settle for a fortnight, stirring it often.
Then make a liquor of two pound of senna leaves, two pound of gentian, one pound of agaric, two pomegranate shells, boil them together for two hours, and then pour them into the dye; when this has been done the dye will remain good for a hundred years; and the longer you dye with it, it will yield the finer Black colour; but then particular care must be taken that no soot get into it, for that will spoil it past all help.
But if any grease or tallow happens to fall into the dye, let it cool and take it clean out, and if you cannot see it, make the ladle red hot and stir the dye about, and that will consume or burn up any greasiness; also fill two or three canvas bags with bran, and hang them in the dye while it is hot, and let it continue two or three hours, then take out the bags, and cover the dye with brown paper; and that will attract all the greasiness of it.
But when the dye begins to decay, whenever you dye, you must strengthen and refresh it in the morning with six pound of gum, six pound of copperas, four pound of filings, and a quar ter of a pail of lye, then dye with it three days, six pound of silk at a time.
When the silk is dy’d it must be boil'd, and galled as follows:
To every pound of silk take twelve ounces of galls, and boil them two hours, then wring the silk; and lay it in the liquor for two nights and a day.

A BLACK dye for re-dying hats or any thing that has lost its Black colour.
Take half a pound of blue Provence wood, boil it in a pint of strong beer, till half of it be consumed; then add half a pound of vitriol, and an ounce of verdegrease, then take out the wood, and put in a quarter of an ounce of gum tragacanth; let it stand, and when you have occasion to use it, dye a little brush in it, and so streak it over the Hat wool or silk, and it will give a fine lasting Black.


Dictionarium Polygraphicum. Black. (Pigmentit ja väriaineet)

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
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BLACK, the proper Black for painting in water colours, is  Ivory Black, which if it be pure and well ground, is of use in painting in miniature, but is not proper for colouring prints; for 'tis too heavy a colour and hides the beautiful strokes of the graver, unless done with great care.

However if it be necessary to use Black by way of darkening a print, rather chuse a strong tincture of good Indian ink than the Ivory Black; but to colour pieces in miniature use the Ivory Black prepar'd as follows.

Grind the Ivory Black very well in gum water, then beat the white of an egg very well, till you perceive a kind of oily liquor settle to the bottom, this liquor mix with as much of the Ivory Black as you think will be proper to permit it to run freely in the pencil, and it will bear an extraordinary gloss; and if the object is shining, such as the wings of some beetles, mix with some of it a little white upon a Dutch glaz'd tile, till you find it light enough to relieve the shade, and then make another lighter mixture of the same; which being us'd on the brighter part of the subject, will produce the effect you defire.

Printer's BLACK is most us'd, because it is easiest to be had, and serves very well in washing.

Note, You must never put any Black among your colours to make them dark, for it will make them dirty, neither should you shadow any colour with Black, unless it be Spanish brown, when you would colour an old man's gown, that requires to be done of a sad colour, for whatever is shadowed with Black will look dirty; and not bright, fair and beautiful.

Ivory or Velvet BLACK, is made of Ivory burnt, generally between two crucibles well luted: which being thus rendred perfectly Black, and in scales, is ground in water, and made into troches, or little cakes us’d by the painters; as also by the jewellers, to blacken the bottom or ground of their collets; wherein they set their diamonds, to give them their teint or colours.

Lamp BLACK, smoke BLACK, is the smoke of rosin, prepar’d by melting and purifying the rosin in iron vessels, then setting fire to it under a chimney or other place made for the purpose, and lin’d at the top with sheep skins or thick linen cloth, to receive the vapour or smoke which is the Black; in this manner they prepare vast quantities of it at Paris.

This Black may also be made by the burning of Lamps, having many wicks, covered with a very large top at a due distance, to receive the smoke, which continually sticking upon the top, produces this Black colour; the top of this Lamp may be taken off every half hour, and the Black swept off it; then the wicks being snuffed, and the cover or top being put on again, repeat this till you have what quantity of colour you desire, or till all the oil is burnt out; this Black is of excellent use for Black warnish. A quart of oil worth about six or eight pence will make (as some say) Black enough to do a large cabinet.

In England it is usually prepared from the resinous parts of woods, burnt under a kind of tent, which receives it; it is us’d on various occasions, particularly in printers ink; for which it is mixt with oils of turpentine and linseed, all boil'd together.

This is to be minded, that this Black takes fire very readily, and when on fire, is very difficult to be extinguish'd; the best method of putting it out is with wet linen, hay or straw, for water alone wont do it.

A way to make Lamp Black better.
Make a fire shovel red hot, and lay the colour upon it, and when it has done smoaking it is enough; it may be us'd with gum water and ought not to be ground when us'd with oil.

To make a finer Lamp Black than is usually sold.
It is made with lamps of oil, something being laid close over to receive the smoke.

German or Frankfort BLACK, is made of the lees of wine burnt, then wash’d in water and ground in mills for that pur pose, together with ivory or peach stones burnt.

This Black makes the principal ingredient in the rolling-press printers ink.

It is most generally brought from Frankfort, Mentz or Strasburg, either in lumps or powder.

That which is made in France, is not so well esteem’d as that made in Germany, by reason of the difference of the lees of wine us’d in the one and the other; though on the other hand some prefer that made at Paris to that made at Frankfort.

Foreign Lamp BLACK, is no other than a soot rais'd from the rosiny and fat parts of fir-trees.

It comes mostly from the northern countries, as Sweden and Norway; 'tis a Black that is more generally us’d than any other, because of its plenty and cheapness, and proves a very good Black for most uses; 'tis of so fine a body that if it be only tempered with linseed oil, it will serve to work with on most common occasions; without grinding; but being thus us'd, it will require a long time to dry, unless some drying oil be mixt with it; or which is better some verdigrease finely ground, this and the drying oil together, will make it dry in a little time.

Some add also oil of turpentine; and without these it will not dry under a long time, for in the substance of the colour is contain’d a certain greasy fatness, which is an enemy to drying.

In order to remedy which, burn it in the fire till it be red hot, and cease to smoke, which will consume that fatness, and then it will dry much sooner; but when it is burnt it must of necessity be ground in oil, for else it will not work fine; for fire is of that nature, that it is apt to harden most bodies that pass through it. See the article BURNING of COLOURs.

This colour is usually brought over to us in small boxes, and barrels of deal of several sizes.

There is a BLACK made of willow charcoal, which if ground very fine, does in oil make a very good Black; but not being so easy to be gotten as the Lamp Black, 'tis seldom us’d.

To make a BLACK from sheeps feet.
Take sbeeps bones, calcine them in an oven, or in a crucible in a furnace, and quench them in a wet cloth; they must be ground in water be fore any gum is put to them.
This Black will mix with lake and umber for carnation in miniature or water painting.

To dye wood, Horns and bones BLACK.
Dissolve vitriol in vinegar or spirit of wine, and infuse them in it.

Another way.
Take litharge and quick lime of earth two pound, mix them with a sufficient quantity of water and put in the bones, and stir with a stick till they boil a-pace; then take it off the fire, and stir till it is cold, and the bones will be very Black.

Spanish BLACK is so cali’d, because first invented by the spaniards, and most of it brought from them, is no other than burnt cork, us'd in various works, particularly among painters.

Earth BLACK, is a kind of coal found in the ground, which being well pounded is us’d by painters in fresco.

There is also a kind of BLACK made of filver and lead, us’d to fill up the cavities and strokes of things engraven.

BLACK for painting or staining glass.
Take scales of iron from the smith's anvil, grind them for three hours on a shallow, copper or brass plate (such as spectacle makers use to grind their glasses upon) take of this powder and of Rocaille of each what quantity you please, add to them a little calcin’d copper to hinder the iron from turning red in the fire; grind all to an impalpable powder, and keep it in a glass close stopt for use.

BLACK. As a velvet BLACK for glas.
Take pieces of glass of several colours, to which add a little less than half the quantity of Manganese, as of Zaffer, and put the whole into a pot in the furnace.
This glass being well purified may be wrought, and it will give a glass like velvet, fit for many things.

Another of the same, a much fairer velvet Black.
Take ten pound of crystal frit in powder, and one pound of calx of lead, and of tin the same quantity; mix them all well together, and put them into a pot, heated in the furnace; and when this glass is melted and purified, you must cast in an ounce and a half of steel calcin’d and powdered, and one ounce and half of scales of iron from the smith's forge, powdered and mixt with the steel; mix the whole well as you cast them in, that the glass may not rise, and the better to incorporate them.
Then let all rest for twelve hours, during which time, stir them sometimes, then you may work it, and you will have a very fair velvet Black colour.

Another velvet BLACK, fairer than the foregoing.
Take twenty five pound of Rochetta frit, half a pound of tartar, an ounce and half of Manganese prepar’d, reduce all to powder, and mix them well together, put them into a pot, which set into the furnace leisurely, that the matter don't rise too much. Let it melt and purify during the space of four days or thereabouts, mix the materials well, cast them into the water the bet ter to purify, and then melt them again; and you'll have a Black of an extraordinary beauty.

Dyers BLACK, is one of the five simple and mother colours us'd in dying. It is differently made according to the different quality and value of the stuffs to be dyed.

For broad cloths, fine ratines, druggets, &c. they use pastel, or woad, and indigo; the goodness of the colour consists in there not being above six pounds of indigo to a ball of pastel, when the pastel begins to cast its blue flower, and in its not being heated for use above twice.

The stuff being thus blued, is boil'd with allum or tartar, then maddered, and lastly, the Black given with galls, copperas and sumach; to bind it and prevent its smearing in use, the stuffs are well scower'd in the fulling mill, when white, and then well washed afterwards.

For stuffs of less value, ’tis sufficient, that they be well blued with pastel, and black'd with galls and copperas. But no stuff can be regularly dyed from white into Black, without passing thro' the intermediate blue.

Yet there is a colour call’d cold Black or Jesuits Black, prepar'd of the same ingredients as the former, but without being first dyed blue.

In this case the drugs are dissolv’d in water, that had boil'd four hours, and stood to cool till the hand would bear it; then the stuff is dipt in again and again; and taken out six or eight times.

Some prefer this Black to the other, but on weak grounds this method of dying Black, is said to have been invented by the Jesuits, and to be still practis'd in their houses, where there remain numbers of dyers.


Dictionarium Polygraphicum. Beryl.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
I. To make a Beryl colour or green blue, viz. a sea green for glass.

Take crystal frit without manganese what quantity you please, melt it very thin and skim off the salt (which will swim on the top like oil) with an iron ladle, or else the colour will be foul and oily: the matter being purified to twenty pound of it, put of calcin’d copper [see CALCINATION of COPPER] six ounces, zaffer prepar'd an ounce and a half, mix them well together: put this mixture into the pot of metal by little and little, for fear the crystal should rise or swell and run over; keep it stirring all the while, and then let the metal stand and settle for three hours, that the colour may incorporate, and then stir it again.

Make proof of it, and after the powders have been mixt ser twenty four hours, and having been stirred and mixed well, it may be wrought; because the colour is very apt to fall to the bottom.

To make a poste for a BERYL, or sky colour call'd aqua marina.

Take rock crystal prepar'd (see rock CRYSTAL) ten ounces, minium or red lead twenty five ounces, zaster prepar’d five drams five grains, reduce them all to a very fine powder, mix them and put them into a crucible able to resist the fire, leaving an inch or more empty, cover it with an earthen cover, lute it well and dry it; put it into the hottest place of a potter's furnace, and let it stand as long as their pots; when cold break the crucible and you will find a fine sky colour. Or

Take rock crystal prepar'd ten ounces, æs ustum one ounce, and fifteen grains, mix them, and in a crucible perform the work as the former.

II. Another Beryl or Aigue Marine.
Take ten ounces of powder of rock crystal, fine salt of tartar (see SALT of TARTAR) ten ounces, salt of vitriol nine ounces; being all finely powdered searced and mixed in a brass mortar proceed as in the first example.

III. Another deeper Beryl or Aigue Marine.
Take ten ounces of rock crystal, of fine verdegrease three drams and one scruple, of fine salt of tartar thirteen ounces and a half, reduce all to a fine powder, mix them in a mortar, and proceed as before.

Another way.
This Beryl colour is of a very fine sky colour, if you take one ounce of powder of crystal, one ounce of fine salt of tartar, and fix ounces of salt of vitriol; the whole reduc’d to a fine powder in a brass mortar, and searced through a fine fieve, and proceed as in the others.


Dictionarium Polygraphicum. Gold Beating.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
First a quantity of pure Gold, is melted and form'd into an ingot; this by forging is reduc’d to a plate about the thickness of a sheet of paper, and this plate is after wards cut into little pieces about an inch square, and laid in the first and smallest mould to begin to stretch them.

From what Pliny relates, we have no room to doubt but that the ancients, especially the Romans, had the same method of Beating Gold that we have, though it should seem they did not carry it to the same height.

If it be as Pliny relates, that they only made five hundred leaves four fingers square of an ounce of Gold; though he says they could make more.

The modern Gold Beaters do make Gold of divers thicknesses; but there are some so fine, that a thousand of them don't weigh above four or five drams.

The thickest are us’d for gilding on iron and other metals, and the thinnest for wood. See GILDING.

This Gold is beaten on a block of marble, commonly call’d black marble, of about four foot square, and usually rais'd three foot high; these plates are beaten with three hammers of diffe rent sizes, of well polish'd iron, something in the form of mal lets. The first which weighs three or four pounds, serves to chase or drive; the second eleven or twelve pounds, which is to close; and the third which weighs fourteen or fifteen pounds, to stretch and finish.

Likewise four sorts of moulds of different sizes are us'd. These pieces of an inch square, are put into the first or smallest mould which is made of vellum, consisting of forty or fifty leaves, and after they have hammer'd a while thus with the smallest ham mer, they cut each of them into four, and put them into the second mould of vellum, which consists of two leaves, to be extended farther.

Then they are taken out again, and cut into four, and put into the third mould, which is made of bullock's gut, well scour’d and prepar’d, and consisting of five hundred leaves, and beaten; then they are taken out and divided into four again, and laid in the last and finishing mould, which is also of bullock's gut, and containing five hundred leaves; and there they are beaten to the degree of thinness requir’d.

The leaves being thus finish'd, are taken out of the mould and dispos'd in little paper books prepar'd with red bole, for the Gold not to stick to; each book usually containing twenty five leaves. These books are of two fites, twenty five leaves of the smallest, of which weigh but five or six grains; and twenty five of the largest, nine or ten grains.

Gold is beaten more or less, according to the quality or kind of the work it is design'd for; that which is for the use of Gold wire-drawers to gild their ingots withal, is left much thicker than that for gilding pićture frames, &c.


Dictionarium Polygraphicum. Containing. Polygraphick Dictionary. A.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
ALABASTER, a kind of stone, softer than marble, yet harder than plaister of Paris. It is found of all colours; some extremely white and shin ing, which is the most common; some red like coral; and other call’d onyx, from its colour; which resembles that of the onyx, though very different from it in nature. see ONYX.
Alabaster cuts very smooth and easy, and is much us’d by sculptors for little vases, columns, &c. It is also sometimes employ'd like plaister of Paris: in or der to which they burn and calcine it; after which, mixing it up with water to a thin consistence, it is cast in a mould, where it readily coagulates into a firm body.

GUM ANIMÆ, GUM ANIMI,  a kindoor rosin, of which there are two sorts, the oriental and occidental. The oriental Gum Animæ, is distinguished into three sorts; the first is white, the second blackish; in some respects like myrrh; the third pale, refinous and dry.
The occidental flows from an incision in a tree growing in New-spain, call'd there Courbati; it is transparent, and of a colour like to that of frankincense. Its smell is very agreeable, and it easily consumes in the fire: all the several kinds are us'd in perfumes by reason of their charming smell; but bdellium is frequently sold instead of it.

Gum ARABICK, is the name of a gum which distils from a species of Acacia, growing in Arabia and Egypt.
It is very common among us, but little is to be met with that is genuine; it is suspected to be adulterated with our common plumb-tree gums.
That is accounted the best, which is in smallest pieces, and almost of a white colour.

ARMENUS Bolus, i. e. Bole ARMONIAC or ammoniac, a kind of earth brought from Armenia. It is of a pale red co lour, and partakes much of the nature of stone; but is soft, fat, friable, easily pulveriz'd, and sticks to the tongue.
This Bole is easily falsified, and the merchants frequently sell Lemnian earth instead of it.
Matthiolus, says it is found in gold, silver and copper mines.

Of the colour of the best ASHES. The colour of the best Ashes is a fine blue or sky colour. The manner of examining the colour is as follows, viz. by throwing a piece of very fine white cloth or crape over the Ashes; and if the ashes appear of a beautiful blue through the thin cloth, and the whiteness of the cloth plainly appears as spread over the Ashes; it is a satisfactory proof that the Ashes are the best and finest.
This sort of Ashes is us’d in the linen manufacture in Brabant, and by the thread bleachers; this is generally the scarcest sort, and bears the highest price, and is not only fit to give a lustre to linen; but is proper for all other manufactures, could it be had in great plenty.

Of the bleachers ASHES in Holland. The distinction be tween these and the former is more customary than useful: the Dutch bleachers buying one instead of the other; and preferring the latter to the former; but though the latter are some times in thinner barrels, and more glutinous than the former, yet in weight and strength, they are not to be compar'd with them.

AZURE, a mineral colour, prepar'd from the lapis Armenus Azure, is very near of kin to ultramarine; being procur'd from the Armenian stone, much after the same manner as the other is from lapis lazuli. see p. 132.

To dye an AZURE Colour. Take roche allum and filings of brass of each two ounces, fish-glue half an ounce, vinegar or fair water a pint, boil it to the consumption of the half.


Dictionarium Polygraphicum. Aurum musicum, aurum musivum.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
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AURUM MUSICUM, AURUM MUSIVUM, a sort of liquid gold for writing;

Take fine crystal and orpiment of each one ounce, pound them severally, till they are reduced to a very fine powder, then grind them together well with glair.

With this you may write either with pen or pencil, and the letter or draught will be of a good gold colour.

Another way of making the same.
Take of the best English tin, an ounce, and of the best spanish quicksilver the same quantity: make of them an amalgama, by putting the crude mercury to the melted tin, and stirring together; then reduce them by pounding into a fine powder, and mix them with flowers of sal armoniack, and flowers of sulphur, of each an ounce: calcine gently, till the sulphur is consum’d, and so will the Aurum [gold] stick to the upper crust or scoria.

This being finely powder'd, and ground with glair, will with pen or pencil give your figure or picture a golden colour. See 2d. Ed. Pharm. Bat.


Dictionarium Polygraphicum. To dye cloth, &c. Ash Colour.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
To dye a picee of fifteen ells of cloth, &c. of an Ash Colour, first dye it a sky colour with woad and indigo, then rinse it out clean and dry it, then  apply the following black; take four ounces of beaten galls, one dram of burnt alum, half a pound of vitriol; boil the dye and the stuff in it for half an hour, then pass it through and rinse it; then add to the suds three ounces of brasile, that has been before boil'd in a skillet in part, three quarts of sharp lye, half an ounce of rock salt or sal Gemmae, and you will have a beautiful Ash Colour.

You may also prepare this colour brighter with galls, but if the lustre be not good, when taken out of the woad or indigo copper to try; then add four ounces of sumach, six ounces of vitriol, three ounces of madder, three ounces of salt, half an ounce of burnt alum.

But the first Ash Colour is the more beautiful and lasting.

Another method of dying ASH COLOURS.
Take a sufficient quantity of water, nut galls bruis'd small eight ounces, madder two ounces, put all into the vessel and let them boil; then enter twenty yards of broad cloth and handle it, letting it boil two hours; then cool it and put in copperas two ounces, and then enter the cloth again and handle it; then let it boil a quarter of an hour, and cool it. If you would have it sadder, you must put in more copperas.
Note, That handling of it signifies to roll it on the roller, as it is boiling, and to let it all in again to hinder its spotting, and to make it take colour equally. Cooling it signifies to take it up and air it.

Another Ash Colour. Take of nut galls bruis’d six ounces, red tartar bruis’d four ounces, let them boil well one hour and half in the liquor: then enter twenty yards of broad cloth, and handle it well, and cool it; after which put in two ounces of copperas, and sadden it with copperas as you please.

To dye the best Ash Colour. Take fair water a sufficient quantity, red tartar four ounces, nut galls three ounces, bruise them small and enter twenty yards of cloth, boil it an hour and half; then cool and sadden it as you think fit.

Another way to dye an Ash Colour. Take a sufficient quantity of water, put it into the copper, put into it six ounces of nut galls bruis'd small; let the copper boil and then enter your cloth; and let it boil an hour and half, and then cool the cloth, then put in four ounces of red tartar, which dissolve: then put in the cloth again, and let it boil half an hour; then take it out, cool and air it: Lastly, Put in half an ounce of copperas and let it melt, enter your cloth again, and sadden it as you please. This will dye three pounds weight.

Another Ash Colour. Take a sufficient quantity of water, fix ounces of galls bruis’d small: put them into a caldron and let them boil, then enter the cloth for the space of an hour and a  half, then put in five ounces of red tartar (having first taken out the cloth) which dissolve, and put in the cloth again, and boil it for half an hour, then take it out, cool and air it: Lastly, Put in half an ounce of copperas, and as much white vitriol, dissolve them, then enter your cloth again, and it will be a good colour to dye three or four pound weight.

Another kind of Ash Colour. Take a sufficient quantity of water, and add to it nut galls beaten small four ounces, cochineal half an ounce; boil them together, and enter your cloth and let it boil an hour and a half, and then cool the cloth: then put in four ounces of copperas, and then enter the cloth again and sad den it. This will dye twelve pounds of yarn or cloth.


Dictionarium Polygraphicum. Arsenick.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
ARSENICK, is a ponderous mineral substance, extremely caustic or corrosive to the degree of a violent poison.

There are divers kinds of Arsenick, viz. yellow or native red, and crystalline.

Native Arsenick is of a yellow or orange colour; whence it is also call'd auripigmentum or orpiment.

It is chiefly found in copper mines, in a kind of glebes or stones, of different sizes and figures.

As to the colour, though it is always yellow, yet admits of divers shades and mixtures, as a golden yellow, reddish yellow, green yellow, &c.

It is found to contain a small quantity of gold; but so little as not to quit the cost of separating. Of this are prepar'd two other sorts of Arsenick white and red.

Red Arsenick call’d Realgal, is only the native yellow rubified by fire.

The white or chrystalline, is drawn from the yellow by subliming it with a portion of sea salt.

White and yellow Arsenick, are also procurable from cobalt, the method of which as practis'd in Hungary, is as follows.

The cobalt being reduc’d to powder, and the light sandy part wash'd off by a current of water, what remains is put into a furnace; the flame of which passing over the powder takes the arsenical part along with it in form of a smoke; which being receiv'd by a chimney, and carried thence into a close brick channel, sticks by the way to the sides, and is scrap'd off in form of a whitish or yellowish powder. From what remains of the cobalt, they proceed to make smalt.

The smallest quantity of any of these Arsenicks, being mixt with any metal renders it friable, and absolutely destroys its malleability.

Hence the refiners dread nothing so much as Arsenick in their metals; nor could any thing be so advantageous to them as a menstruum, that would absorb or act on Arsenick alone; for then their metals would be readily purified, without flying off or evaporating.

A single grain of Arsenick will turn a pound of copper, into a beautiful seeming silver; this hint many persons have endeavour'd to improve on, for making of silver, but in vain, because it could never be brought to sustain the hammer; and some have been hang'd for coining species of this spurious filver.


Dictionarium Polygraphicum. Amber.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
Amber, is a yellow, transparent substance, of a gummous and bituminous form and subsistence; but a resinous taste, and a smell like oil of turpentine.

It is chiefly found in the Baltick sea; along the coasts of Prussia, &c.

Naturalists differ widely in their opinions as to the origin of Amber, and as to what class of bodies it belongs. some supposing it to proceed from vegetables, others from a mineral, and even some from animals.

Pliny describes it as a resinous juice oozing from aged pines and firs, others from poplar trees (of which there are whole forests on the coasts of Sweden;) and discharg’d thence into the sea; where having undergone some alteration it is thrown in this form upon the shores of Prussia, which lie very low. Some have imagin'd it a concretion of the tears of birds; others the urine of beasts, others the scum of the lake Cephiside near the Atlantick; others a congelation form'd in the Baltick sea, and in some fountains, where it is found swimming like pitch.

Others suppose it a bitumen, trickling into the sea from subterraneous sources; there concreted into this form, and thrown ashore by the waves.

This last opinion was for a long time most popular, and seem'd to have the best foundation: but this too is now dis carded, as good amber having been found in digging the ground, at a considerable distance from the sea, as that gathered on the coasts.

Others take Amber to be a compound substance, and say that Prussia and other countries that produce Amber, are moistened with a bituminous juice, which mixing with the vitriolick salts abounding in those places, the points of those salts fix its fluidity, whence it congeals; and the result of that congelation makes what we call Amber.

The most remarkable property of Amber, is that when rubb'd, it draws or attracts other bodies to it, and also, that by friction it is brought to yield light pretty copiously. As for the physical uses of Amber, it is us'd in making varnishes for several uses.

To make artificial Amber. Boil turpentine in an earthen pot, with a little cotton (some add a little oil) stirring it, till it is as thick as paste, then put it into what you please, and set it in the sun for eight days, and it will be clear and hard: of which you may make beads, hafts of knives or the like.

Another way to counterfeit Amber. Take the yolks of sixteen eggs; beat them well with a spoon; take gum Arabick twelve ounces, cherry tree gum one ounce, reduce the gums to powder, and mix them with the yolks of the eggs; let the gums melt well and put them in a pot well leaded, then set them for six days in the sun, and they will be hard and shine like glass; and when you rub them, they will take up a wheat straw as other Amber does.

Another artificial Amber. Take whites of eggs; beat them well, then put them into a vessel with strong white wine vinegar, stop it close; let it stand fourteen days, then dry it in the shade and it will be like Amber.

Another artificial Amber. Break the whites of eggs with a spunge, take off the froth, to the rest put saffron, put all into a glass close stopp'd or into a copper or brazen vessel, set it to boil in a kettle of water, till it be very hard, then take it out and shape it to your liking, lay it in the sun and anoint it often with linseed oil, mix’d with a little saffron; or else being taken out of the kettle, boil it in linseed oil.

To make yellow Amber soft. Put yellow Amber into hot melt ed wax well scumm’d, and it will be soft, so that you may make things thereof of what form and fashion you please.

Melt some turpentine in a glass in a sand heat, where the fire may be rais'd at discretion, then provide your self with three ounces of Amber, either of the whitest or yellowest sort.

If you would have the Amber white, pick out the clearest white pieces, or if yellow the clearest of that sort.

To melt Amber and cast it into any figure, with flies or any finall animals in it, as is seen in those valuable pieces of Amber sold at a great price, from Mr. Boyle.

Levigate your Amber, and sprinkle in the powdered Amber into the melted turpentine, stirring it all the while with a piece of fir-wood, till you find no resistance; then if you find your melting to resist the stick, drop in by degrees a little Venice Turpentine, and keep it still stirring, till all the powdered Amber is dissolv’d, and is thick enough to pour into moulds; and when it is cold, you will have what figure you propose remain as hard as amber itself, with all the same qualities that amber commonly has.

An Amber varnish from Mr. Boyle. Take of white rosin four drams, melt it in a clean glaz'd pipkin, then put into it two ounces of the whitest Amber you can get (finely powder'd) by little and little, stirring it with a small stick over a gentle fire, till it dissolves, pouring in now and then a little oil of turpentine; when you find it begin to grow stiff, so continue to do till all the Amber is melted.

But great care must be taken that you do not set the house on fire, for the very vapours of the oil of turpentine will take fire by heat only; but if it should happen to do so, imme diately cover the vessel close with a flatboard or a wet blanket, and the air being kept from it, it will go out.

It will be best to melt the rosin in a cylindrical glass in a bed of hot sand, after the glass has been well anneal’d or warm'd by degrees in the sand; under which you must keep a gentle fire.

When the varnish is made, pour it into a coarse linen bag, and press it between two hot boards of oak or iron, and use it with any of your colours, as well as to varnish them over when they are painted.


Dictionarium Polygraphicum. The method of aluming of stuffs, particularly for dying reds.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
Hang rain or running water over the fire, adding one third part of the starch or bran water; put in for every pound of stuff two ounces of Allum, and an ounce of tartar, and when it boils and froths, first skim it, and then put in the stuff, stir it very well about for an hour, then take it out and rinse it.

The quantity of Allum must always be double to that of the tartar; some dyers reject red wine tartar, and use only white; others esteem the red better, especially for crimsons and all brownish red dyes; and indeed it is very good in all good stuffs, that require a little red, preparatory ground, before they are dyed black.


Dictionarium Polygraphicum. Allum, Alum. Allum Water, Alum Water.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
Allum, Alum is a principal ingredient in colouring and dying; neither of which in many cases can be well perform'd without it.

It is a kind of mineral salt of an acid taste, leaving in the mouth a sense of sweetness, with a considerable degree of astringency.

Allum is either native or sactitious, the natural is found in the island of Milo, being a kind of whitish stone very light, friable and porous, and streak'd with filaments resembling silver.

Factitious Allum is made after different manners, according to the different materials whereof it is made.

Allum is of divers sorts, red, Roman, plumose, saccharine and burnt, the three last of which are not proper native Allums.

Allum is principally produc’d in England, Italy and Flanders.

The English Allum call'd also Roche Allum, is made from a bluish mineral stone found plentifully in the hills of Yorkshire and Lancashire.

The stone they calcine on a hearth or kiln, and steep it successively in several pits of water; and then boil it for about twenty four hours: lastly, letting it stand for about two hours, the impurities subside and leave a pure liquor; which being remov’d into a cooler, and some urine added to it, begins in three or sour days to gather into a mass; which being taken out, wash’d and melted over again, is fit for use.

In the Allum works at Civita Vecchia, the process is as follows: The stone, which is of a ruddy hue, being calcin'd, they boil and dissolve the calx in water; which imbibing the salt, i. e. the Allum, separates itself from the useless earth. Lastly, leaving the water thus impregnated with salt to stand some time, it crystallizes of itself, like tartar, about a butt, and makes what they call Roche or Roman Allum.

The Swedish Allum is made of a mineral which contains a great deal of sulphur and vitriol, not to be taken away; but by calcination or distislation.

The matter remaining in the iron vessels, us'd in separat ing the sulphur from the mineral, being expos'd to the air for some time, becomes a kind of bluish ashes, which they lixiviate, crystallize and convert into Allum.

Allum in colouring and dying, serves to bind the colour upon the stuffs, and has the same use there, that gum water and glutinous oils have in painting; it likewise disposes stuffs to take colour, and adds a degree of briskness and elegancy to them, as is seen visibly in cochineal and the grain of scarlet. It also preserves paper, that has been dy’d in its water, from sinking when wrote upon.

ALLUM WATER, ALUM WATER, boil four ounces of Allum in a quart of rain or river water, till the Allum is dissolv’d and let it stand twenty four hours.

With this water wash prints you design to colour, and it will fix the paper so, that the colours will not sink or run in it, when you lay them on, and will help likewise to brighten your colours.

If your paper is very thin and loose, then wash it with this Allum water four or five times, letting it dry between every time, and your paper must always dry before you lay on any of your colours.

But take notice, that if you design to varnish your prints after they are colour'd, then wash the prints all over equally with white starch before you colour them, and when that is dry lay on the colours.


Dictionarium Polygraphicum. ÆS USTUM, to make.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
Take bits or thin leaves of cop per fifteen ounces, sulphur in powder ten ounces, sea salt finely powdered fifteen ounces, fill the crucible by laying in layer upon layer; put it into a furnace of live coals, and let it stand till the sulphur is wholly consum’d; then take it out, and it will be of an iron grey, but reddish within; it gives a noble fine tincture to glass.

Another Æs Ustum. Take thin plates of the reddest copper (i. e. the rose copper) make it red hot, and extinguish it in urine, in which common salt has been dissolv'd: reiterate this operation till it becomes of the colour of gold, both with in and without; after which cement those places with this powder. Or

Take sulphur two pound, salt petre two pound, vitriol calcin'd to redness one pound, reduce all to a powder, put the plates with the powder into a crucible layer upon layer, cover it with another crucible having a whole in the bottom, lute them together, and being dry, put them into a circulatory fire (having hot embers underneath) for six hours: for the first two hours let the fire be a foot distant from the crucible, the second two hours let it be half a foot from the crucible, and the last two hours let it be close to the crucible, cover it.

Take care that the fire be not too violent, that the matter may not melt, for if it does it is spoil’d. When it is cold reduce it to a fine powder, wash it, dry it, and keep it for use.

There are other curious persons who make an Æs ustum, yet finer than this, and more penetrating in colours; but the preparation is more costly and requires more time; for instead of brimstone and salt-petre, they make use of a purified sulphur, and fix’d with sal-armoniac; and instead of ordinary red vitriol they use Roman vitriol, which they prepare with the lee of urine, and a fusil salt; which they afterwards put into a reverberatory. Dictionarium Polygraphicum. Containing. Polygraphick Dictionary. ÆS USTUM, to make.


Dictionarium Polygraphicum. Containing. Preface.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.

I. The ARTS of Designing, Drawing, Painting, Washing Prints, Limning, Japanning, Gilding in all their various kinds. Also Perspective, the Laws of Shadows, Dialling, &c.

II. Carving, Cutting in Wood, stone; Moulding and Casting Figures in Plaister, Wax, Metal; also Engraving, and Etching, and Mezzotinto.

III. A brief historical Account of the most considerable Painters, Sculptors, Statuaries, and Engravers, with those Cyphers or Marks by which their Works are known.

IV. An Explanation of the Emblematical and Hieroglyphical Representations of the Heathen Deities, Powers, Human Passions, Virtues, Vices, &c. of great Use in History Painting.

V. The Production, Nature, Refining, Compounding, Transmutation and Tinging all sorts of Metals and Minerals of various Colours.

VI. The ARTs of Making, Working, Painting or staining all sorts of Glass, and Marble; also Enamels, the imitation of all forts of Precious stones, Pearls, &c. according to the Practice both of the Ancients and Moderns.

VII. Dying all sorts of Materials, Linen, Woollen, silk, Leather, Wood, Ivory, Horns, Bones; also Bleaching and Whitening Linen, Hair, &c.

VIII. The Art of Tapestry-Weaving, as now performed in England, Flanders and France, either of the high or low Warp; also many other curious Manufactures.

IX. A Description of Colours, Natural and Artificial, as to their Productions, Natures or Qualities, various Preparations, Compositions and Uses.

X. The method of making all kinds of Inks, both Natural and sympathetical; and also many other Curiosities not here to be specified, whereby this is rendred a more Compleat Work than has hitherto appear'd in any language.

Adorned with proper sculptures, curious, Engraven on more than fifty Copper Plates.

VOL. 1.

LONDON: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, s. Austen in st. Paul's Church-Tard, MDCCCXXV.


The Arts to which these volumes are an introduction, are so amiable in themselves, and unfold such a variety of advantages and delight to mankind, that we hope our endeavours to range them in a regular view, and render them intelligible even to a moderate capacity, will not be thought an unnecessary undertaking.

We have cast this work into the form of a Dictionary, because we judged such a disposition the most methodical of any, and as we are sensible that clearness of expression is essential to those performances which are published with a view to illustrate the Arts and sciences, we have always endeavoured to treat our subject with that perspicuity, as we flatter our selves will not disappoint the reader's expectation of improvement.

It has been our constant method to consider each particular Art in the rudiments from which it flows, and to trace it from those original principles to its perfeition: In the conduct of which design, we have advanced in that regular gradation from rule to rule, as is necessary to convey a distinct idea of every circumstance which deserves observation, and, at the same time, have endeavoured to preserve the due medium between an affected concisenes; which is generally obscure, and a loose redundancy which always satiates.

We have likewise, for the satisfaction of the curious, given a particular account of the materials employed in those mechanic arts which have a place in this work; and have added directions for proper applications of them in every branch of the Arts to which they are appropriated: We have also considered these materials, not only in their first shape of nature, but have attended them through every process of art, preparatory to their last forms in the shops of Colourmen, Druggifts, and other tradesmen; and have laid down proper rules for distinguishing the pure and genuine materials from those which are adulterated ana spurious.

As it was our intention to render this work, at once, in struffive and entertaining, we have interspersed several historical accounts of the greatest masters in these Arts; we have marked their several characters and peculiar turns of genius; we have pointed out their particular methods of study, and considered the amazing heights to which they raised the various Arts they professed; in a word, we have intro duced all the usefull variety we could collect, to make this article please the imagination, and inform the judgment.

Our observations have been carefully collefied from the most celebrated authors and digested into such an easy and regular series of instructions, that those Gentlemen who are disposed to consider them with attention, will be agreeably surprized at their speedy proficiency in such engaging studies, and will find the theory and practic part of these beneficial Arts attainable much sooner than they might possibly expect. We may likewise add that the expence of purchasing, and the tedious fatigue of consulting a vast number of volumes on these subjects will be rendered unnecessary, since we have included, in this work, all the material precepts and informations that are to be drawn from every valuable treatise on these subjects, already extant.

As the intention therefore of this work is to familiarise these charming Arts to the laudable curiosity of all who wish for a competent proficiency in them; and as we have formed it, from the best authorities, in such a system of instruction as has a direct tendency to produce that effect, in a more agreeable and compendious manner than has yet been at tempted, we hope no objection of any moment can be rais'd against it, to prevent its obtaining a favourable reception from the publick.


Kirjallisuutta. Metallivärjäys.

Teollisuuslehti 17, 15.9.1922

kirj. Frans Nykänen, ilmestynyt Werner Söderström'in kustannuksella Porvoossa Nro 7:nä Tieto ja taito sarjassa. 172 oktaavo sivua. Hinta 15 mk.

Ilolla voidaan tervehtiä tämänlaatuisia teoksia. Ne korvaavat jossain määrin vallitsevaa puutetta erikoisammattiopetuksessa, mutta ennen kaikkea täyttävät ne tyhjän paikan suomenkielisessä ammattikirjastossa. Tosin on aineita käsitelty sangen laajasti julkaisussa "Koneteollisuus" joitakin vuosia sitten, joka ei kuitenkaan ymmärrettävästi voi tyydyttää yhtämittaista tarvetta.

Puheena olevan kirjan tekijä nojautuu paitsi omaan käytännölliseen kokemukseensa, runsaan saksalaisen alaakäsittelevän kirjallisuuden hyviin teoksiin.

Teos rajoittuu metallivärjäykseen sen varsinaisessa merkityksessä s. o. metallipinlojen käsittelyyn lämmöllä ja erilaisilla kemikaalioilla minkä kautta tapahtuu eri värien tai myöskin muun kysymyksessä olevaa pintaa ohuesti peittävän metallin kemiallisia yhdistyksiä. Sitäpaitsi käsitellään lyhyesti metallipinlojen mekaanista värjäämistä väripulverilla pakottamisella ja kiillottamisella.

Metalliseoksia samoinkuin galvanisointia ja pleeteröintiä ei sitä vastoin lainkaan käsitellä.

Ne sadat reseptit, jotka koskevat kaikkein tavallisimpien metallien ja metalliseoksien värjäämistä ovat selvästi esitetyt, samoin on myöskin itse värjäysmenettely alku- että jälkikäsittelyilleen selvästi kuvattu. Noin 50 sivuisessa liitteessä esittää tekijä lyhyen selostuksen kemian perusteista. Tietoja janoavalle ammattimiehelle on tämä osa varmaan hyvin tervetullut, sillä kemiallisten perusaineiden ja niitten yhdistyksien lakien joskin pintapuolinen tunteminen pitäisi olla suuresti mielenkiintoista sille, joka alituisesti käsittelee kaikenlaisia kemikaalioita. Hänellä on naine tietoineen kokonaan toiset mahdollisuudet ymmärtää kemiallisia reaktioita ja muistiin panna nimiä ja kemiallisia kaavoja.

Tässä osassa esiintyy muutamia pienempiä epätarkkuuksia, jotka tässä mainittakoon. Kysymyksen ollessa hiilihaposta (sivu 137) sanotaan, että sitä saadaan antamalla rikkihapon vaikuttaa liituun ja muihin lueteltuihin aineisiin, mutta ei mainita teollisuudessa valmistettaessa käytännössä olevaa menettelytapaa, että yksinkertaisesti poltetaan hiili ja imelytetään hiilihappokaasut. Suorastaan väärä tieto on, että taottava rauta sisältää 2,3%:iin hiiltä. Tuottavuuden raja on paljon alempana.

Kirjan päättää ikävä kyllä liian lyhyt luku, joka käsittää kaikenlaisia neuvoja kuinka on käsiteltävä myrkkyjä samoin kuin osoituksia kuinka myrkytystapauksia sekä palo- ja syövytyshaavoja on hoideltava. Tässä mainitaan m. m. kuinka paljon suositeltuja parannusaineita on käytettävä.

Kirjaa voidaan mitä parhaiten suositella kaikille, niin mestarille kuin työmiehille, jotka työskentelevät metallivärjäyksessä. Tietenkään ei pidä odottaa, että yksinomaan tämän kirjan avulla opitaan metallivärjäyksen vaikea taito, siihen vaaditaan paljon käytännöllistä kokemusta. Kuitenkin on kirja varmastikin omiaan hajoittamaan sitä salaperäisyyden verhoa, niin, melkeinpä noituutta, jolla moni taitava metallin värjääjä haluaa peittää itsensä.

R. M.


Uutisia. Uusi värikemiallinen opinarvo...

Teknillinen aikakauslehti 1, 1923

Uusi värikemiallinen opinarvo Bachelor in colour chemistry (värikemian bakkolaureus) on perustettu Manchesterin teknilliseen opistoon {Machester College of Technology). Tämän tarkoitus on laajentaa opiston kemiankurssia värikemian alalla ja siten kehoittaa miehiä valmistautumaan Englannin väritehtaiden palvelukseen, jossa teoreettisille opinnoille aletaan antaa entistään suurempaa merkitystä.


Uutisia. Myrkkyjen värittäminen.

Teknillinen aikakauslehti 1, 1923

Englannin farmaseuttinen yhdistys kokeilee myrkkyjen värittämisessä, jolla on tarkoitus saadakullekin myrkylle (arsenikille, strykniinille, cyanideille j.n.e.) kullekin oma värinsä, ettei sitä erehdyksestä käytettäisi ja että nämä värit olisivat apuvälineitä oikeudellisissakin tutkimuksissa. Tärkein merkitys tähän mennessä on hallituksen määräyksellä, että kaikki methylialkoholi on värjättävä eräällä aniliinivärillä. Methylialkoholi tunnetaan siten väristään, joka osaltaan ehkäisee sen nauttimista erehdyksessäkään. Tämä menettely olisi tarpeen Suomessakin, sillä sen kautta voitaisi puuspriin valmistus ja kauppa täydellisesti vapauttaa pelkäämättä erheellistä väärinkäyttöä. Väriaine voidaan tosin poistaa, mutta vaatii se erikoistoimenpiteitä ja toisaalta ei nykyäänkään voida estää tahallista puuspriin väärinkäyttöä.


Sininen lähde.

Tampereen Sanomat 96, 13.8.1886

Oberandorf'in lähellä Tyrolissa on lähde, jonka wesi näyttää kauniilta tummansiniseltä, että moni luulee weden kohoawan sinisestä maakerroksesta. Waan jos sitä otetaan lasiin, niin se näyttää aiwan kirkkaalta. Syynä tähän siniseen wäriin on se, että se ei sisällä mitään wieraita aineita, ja weden luonnollinen wäri on sininen.


Gult och rött. Östtventka färger.

Svenska Tidningen 136M, 18.6.1919

Sedan blått och vitt antagits till huvudfärger i det nya finländska rikets flagga, ha dessa kommit allmänt till synes vid våra fester och offentliga tillställningar. Att deasa dock icke slagit an bland östsveaskarna, har emellertid redan kunnat iakttagas, kalla och matta som de i själva verket äro. Så ha vid flere östsvenska tillfällen — t. ex. vid östsvensk samlings lyckade fett uti Svenska fruntimmersskolan för svenska folktingets medlemmar de röda och gula färgerna kommit väl till heders. Och detta med  all rätt.

Gult och rött ingå ju som hjärtfärger i Finlands vapen, och även i vår blå vita riksflagga iro de med vapnet företrädda i själva hjärtpunkten. De äro våra historiskt givna färger, som burits av bl. a. finländska krigare vid många tillfallen, då Finland bringats heder och ära. Och då dessa färger varit och äro omhuldade i Finlands avenskbygder, må de gärna fortfaranda komma till heders vid alla östsveaska samlingar och även hos enskilda östsvenskar, som önska äro det framfarna och hålla fådrens misnen och den västerländska, fosterländska kulturen i hälgd!
Svenska finländare.


Utsjoen Lapinmaalta

Suometar 47, 23.11.1855

(O. W. S).

Kankaan kutomiseen hankkiessa pannaan täällä kaikki langat rullalle ja kangas luodaan huoneen seinällä. Kangastuolit owat Suomenmaassa olewain kaltaiset; mutta kankaan asettaminen niihin on toisenmoinen. Likkaa ei kierretä ympäri tukkia, waan niotaan kiini johonkuhun tukin taakse aseteltuun punhun. Klowia ei kutoessa tarwita, waan kutoja wetelee kaidetta käsillänsä aina senjälkeen kuin polkee kangasta. Ettei kaide wedellessä rikkousi, owat sen sekä päälliseen että alaiseen puoleen liitetyt paksut puut. Näin kudottu kangas tulee harwaa, mutta wanuttamisella saadaan se tiwiksi. Monenmoisia puna- ja keltakirjawia nauhoja eli rihmoja owat tytöt tottuneet walmistamaan. Niitä kutoessa pidetään tiuhtoa; mutta harrroin käpyä. Myös owat taitawat rasoja (wanttuita) kutomaan. Näitten suut kaunistetaan jo kutoessa punaisilla sisään kudotuilla langoilla. — Parkitessa ajetaan karwa nahoista ei kalkilla, waan liottamalla. Parkitsemiseen käytetään enämmiten koiwun kuoria. Parkissa olewa nahka otetaan usein käsiin ja hierotaan wisusti; sen kautta tulewat kaikki parkitut nahat aiwan pehmoisia. Kalan-raswaa käytetään aina nahkain woiteeksi. — Muutamia wäriä owat tytöt myös tottuneet painamaan. Intikolla painetaan sinistä ja kelta-ruohoilla keltaista. Kewäisin wärjätään kaikki kalan-pyydykset koiwun kuorilla.


Neuvoja. Värjäysneuvoja.

Suomen Teollisuuslehti. Koneteollisuus 17, 1914

Rautakappaleiden mustaksi värjääminen.
 N. 1 g parkkihappoa (tanninia) ja n. 1 g viinihappoa liuotetaan 0.5 litr. vettä. Tällä liuoksella sivellään rautakappaleet ja annetaan niiden sitten ilmassa kuivua. Tarvittaessa uudistetaan menettely. Sitten kappaleet huuhdellaan ja rauta on saanut kauniin ja pysyväisen, aina raudan laadun mukaan tumman tai kiiltävän mustan värin.

Rautakappaleiden sinistäminen.
Rautakappaleet upotetaan sulaan salpietariin (n. 315 C°) ja annetaan niiden olla siellä kunnes saavat halutun värin.

Yksinkertäinen metalli-esineiden mustaksi värjäyskeino.
Noin 40—50 cm korkean liereän valurautaastian pohja peitetään noin 2—3 cm vahvalla kivihiilimurskälla ("kivihiilitypillä"). 4 cm ylemmä asetetaan arina ja astian yläosa täytetään tavaroilla, joihin halutaan musta kiiltävä väri. Värjättävät esineet voivat olla rautaa, terästä, messinkiä, sinkkiä, pronssia tai kuparia. Nyt suljetaan astia sopivalla kannella ja asetetaan se valmiillekoksitulelle hyvin vetävän ahjohormin alle. Aluksi haihtuu ainoastaan kivihiilissä oleva kosteus, mutta pian tapahtuu myös kuivatislaus ja kehittyy mustanruskeaa, yskimiseen ärsyttävää kaasua. Kun astian pohja on noin neljännestunnin ollut punaisena hehkuvana, on kivihiilen kuivatislaus suurimmaksi osaksi tapahtunut. Astia otetaan pois tulelta ja noin 10 minuutin kuluttua avataan sen kansi, jolloin värjäys on suoritettu.
Tinaisia, tinattuja tai pehmeillä juotteilla juotettuja kappaleita ei voida näin mustuttaa, koska ankara kuumuus sulattaa nämä aineet.
Näin aikaansaatu päällystys suojelee metallitavarat hapettumiselta ja kestää myös kovaa kuumuutta. Jos kivihiiliä kuumennetaan liian kauan, niin esineet menettävät kiiltonsa ja muuttuvat himmeän mustiksi; verho ei silloin ole niin kestäväkään.
Pieniä kappaleita, kuten hakoja ja määrlyjä, voidaan näin mustuttaa kahvipaahtimessa, johon pannaan tavaroiden joukkoon pieniä kivihiilipalasia. Paahdinta käännellään tulella kunnes väri muodostuu.
Tämä, miltei kustannukseton menettelytapa soveltunee erityisesti valurautakappaleille.


Sinipunaset postikorttimme.

Suomen postimerkkilehti 3-4, 31.10.1924

Kirj. Einar Ficandt.

Korttimme n:ot 8—ll ja n:o 15 vuosilta 1875, 1875—1878 ja 1882-1884 sekä, uusintapainamat vuodelta 1893 ovat sinipunasia (gredelin). Tämän värisiä kortteja on siis varsin vähän, vain 5 päälajia alalajeineen, ja luulisi siis että niiden jaottelu värilaatuihin kävisi helposti, näin ei kumminkaan ole asian laita. Jos vaikka koottuaan runsaankin määrän edustajia kustakin ryhmästä koettaa järjestellä ne Granbergin ynnäkeluettelon mukaan vuodelta 1923, käypi asia, mahdottomaksi riippuen siitä että värivivahduksia kussakin ryhmässä erikseen on nimitetty eri väriskaalan mukaan toisin sanoin identinen värinimitys toisessa, ryhmässä ei vastaa nimitystä toisessa. Jotta kuitenkin saisimme jonkummöisen selvyyden asiassa koetan seuraavassa tehdä ehdotuksen nimitystävälle, joka sopii kaikille ryhmille ja joka samoin jossain määrin vastaa todellisuutta.

Ensinnäkin olisi nimitystä sinipuiianen käytettävä yleensä väristä, jossa sininen ja punanen aines jotakuinkin tasaisesti on edustettuna. Rajavärinä sinisellä puolella olisi merensininen ja punasella taas karmini. Sinipunasen värin ruotsalainen vastine olisi gredelin ja jaettaisiin kahteen pääryhmään:

I punasinervä, sireenin värinen, lila — sininen väri seoksessa voitolla.
II punasinervä, orvokin värinen, violet - punanen väri " "

Näistä johdettaisiin kaikki eri värilaadut etuliitteellä esim. seuraavasti:
1) meren sininen, ultramarin
2) sinipunasen meren sininen, gredelin, ultramarin
3) sinervän sinipunerva, blåäktigt lila, bläulich lila
4) sinipunerva, lila
5) punervan sinipunerva, rödaktigt lila, rötlich lila
6) punasinervä, violet
7) punervan punasinervä, rödaktigt violet, rötlich lila
8) punasen punasinervä, rödviolet, rotviolet
9) punasinervän karmini, violet karmin
10) karmini, karmin.

3-8 } sinipunanen, gredelin, blaurot

Paitsi näitä vivahduksia on harmahtavia ja ruskeahkoja värilaatuja sinipunasista muunnoksista. On kumminkin tarkoin varottava ottamasta tutkittavaksi auringon kauhduttamia kortteja, joissa erikoisesti kehysväri aina esiintyy suuresti muuttuneena ruskeaan väriasteikkoon päin. Merkkikuvan väri näyttää auringossa vähemmän muuttuvan.

Yllä esitetyn mukaisesti koetan seuraavassa, järjestää omassa kokoelmassani olevat kortit liittämällä viereen Granbergin erottamat laadut. Selitykseksi mainittakoon sentään, että koska kortteja, valmistettaessa ensin valmistettiin korttipohja kehyksiueen n.s. korttikaava ja sitten näille painettiin merkkikuvat, tulen seuraavassa käsittelemään kortteja kaksivärisinä ensinnä, mainiten korttikaavan ja sitten merkkikuvan värin.

1 ryhmä. Merkkikuva isohampaisten merkkien mallinen
N:o 8. 10 penniä, Sinipunerva/Sinipunerva. Väri haalea, kauhtuneena Harmaan sinipunerva.
N:o 8. I " " Uusintapainos. Sinervän sinipunerva/punervan sinipunerva.
N:o 9. 10+10 " Kaksoiskortti. Kuten n:o 8.
N:o 1.1 " " " " n:o. 8. 1

2 ryhmä. Merkkikuvan arvonumerot 10 kussakin neljässä nurkassa.

I tyyppi. Selityksessä: "Tällä puolella .... ainoastansa----"
N:o 10. I. a) 10 penniä. Sinipunerva/Sinipunerva. Väri vaaleahko.
N:o 10. I. b) " " Sinipunerva/Harmahtavan sinipunerva, joskus punervampi
N:o 10. I. c) " " Punervan sinipunerva/Punervan sinipunerva.
N:o 10. I. d) Punervan sinipunerva/Harmaan sinipunerva.

II tyyppi. Selityksessä: "Tälle puolelle .... ainoastansa ...... "
N:o 10. II. b) | N:o 10. 11. a) } En ole tavannut korttieni joukosta.
N:o 10. II. c) 10 penniä. Punervan sinipunerva/Punervan sinipunerva. Väri täytel.
N:o 10. II. d) Punervan sinipunerva/ruskahtavan punasinervä.
N:o 10. II. e) En ole tavannut korttieni joukosta.
N:o 10. II. f) 10 penniä. Punervan sinipunerva/Meren sininen värivivahduksin.

III tyyppi. Selityksessä: Tälle puolelle .... ainoastaan " Sana "Kirjekortti" varjoviivoineen 34 mm., koristamaton Φ-kirjain.
N:o 10. III. a) | N:o 10. III. b) En ole tavannut korttieni joukosta.
N:o 10. III. c) 10 penniä. Punervan sinipunerva/Punervan sinipunewa varivivahd.
N:o 10. III. d) " " Punervan sinipunerva/harmaan tai ruskean sinipunanen
N:o 10. III. e) " " En ole tavannut korttieni joukossa.
N:o 10. III. f) " " Punervan sinipunerva/Meren sininen värivivahduksin.
N:o 10. III. g) " " Meren sininen/Merensininen. Molemmat värivivahduksin
N:o 10. III. h) " " Taivaan sininen/Meren sininen, Harmaan pnnasinervä

IV tyyppi- Samoin kuin edellä, mutta muta "Kirjekortti varjoviivoineen 36,5 mm. koristeellinen Φ-kirjain.
N:o 10. IV. a) En ole tavannut korteissani.
N:o 10. IV. b) 10 penniä. Sinipunerva/Harmahtavan sinipunerva.
N:o 10. IV. c) " Punervan sinipunerva/Punervan sinipunerva. Väri heleä
N:o 10. IV. d) " " Punervan sinipun./Harmahtavan sinipun. tai sinipunerva
N:o 10. IV. e) " Punervan sinipunerva/Punasinervä värivivahduksin.
N:o 10. IV. f) | N:o 10. IV. g) | N:o 10. IV. h) En ole tavannut korteissani.
N:o 10. IV. i) 10 penniä. Punasinervä/Punasinerva.
N:o 10. IV. j) " Punasinervä/Sinipunerva.

Kaksoiskortit I tyyppiä. Selityksissä: "Tällä puolella .... ainoastansa...."
N:o 11. I. a) 10+10 penniä. Sinipunerva/Sinipunerva.
N:o 11. I. k) " " " Sinipunerva/Punasinervä.

Kaksoiskortti III tyyppiä. Selityksissä: "Tälle puolelle .... ainoastaan..."
N:o 11. II. d) 10+10 penniä. Punervan sinipunerva/Harmahtavan sinipunerva
N:o 11. II. f) " " " Punervan sinipunerva/Meren sininen

Kaksoiskortti uutta tyyppiä, jossa otsikossa on "Postikortti" Kirjekortti-sanan sijaan
N:o 15. 10+10 penniä. Heleän punervan sinipunerva/Heleän punervan sinipunerva.