Dictionarium polygraphicum. Green for silks.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
For every pound of silk take a quarter of a pound of English allum, two ounces of white wine tartar beaten small, dissolve them together in hot water, then put in the silk, letting it lie a whole night, then take it out and dry it; having done this, take a pound of broom, boil it in a pail and a half of water for an hour or better, then take out the broom and throw it away, and put in half an ounce of beaten verdegrease stirring it about with a stick; then put in the silk for a quarter of an hour, take it out and let it lie till it is cold; then put in one ounce of pot-ashes, stir them about and put in the silk again, keep it there till you think it is yellow enough, then rinse it out and let it dry; after which put it into the blue dye fat or copper, and let it remain there till it becomes Green and dark enough; then take it out and you will have a good Green, to be beaten and dry’d.
You may let it lie a longer or less while in the dye according as you would have the Green lighter or darker; for at first you will have but a faint Green.

First dye your silk a pretty deep straw colour, rinse it clean and wring it close together with sticks; and then put about fifteen or twenty handfuls of skains into the blue dye copper; though you must take care that the strength of the dye be proportioned to the quantity of silk; and that you do not put in too many skains at once.
When it has boil'd enough take the kettle off, and let it stand for an hour; after which time you may work it again, and do the same every hour, allowing the same interval; but you must be very careful that one handful does not lie longer in than another, and when it is taken out of the copper, let it be very well cool’d, rins'd and strongly wrung with sticks, and af terwards dry’d.

To dye parrot or parroquet GREEN.
This being something lighter than the other, must be boil'd in weaker suds than the other, and as soon as it is dyed, must be wrung and dry'd as the other.

To dye green finch or canary bird GREEN.
This must be dyed as the Green; but you ought to add a little Provence wood to the last suds, according to the quantity of the silk; after which it must be boil'd in the blue copper, wrung out and rinsed.

To dye olive GREEN.
This also must be dyed as the Green, only the last suds must be encourag’d with a little Provence wood suds, till it is deep enough; then wring it out, &c. as above.

To dye a celadon or celandine GREEN.
This colour being very light and bright, must be dyed as the sea Green, and boil'd in weak suds, and managed as the Green, and dry'd.

To dye a sea GREEN.
This colour also being very light, must be perform'd as the lemon colour, and thrown into blue suds, then wrung out and dry’d.

Another sea GREEN.
For every pound of silk take three ounces of verdegrease pounded small, put it into good wine or sharp vinegar to dissolve, let it lie a whole night in it, in the morning set it over the fire and make it hot, stirring it about with a stick; and then put in the silk, (but take care not to let it boil) and let it remain two hours, or one, or half an hour according as you would have the colour a deep, middling or light Green; then put some boiling hot water into a fat or tub, to which add half an ounce or an ounce of soap, and make a lather; when it froths it is ready; then hand the silks in it, let them drop afterwards, and rinse them in river water, beat them very well, and dry them.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Green to dye.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
I. To dye an olive-GREEN.
Take clear bran liquors, but stale, a sufficient quantity, alum three pounds, logwood ground one pound; boil, and enter twenty yards of broad-cloth; boil two hours and a half, cool, and wash it well. Take clear water a sufficient quantity, heddar (commonly called linge) heath stravel or fustick as much as may make twenty yards of broad-cloth green; then take water a sufficient quantity, suffick a pound, crust madder, nut-galls, sumach, of each four ounces; boil, enter your cloth, handle it well; boil it an hour and a half, and so cool; add copperas four ounces, and enter your cloth again; boil half an hour; if you would have it sadder, put in more copperas.

II. To dye a Popingjay-GREEN.
Take water a sufficient quantity, alum two pounds, logwood ground eight ounces; boil, and enter twenty yards of broadcloth; boil three hours, and make it a bright yellow; then draw it through a cold fat, and then wash it.

III. To dye a sea-GREEN.
First make it a sad-blue, then take water a sufficient quantity, alum two pounds, logwood four ounces; boil, and enter your cloth; boil three hours; then wash it, and make it a bright yellow; after which, draw it through a cold fat; then wash it again.

IV. To dye a Gras-GREEN.
First make it a sad blue, then take alum two pounds; boil and enter your cloth; boil three hours, and wash it; then dip it into a good yellow dye.

To dye a French-GREEN.
Take clear stale bran-liquor a sufficient quantity, alum two pounds and a half; boil, enter twenty yards of sad blue broadcloth; boil it two hours and a half, and wash it well. Take water a sufficient quantity, heath stravel or fustick sufficient; boil well, put in your cloth, and handle it well; then take twenty ounces of logwood ground, and put into the dye also copperas four ounces (which binds the colour) and if you please, you may new-draw the cloth through a new fat, and handle it; so will it be finished.

VI. To dye a Verdegrease-GREEN.
Take water a sufficient quantity, make it as hot as you can endure your hand in it, in which put verdegrease two ounces in fine powder; enter twenty yards of stuff, and handle it well with your hands; let it lye in the liquor all night, stirring it some time, and then let it lie till it is deep enough.

VII. To dye a Popinjan-GREEN.
Take clear stale bran-liquor or sowre tap-wort a sufficient quantity, alum three ounces; boil, and enter twenty yards of broad-cloth, and boil three hours; cool your cloth, and wash it well. Take fair water a sufficient quantity, neddar (called also linge) or heath stravel a good quantity; boil it well, and take it out; then enter your cloth; boil it well, making it a bright yellow. Heat your blue fat, and put in indigo bruised small four ounces, madder three ounces, ground malt two quarts, new yeast a quart; mix these things well together, keep them as hot as you can, and let it stand till it will strike blue; then enter your cloth, and handle it well (to avoid spotting) till it is done, and so wash it.

VIII. To dye another French-GREEN.
First make your cloth a good blue, and take the same clean bran liquor you take for your greens a sufficient quantity, alum three pounds, logwood ground four ounces; boil well, enter twenty yards of broadcloth, boil two hours and a half; after take it out, cool it, wash it well. Take fair water a sufficient quantity, good neddar or heath sstravel so much as will make your cloth a good green. Take fair water a sufficient quantity, logwood ground a pound; let them boil, add a little urine; enter, your cloth, boil a quarter of an hour; handle it, and so cool it, If you would have it a sad-colour, enter it again, cool, and wash it.

IX. To dye a Forest-Green.
First make your cloth a good blue. Take clear stale bran liquor a sufficient quantity, alum three pounds, logwood ground five ounces; let them boil, enter twenty yards of broad-cloth, handle, and boil it two hours and a half; take it out, cool, and wash it. Take fair water a sufficient quantity, and good hedder enough to make your cloth green; boil it well, then enter your cloth, and boil a sufficient time. Take fair water a sufficient quantity, logwood ground twenty ounces; boil them a quarter of an hour, cool a little; then enter your cloth, and handle it well, letting it boil about a quarter of an hour longer; after which, cool your cloth, and wash it well.

X. To dye a Gras-GREEN.
First, make your cloth a bright blue, then take clear stale bran-liquor or sowre tap-wort a sufficient quantity, alum three pounds; let them boil, and enter twenty yards of broad-cloth; handle it, boil with a strong fire for two hours, cool, wash it well. Take water a sufficient quantity, hedder or heath-stravel what you think fit; boil well for an hour; take forth the hedder, enter your cloth, handle it well, and let it boil a quarter of an hour; then cool, and put in a little urine; enter your cloth again, boil a quarter of an hour, cool, and wash it well.
Note, That the different and various colours of Greens arise from the first blue being lighter or sadder, or from the yellow being a deep or light colour.

XI. A very good GREEN colour.
Take sap-green, bruise it, put water to it; then add a little alum, mix, and infuse for two or three days.

XII. To make a very good dye.
First, dye the cloth or stuff yellow, as we direct in the following; then put it into the blue dye described foregoing.

XIII. To make a dark GREEN colour.
First dye your wool, yarn, stuff, or cloth of a blue colour, as we direct in the foregoing articles; then put it into your yellow dye as in the following, and it will be a dark Green.

XIV. To dye a Popingjay-GREEN.
Make a weak lixivium of pot-ashes, such as the country peo ple wash their clothes with; put into it Indigo a sufficient quantity; then put in your things to be dyed (being first dyed yellow) let it boil, the longer the better, so will the colour be good.

XV. A fair GREEN for miniature.
Grind verdegrease with vinegar and a little tartar, then add a little quick-lime and sap-green; grind all well together, and keep it in a shell, if it grows hard, with vinegar.

XVI. To make a very fair GREEN.
Take verdegrease, tartar, and vinegar, of each a sufficient quantity; boil them all together, and it is done.

XVII. Another GREEN for limning.
Take blackthorn-berries gathered at the latter end of August when ripe, beat them, boil them eight or ten hours very gently; then add water to make it thinner; strain through a cloth as hard as you can, and add to the liquor alum in powder q. 5. some add vinegar, but then it is longer a drying, and will be ruddy. You must keep it in a bladder in the shade, or in the chimney-corner, and it will keep.

XVIII. To make straw-GREEN.
Boil it in water with litmose or logwood, and then it will be blue; then boil them in a lixivium of pot-ashes and yellow barberry-bark, and they will be Green.

XIX. To make a beautiful liquid GREEN.
Take verdegrease one pound, tartar in powder eight ounces, wine vinegar a quart; mix all, infuse for one night, and then boil till half is consumed, and filter whilst hot. When you use it, mix gum ammoniack and saffron to stiffen it; it will glaze over buckthornberry-greens. If you mix it with the juice of those berries and azure, it will make several sorts of Green.

XX. To make GREEN balls.
Take buckthorn-berries a pound, beat and boil them in ten pints of water till half is consumed; strain all through a cloth, and put into the liquor as much ceruss in fine powder as will make it into a paste, which form into little balls, and dry upon tiles; when dry, stiffen them with dissolved gum. They will be better if you mix with them some gum ammoniack.

To dye woollen stuffs GREEN.
First dye the stuffs yellow with broom or dye-weed, rinse them well out, and while they are yet wet, pass them through the blue dye, and work it, till it is the colour you would have it, either light or dark; so that several shades or sorts of green may be dyed the same way (the stuffs having been always first tinged yellow).

A sea GREEN.
For every pound of stuffs allow three ounces of verdegrease powdered, three pints and a half of wine vinegar, stir the verdegrease in it; pass a pair of stockings through the liquor, and then hang them out without rinsing; when they are dry, wet them in the liquor again, and hang them up to dry again, so oft, till they are perfectly clear'd from all humidity.

A brown or iron GREEN.
Having hung clear rain water over the fire, put in for every pound of woollen powder'd galls, gum, brasil and copperas, of each an ounce and half, and verdegrease one ounce, boil them well together, stirring them very well; then boil the stuffs in it, till it is to your mind, and when it is cold rinse it out.

To dye a lasting brown or iron GREEN.
For a piece of stuff of fifteen ells, take three quarters of a pound of allum, half a pound of tartar, two ounces of calcin'd vitriol; in these boil the stuff for half an hour, then rinse it in clean water, and when it is dryed for the blue, you may throw away the allum suds.

How to blue it.
The ware being blued with woad of a light or deep brown according to your mind, then rinse it again, dry it and prepare it for the following yellow. Boil eight pound of broom for half an hour, keeping it down in the kettle with a stick, &c. that it does not float on the top of the water, and when you use it, add to it two quarts of sharp lie, half an ounce of flower of brimstone, and an ounce of verdegrease; then dye the goods but only once, and it will be of a beautiful brown or iron Green.
If you please you may dye the stuff Green from a lead colour, and it will be deeper than the former, and last very well; but when it is dyed with brown wood and blued, it will be lighter; but not so firm as the other.

To dye linen GREEN.
Lay the linen a whole night in strong allum water dry it well, then boil broom or dyers-weed, for the space of an hour; take it out and put into the suds either half or a whole ounce of verdegrease, according to the quantity of the ware you have to dye; stir it well about with a stick, and then work the linen in it, once, twice or thrice, as occasion requires, adding the second and third time a quantity of pot-ashes equal to an hen's egg; then work your linen the third time, and you will find it of a yellow colour; then dry it in the air, and afterwards throw it into the blue-vat (see BLUE) and that will produce the Green you desire.

To dye thread of a lasting GREEN.

Boil three quarters of a pound of Allum, half a pound of tartar, in two quarts of sharp lye for an hour, and in it soak the thread for three hours; keeping it hot all the while.

Then dye it yellow.
Put into the kettle eight pound of broom, one pound of corn marigold flowers, half a pound of crab-tree-bark, that looks yellow and ripe; and superadd two quarts of sharp lye, when these have boil'd half an hour, then dye the thread in the liquor as deep a yellow as possible; but if you can procure Spanish yellow, an addition of three quarters of a pound of it will heighten the dye, and render it more lasting; for it is to be remembred, that all yellows that are design'd to be dyed Green, must be as deep as possibly they can be.

After this turn it GREEN with BLUE dye.
There are in this as in the foregoing receipt, four operations in dying a good Green, that you may make it either a light or a dark Green at pleasure: for first,
You may blue the thread with woad, or else with indigo, being first thrown into the allum suds, and afterwards into the yellow, and you will have a lasting Green. So that Green is to be dyed several ways.

Another green for thread.
First fill the kettle with sharpe lye, and then throw in a bundle of broom; boil them very well, and then pour off the liquor into a vat, and for every pound and half of thread, allow half an ounce of verdigrease, and half an ounce of allum; put these into a quart of lye, in which brown brasil wood has been boil'd; stir them together and pour them into the broom water; and in this mixt liquor, lay the thread in soak for one night, and you will find it well dyed.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Sea-green colour for a tincture of glass.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
The first sea-GREEN colour for a tincture of Glas.

The Italians give the colour of sea-green to Beryl, which is a precious stone found at the foot of mount Taurus by the river Euphrates, which has the green-blue of the sea.

It is found in the Indies of a colour somewhat paler, which makes it be call'd by different names; and when the colour is deeper, they commonly pass for other precious stones: it is therefore the water expresses the colour.

This colour, which is one of the finest sky-colours, ought to be made of fine and well purified crystal, which the Italians call bollito; for if it be made of common glass, it is not so fair; nor must there be any manganese put to this colour.

Therefore to make it very fine and beautiful, take crystal frit, put it into a pot, set it in a furnace, where being well melted and clear, you must skim off the salt, which will swim on the top like oil, with an iron ladle; for if you should not take it off, the colour would be foul and oily.

The matter having been well purified, you must add to every ten pounds of it or thereabouts, three ounces of the powder of copper calcin’d (see COPPER calcin'd) with an eighth part of zoffer prepai’d, also in powder, and well mixt both together.

In putting both these powders into the pot on the crystalline metal, you must do it by little and little, for fear the crystal rising and swelling, should run over, of which care must be taken, by keeping stirring it well all the while.

When this has been done, let the metal stand still and settle for the space of three hours, that the colour may incorporate; then stir, it again, and you may then make a trial of the colour.

And it may be wrought twenty-four hours after the mixing of the powders, for by that time it will be well coloured; but the workman must first well mix the whole, for fear the colour should not be precipitated to the bottom, which must always be well observed in all vessels, wherein there are colours, and the doses of the tinctures rightly proportioned.

Another sea-GREEN made with less charge to colour glass.

Though this colour be inferior to the last, yet it has beauties sufficient to satisfy both the fight, and pay the pains of the work man. He must take the same preparation of scales of copper we ave mentioned, and the same dose of zaffer, with as much crystal made of rochetta of the Levant and barilla of Spain without any manganese either in the one or other, which has not been cast into water, but well purified from its salt, observing in this place all we have noted to be done in other preparations of crystal and sea-green, and you'll have a fine sky-colour or sea-green fit for any use.

Another sea-GREEN far finer than the rest.

Neri seems to be the inventor of this new sea-green, and to have experimented it; it is made with caput mortuum of vitriol of Venus, without any corrosive, which is a very curious preparation. This caput mortuum ought to be expos'd to the air for some days in a place where the sun cannot come, where (by a magnetical virtue) it will attract the universal spirit which will restore to it again part of that it has lost by extraction, and will become of a whitish Green colour; then pound it with the same dose of zoffer prepared; put the whole in a pot filled with crystal metal very fine and well purified from its salt. Observing all we have noted on this subject, it will make an extra ordinary sea-green.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Observations on green colours.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
Verdegrease. It is a good Green, but subject to decay; being dry upon paper, it will be of a higher colour than when first laid on; therefore to preserve it from that fault, dissolve sapgreen, and it keeps its colour. You may make it fine, by ex tracting its tincture with spirit of vinegar, and then evaporating it to a driness, an ounce of this will be worth ten ounces of the other.

Verditer is a light Green, seldom us'd in any thing but colouring landscapes, which seem afar off; and it is good for such a purpose, because it is inclining to blue.

Sap Green is a dark, dirty green, never us’d but to shadow other greens in the darkest places, or to lay upon some dark ground behind a picture, which ought to be of a dark Green; but you may do without this colour, for indigo mixt with yellow-berries makes just such another colour.

Copper Green is an excellent transparent colour of a shining nature, if thickened with the sun or over a gentle fire. It is the most us'd of any green in washing of prints or maps, especially in colouring of trees, ground, grass, &c. for it is a most perfect grass Green.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Iris green, to make.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
Take of the bluest flower de luces, which are called otherwise flag iris, strip off the upper or fattin part of them, and keep only that; the rest is not good for any use in painting, and pick even all the little yellow nerves, and throw them away too; then pound what you have thus pick’d in a mortar, throwing three or four spoonfuls of water upon it, according to the quantity of flowers you pound; but you must first have dissolved in this water a little alum, and a very little gum Arabick; and having pounded them well together, strain all through a close cloth, and put this juice into shells, which dry, in the air.

Another way.
Pound your flower de luce flowers, pick'd as before, in a mortar, and press out the juice into shells, and salt the juice in each shell with alum a little unequally, and you will by that means have Greens of different shades.

Another way.
Pick the flowers as directed in the first, then pound them, and put to them a little alum water, and throw in a little powder of quick lime, as if you were salting a sallad. This will both change the colour and cleanse it.

Another better way.
Pound alum, and having bruis’d French or Avignion-berries, mix them with water, and boil them either over a fire or an ash heat, till the water becomes very yellow; then pound the flower de luces in a mortar, and pour a little of this yellow water upon them, according as you would have your Green, either bright or sad; then strain it through a cloth of goat's hair, for if it were pass'd through linen, it would not be so good; and put the juice so strained into large shells, and expose them to all the heat of the sun; for if they are set in the shade, the Green will become mouldy or mothery, and prove too clammy.

Another way.
Mince the leaves of the flower de luce or flag iris very small, and put them into a glass or earthen vessel; or rather into a copper pot or pan (which is better) with some alum and quick lime powdered; let them stand to purify in this state for ten or o days; and when they are rotten, squeeze them into ells.
The Green is more lively and rich when the Green is only pounded, and the juice squeez'd out at once, without giving them time to rot, having first salted them over with powdered alum.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Sap green.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
SAP GREEN is a colour like that of an oak leaf, if it be us’d thin with common water, for this as well as the former wants no gum; but if it be us’d strong, will produce as dark a green as any.

It will be proper to try colours first on a white Dutch tile, and by thinning it with water, you may render it of what strength you please; and may brighten it very much, with adding to it a very little verdegrease.

There are two ways of making sap-green, viz. Take the flowers of the blue flag iris, or flower de luce, and press them while there is any juice to be got from them; boil this gently in a glaz'd pipkin till it grows thicks; adding a little alum to it, and it will make a very useful and lasting Green.

N. B. You must observe this, that in the boiling of any juice, &c. of the colours before-mentioned, you must always do it in an earthen pipkin; for if it be boil'd in vessels of metal, they will oftentimes change from the colours intended.

The second way to make a sap-green for the washing and illuminating prints, is to take the juice of buckthorn-berries; and tho' that juice simply will yield only dark purple of a very base hue; yet by adding tartar to it, it will change into a good sap green.

Either of these colours will mix with the liquid verdegrease above-mentioned, as well as make a delicate shade for it.

There is besides these, another Green which is admired by some persons, and that carries a good body with it, and with a degree of transparency too (as it may be made) but as it is commonly us'd, is a colour of a full body, and fit only for painting in miniature.

This is made by mixing Dutch pink with indigo to what de gree of colour they please; but the high preparation of French berries with indigo (see the Article YELLOWS) is much to be preferr'd to Dutch pink, especially as this answers all the intentions of Dutch pink, and carries a transparency with it, which the Dutch-pink has not.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. The way of preparing the transparent verdegrease is as follows.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
Take six ounces of common verdegrease (the distill'd verdegrease will not answer this purpose so well) break it into little pieces, and boil it gently in a quart of white wine vinegar, keeping continually stirring it; when you perceive it to boil, add a little tartar broken, continuing still to stir it, till you perceive the liquor of such a colour as you would have it, i. e. till it is of a fine transparent Green, with a bluish cast, which you may know by dipping in a bit of white paper.

Then pour it through a linen cloth into an open vessel, and set it to cool, and when it is quite cold, keep it in a bottle for use; stop it close, for being expos'd to the air, it will dry; but may be reduc’d again by common water.

This liquor should be touch’d upon part of the lights and shades of a print, and the shades afterwards coloured with Sap green.

N. B. In the making of this Green, be sure to make it strong enough; for it cannot be strengthened afterwards, without the trouble of boiling afresh; but may at any time be rendered as faint as you please, by mixing common water with it.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Green.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
GREEN is one of the original colours of the rays of light. If urine, citron juice, or spirit of vitriol be cast on a green ribbon, it becomes blue, by reason that the yellow of the greening weed is thereby exhaled and consumed, so that nothing but blue remains behind.

Grass and herbs, and even all vegetables, in places expos'd to the open air are Green, and those in subterraneous places, or places inaccessible to the air, white and yellow. Thus when wheat or the like germinates under ground, 'tis white or yellow; and what is in the open air, green, tho' this too is yellow before it be green.

Artificial Greens are rarely simple colours, but produced by the mixture of yellow and blue.

Two powders, the one blue and the other yellow, well mixt appear perfectly Green; tho' when view’d with a microscope, we may observe a chequer of blue and yellow.

The dyers make divers shades or casts of Green, as light-green, yellow-green, grass-green, laurel-green, sea-green, dark-green, parrot-green, and celaden-green.

All the Greens are first dyed in blue, then taken down with woad, verdigrease, &c. and then green'd with the weed, there being no one ingredient that will give green alone.

Mountain Green or Hungary Green is a sort of greenish powder found in little grains like sand among the mountains of Kernamsent in Hungary, and those of Moldavia.

Though some are of opinion that this mountain green is factitious, and the same with what the antients call'd flos æris, prepar’d by casting water or rather wine on copper red hot from the furnace, and catching the fumes thereof on copper plates laid over for that purpose; or by dissolving copper plates in wine, much after the same manner as in making verdegrease.

Painters make use of this colour for a grass Green.

It is sometimes counterfeited by grinding verdegrease with ceruss.

GREENs are allow'd by all persons to depend upon the YELLOW and BLUE, and any Green colour, whatever you please, may be made with them.

Gamboge is one of the first yellows, which may be made to produce five or six sorts of Green with verdegrease, according as the gamboge is in the greater or lesser proportion; if it abounds, it will make a tolerable oak green, and being mixt with a greater quantity of verdegrease, it will make a fine grass Green.

But the yellow, which some prefer before all others, is made of French-berries, which is either deeper or fainter, according as the liquor they are boil'd in is more or less stain’d by them; if it be very thin, it makes a good glaze all over the verdegrease, and as it approaches nearer to Dutch-pink or gall-stone, commands almost any colour we want; being agreeably mixt with the transparent verdigrease, and is still transparent.

In like manner a yellow, drawn from the roots of barberries, and also that drawn from the roots of the mulberry-tree, will in a great measure produce the like effect, being mixt with the transparent verdegrease.

As for verdegrease it self, it produces a fine bluish Green, flows readily in the pencil, and may even serve as an ink to write with.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. To make a granate colour in glass.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
To make a GRANATE colour in glass.
The beauty of this colour is to express the yellowish red of fire, when it is expos'd to the sun.

Take crystal frit, and of frit of Rochetta each an equal quantity, mix them well, and to fifty pounds of these materials add half a pound of manganese of Piedmont prepar’d, half an ounce of zaffer prepar'd; mix them well with the frits; then put them by little and little into an earthen pot made red hot in the furnace, because the glass is apt to rise and run over.

After four days, the glass being well ting'd and purified, you may work it; you may increase or diminish the colour as much as you please, which depends on the discretion of the operator, who puts in the powders which ought to be put in orderly, that the matter be not spoiled.

To make a GRANATE colour in glas of lead.

The vivacity of this colour appears no less in glass of lead than in crystal, if it be carefully made.

Take ten pounds of crystal frit, and eight pounds of calx of lead, and after having added an ounce and a half of manganese of Piedmont, and a quarter of an ounce of zaffer both prepar’d (as is taught under the articles MANGANESE and ZAFFER) put the whole into a pot, heated in the furnace; twelve hours after cast that melted matter into water, and take out the lead that remains behind in the pot.

Then put the matter again into the same pot, and let it stand ten hours to purify.

Then mix it well with the iron, and let the fæces precipitate; then see if the colour pleases you; then work it to what uses you please, and you’ll have a glass of lead of a fine Granate colour.

To make a paste for an oriental GRANATE.

The Granate is very like the carbuncle, for being both expos'd to the sun, they exhibit the colour of live burning coals, being between red and yellow, which is the true colour of fire.

There are several sorts of Granates, both oriental and occiden tal, some deeper, others paler; but the jewellers know how to make them appear, by setting them on silver foils.

The way to imitate them is as follows:

Take two ounces of natural crystal prepar'd, and six ounces of minium, with sixteen grains of manganese of Piedmont, and two grains of zaffer prepar'd; let the whole be pulveriz'd and well mixt together, and being put into a crucible, set them into the furnace with its cover well luted; there let them bake with the same precautions given as to the pastes for other gems, and you will have a very fine Granate as resplendent as the oriental.

A deeper oriental GRANATE.

This colour will not only be deeper, but also far fairer than the precedent.

To make it, take two ounces of natural crystal prepar'd, five ounces and a half of minium, to which add fifteen grains of manganese of Piedmont prepar’d; and having pulveriz'd it, mix the whole together, and proceed in baking this paste as directed for other pastes, only take notice, you must here leave more empty space in the crucible, because this matter rises more than the others, wherein care must be taken. Then will you have a deeper oriental Granate than the former, which you may polish, &c.

Another fairer GRANATE.

This paste will be yet much fairer than the precedent, if you take to two ounces of natural crystal calcin’d and prepar’d, six ounces of vermilion or minium in fine powder, thirty-five grains of manganese of Piedmont prepar'd, and four grains of prepar’d zoffer, which being well pulveriz'd, mix together in a crucible, leaving a greater empty space than in the other, by reason the matter rises more than in the others; then lute the cover well, let it dry, and put it in the furnace to bake, as is directed as to other artificial gems, observing the same circumstances noted on that subject, and you will have a very fine Granate, fairer than the rest.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. To dye silk a gold colour. To dye stuff a gold colour.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
To dye silk a gold colour.
This must be dyed after the same manner as the straw colour is, only when it is become reasonably deep, put it into the last suds of the orange-liquor and stir it therein so long, till you are sure it is grown deep enough, then rinse it out and dry it.

To dye stuff a GOLD colour.
Let the stuff be first dyed yellow, then set fresh water over the fire, and for every pound of ware, use an ounce of fustel wood, call'd also yellow shavings, and a good quantity of coarse pot-ashes; let the dye boil for half an hour, and afterwards work the stuff in it.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Liquid gold and silver. To burnish gold. To make a very fine polish'd gold...

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
LIQUID GOLD and silver.
Take five or six leaves of Gold or silver, and grind them with a stiff gum lake water, and a good quantity of salt, as small as you can; then put it into a vial or glaz'd vessel, add to it as much fair water as may dissolve the stiff gum-water; then let it stand four hours that the Gold may settle, decant off this water, and put in more till the Gold is clean wash'd; then put more fair water to the Gold, a little sal armoniack and common salt, digesting it close for four days; then put all into a piece of thin glover's leather (whose grain is peel'd off) and hang it up, so will the sal armoniack fret away, and the Gold remain behind, which keep.

Or thus; grind leaf Gold with strong or thick gum-water, very fine, and while you are grinding it, add more thick gum water, being very fine wash it in a great shell, as you do bice, then temper it with a little Mercury sublimate, and a little dissolv’d gum to bind it to the shell; shake it, and spread the Gold about the sides thereof, that it may be all of one colour and fineness, which use with fair water, as you do other colours.

To burnish Gold.
Do the same as to liquid SILVER. Take gum-lake and dissolve it into a stiff water, then grind a blade or two of saffron with it, and you will have a fair Gold; when you have laid it and it is thoroughly dry, burnish it with a dog's tooth.

Or thus; Having written what you had a mind with your pen and pencil, cut the leaf Gold or silver into pieces, according to the size, take it up with a feather, or cotton, &c. and lay it upon the writing, or drawing, which press down with a piece of wool, and being dry burnish it.

To make a very fine polish’d GOLD.
The woods you would gild must be very smooth; and to ren der them the smoother, it will be proper to pass sea dog's skin over them.
Then size it over with a stuff or size made of the cuttings of white leather gloves, (see SIZE) and when it is thoroughly dry, lay on nine or ten layers of white.
When this is perfectly dry use your shave grass, that you may render it so much the kinder, and then having made some size and water warm, dip a linen rag into it, which wring out, and then rub the white.
Then lay on two or three layers of Gold colour, and more if it be not of a good body or deep enough; and when it is dry rub it well with a dry cloth, till it is bright again, then take of the strongest brandy you can get, and with a pencil brush wash the Gold colour with this brandy; and having leaf Gold ready cut, lying upon the cushion, clap it on the moment the pencil is gone over the part; and when it is dry polish it with a dog's tooth.

How to lay on GOLD and SILVER.
Set your piece slanting, and wet a part with a large pencil dipp'd in fair water, then having the Gold ready cut on the cushion, lay on the Gold, taking it up with a cotton.
When the whole is gilded, set it by to dry; but not either in the wind or sun, and when it is dry enough, burnish it with a dog's tooth.
To know when it is in a fit temper, pass the dog's tooth over it in some little places; and if it does not rub kindly, but peels off, it is not dry enough.
But on the other hand take care not to let it be too dry; for it will require so much the more trouble in polishing, and after you have done all you can, it will not have the lustre you desire.

To lay Gold on any thing.
Temper red-lead ground fine with linseed-oil, write with it, and lay leaf Gold upon it, let it dry and polish it.

To lay Gold on glass.
Grind together chalk and red-lead each a like quantity, and temper them with linseed-oil; lay it on and when it is almost dry, lay leaf Gold on it, let it be thoroughly dry and then polish it.

Make a red with red-lead, a little vermilion and the white of an egg, well beaten up; grind the whole upon a marble, and clap it into the deep or hollow places with a pencil.

Grind leaf Gold with honey just out of the hive, or very pure on a clean marble, till it is extremely soft under your hand; then put it into a glass of fair water, and stir it, changing the water till it is very clear and fine.
Then pour it into the quantity of a penny-worth of aqua fortis, and let it lie for two days, then take out the Gold, and the aqua fortis may serve another time, the same may be done with silver.
When you would lay on either the one or the other, temper it with one or two drops of a very thin gum water, and to give it the smoother face, let your water be soap'd.
It will be also proper to have a wash of gallstone under the Gold, which sets it much off.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Colours for glass.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
Take scales of iron one ounce, scales of copper one ounce, jet half an ounce; reduce them to powder, and mix them.

Take powder blue one pound, sal nitre half a pound; mix them, and grind them well together.

Take red chalk eight ounces, jet four ounces, iron scales and litharge of silver of each two ounces, gum arabick half an ounce; dissolve in water; grind all together for half an hour as stiff as you can; then put it in a glass and stir it well, and let it stand to settle fourteen days.

Take red-chalk one pound, jet one pound and a half; gum arabick half a pound; let all be finely powdered; grind them well on a copper plate with rain water very thick, and let it stand three days to settle; then dry it on an earthen dish, and grind it again on a copper plate.

Take red-lead one pound, scales of copper one peund, and flint five pounds; divide them into three parts, and add to them as much sal nitre as one of those parts; put them into a crucible, and melt them with a strong fire, and when it is cold, powder it, and grind it on a porphyry.

Take minium four ounces, sand one ounce, scales of copper calcin’d five ounces; mix them together.

Take silver an ounce, antimony half an ounce; melt them in a crucible; then pound the mass to powder, and grind it on a copper plate; add to it yellow oker or brick duff calcin’d again fifteen ounces, and grind them well together with water.

Take prepared or leaf silver, lay each of them smooth and even on a plate of glass, and burn or anneal the same together, and the glass will be of a delicate golden or yellow colour.

Pointure or BLACK.
Take scales of iron one part, and jet two parts; or scales of iron one part, of jet one part and a half; or scales of iron three parts, jet three parts, scales of copper two parts, and it will be a pleasant colour.

Artificial jet for this purpose.
Take minium or red-lead three parts, flint or white pebbles one part; mix, calcine, and grind them.

Take minium one pound, brown stone one pound, whiteflint five pounds; divide them into three parts, and add to them as much sal nitre as one of those parts; calcine, melt, and grind it as you do the green.

Take jet four ounces, litharge of silver two ounces, red-chalk one ounce; powder them fine and mix them.

A noble RED or GREEN colour.
Take leaves of gold or calx of gold made by calcination, or aqua regis; put either of them on plates of glass, and heat them gradually red hot together; so will the glass be ting'd of a noble red colour, or else of a florid green, which colours result from the purity or impurity of the gold.

Take jet two parts, white flint ground on a glass very fine one part; mix them. Or, minium or red-lead three unds, sand from the glass-house one pound; mix them.

Take Spanish brown ten parts, leaf silver one part, antimony half a part; put all into a crucible, and calcine them well.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. [Glass, painting.]

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
To make white ground for painting on glass.
Now to pursue our work, we will begin with the preparation of all the colours to be used in painting glass; for before we proceed to prescribe the rules how to work, the materials must be considered.
The white is compounded of several ingredients; the first are small white river pebble-stones heated red hot over a fire in an iron ladle, and thrown afterwards into an earthen dish full of cold water to calcine them; and this must be repeated several times until they be prepar'd; afterwards being dried, pound them with a stone or glass pestle in a stone mortar, and so grind them upon a marble to an impalpable powder; then mix a fourth part of nitre with it, and calcine them in a crucible; then pound and grind them again, and calcine them a third time over a smaller fire than your former, and so take them off for use.
This done, when you would paint with it, add equal parts in weight of gyp, a sort of talk found amongst plaster mold baked on the coals to a whiteness, and reducible to powder, and rocaille, (see ROCAILLE) grind them all three well together in a hollow plate of copper with gum arabick water. Thus you'll have your white in good condition to paint withal.

To prepare black for painting on glass.
As this colour cannot be omitted in any sort of painting, so in this, the manner of using it is much the same, and the preparation easy.
You must grind scales of iron from the smith's anvil-block for three hours on the shallow copper bason or plate; add to this one third of the same weight of racaille, with a little calx of copper, to hinder the iron from turning red in the fire; grind it to as impalpable a powder as you can bring it to, and so keep it in a close vessel for use.

To prepare a yellow paint for glass.
This colour requires a more costly preparation than the precedent, because it cannot be well done without a tenth part of prepar'd silver, as is shewn hereafter.
Take fine silver in plates or leaves, stratify them in a crucible with powder of sulphur or nitre, the first and last lay being of the powder, and so calcine them in a furnace; this done, cast it out as soon as all the sulphur is consumed into an earthen bason of water, and afterwards pound it in your stone mortar until 'tis fit for the marble, and so grind it with some of its water wherein it was cooled for six hours; then add nine times its weight of red oker, and grind them together for a full hour and it's done, and fit for painting on glass.

To make a blue for painting glass.
The whole secret of this preparation depends on the calcining the ingredients, and goodness of the crucible.
Take two ounces of zaffer, two ounces of minium, and eight ounces of very fine white sand; put all these into a bell-metal mortar, and pound them very well, and so into a crucible covered and luted over a quick fire for an hour; then draw out the crucible, and pound them again as before; this done, add 3. fourth of its weight in salt-petre powdered, and having mixt als very well together, return them into a crucible covered and luted, which place again in the furnace for two hours at least, continuing such another fire as the former. The crucible being off, and cooled a second time, grind the mass as before, and so put it into a crucible again, with a fixth part of salt-petre, and let it remain on the fire for three hours; then take off the crucible immediately with an iron spatula red hot, and take out the matter left it should stick, being very clammy and hard to be emptied.
'Tis convenient to have strong crucibles for this calcination, because it remains so considerable a while in the fire, and they must be luted with an extraordinary lute, adding powder of borax to the powder of glass vitrified, which helps the fusion of the glass which we have omitted there; but the greatest stress lies in baking the crucible afterwards in a small fire to cement the pores, and make the earth compact as glass, which would be very much furthered if you would throw on it a considerable quantity of salt as it comes out of the fire. This would glaze it, and capacitate it for retaining the spirits in the fire.

To make a red colour for glass paint.
This requires as much caution as the blue.
You must take scales of iron and litharge of silver of each a dram, feretto of Spain half a dram, rocaille three drams and a half; grind all these for half an hour on a shallow copper plate; in the mean time, pound three drams of blood-stone in an iron mortar, and add it to the rest; then pound a dram of gum, arabick in that mortar to an impalpable powder to take off the remains of the blood-stone, and so add it to the rest, grinding them still continually, left the bloodstone be spoiled.
The best manner of grinding these is to pour water by little and little on the ingredients as you grind them, neither wetting them too much nor too little, but just as much as will keep a good temper, as for painting; afterwards put all into a foot glass, and so drop on it through a small hollow came of wood or with your finger, as much water as will bring it to the consistence of an egg's yolk butter'd, or a little more; then cover the glass to preserve it from dust, and so let it stand three days to settle.
After this, decant the clearest and purest of the colours that rise at the top into another glass, without disturbing the sediment; and two days after it has settled anew, pour off again the purest of the colours as before.
This done, set it in the body of a broken mattress or bolt-head over a gentle slow fire to dry easily, and so keep it for use.
When you have occasion for it, take a little fair water in a glass, and with it, moisten as much colour as you think convenient; that will be excellent for carnation. As for the fæces which are very thick, dry them too, and you may moisten these in like manner with water for drapery, timber colour, and such other as you think convenient.
It is true all painters of glass don't use these colours thus prepar’d, there being few artists of that kind, who have not invented their own particular colours, which they esteem as great secrets.
But nevertheless they that have been above describ'd are sufficient for the best paintings of all sorts, provided the workman has but the skill to manage them.

To make a purple colour for painting of glass.
The preparation of this purple colour is exactly like that of the blue, for this reason we need not use any tedious repetitions.
You must take an ounce of zaffer, and an ounce of very pure and clear perigueux, two ounces of minium, eight ounces of very fine and white sand; pound all these in a bell-metal mortar, and reduce it to an impalpable powder; put it afterwards into a good crucible well covered and luted in the furnace; keep a very good fire to it for an hour; then draw it out, and as soon as it is cold, pound the mass over again in the same mor tar; to this add a fourth part of its weight of nitre; mix them together, and put them into a crucible, and so proceed until you have a fine purple colour.

To make a green paint for glass.
The change of the ingredients makes this colour, but the method for incorporating them is the same as the former.
Take two ounces of æs ustum, to this add two ounces of minium, and eight ounces of very fine white sand; pound these together in a metal mortar to an impalpable powder, and put it afterwards in a crucible luted and covered into a wind furnace, giving it a good fire for an hour; after this, draw it off, and let it cool; then pound it again, adding a fourth part of its weight of nitre in powder; grind and mix them well together, putting them afterwards into crucible luted and covered in the furnace for two hours, and then you'll have a very fine green.

Of other colours in general for painting of glass.
We have directed how to make the first master-colours for painting on glass; now we proceed to shew what other depend on them without enlarging on these preparations.
The red serves for carnation, but there ought to be one part of feretto of Spain in the composition, and another of rocaille; grind these on your copper plate, imbibing the powder with gum'd water until it be made fit for use.
The red fæces there also mentioned will serve in drapery; and to describe timber work, trunks of trees, hair, brick and such other things, you must take an ounce of feretto of Spain as in the former composition, an ounce of iron scales, and two ounces of rocaille; grind them together on the copper plate, moistening them with gum water till they be brought to a proper consistence, neither too thick nor too thin; so you'll have a red inclining to a dark yellow, very fit for use.
There be several more made use of in this, as well as in other painting, but are compounded of the principal colours as we have intimated in our discourse of colours for painting on enamel.

Another way to paint on glass.
Take very white Glass varnish it very thin on one side with a white varnish; then having made choice of some fine impress cut on paper just fit for the piece of glass you design to paint on, dip it in water, and letting it soak and dry a little, clap the picture side thereof to the varnish side of the glass, as exactly plain and even as possible, and so let it dry thoroughly; afterwards moisten the paper on the blank side, and with a blunt graver, draw off and trace the lines of the picture, which will afterwards remain perfectly and distinctly on the varnish side of your glass quarre.
This draught is for the model; you must paint your filings in it, and observe that the tracings and strokes of the picture are to serve you in shadowing, which cannot be repeated without disadvantage to your piece.
The manner of painting on glass is quite contrary to that of limning or painting on cloth or wood; for in this, the paint being but on one side, is plainly visible on the other. Here the settings off are first done; then the compound colours just run over, and so continuing until perfected: whereas on linen, &c. the setting off or heightenings are the last strokes, and their ground colour or first is that which we end withal, and make our last lay in all pieces done on glass.
We do not shew the way to make up the colours, nor how to mix and finish the artificial ones, for that relates immediately to the art of painting, of which you will find in several other articles, and not to this art of glass-painting; and these noted herein are the same as in the other art of painting on cloth, and not very easily prepared.
You must also paint on glass just as in miniature with water colours, laying your picture underneath it as before; and this will shew finer than if done in oyl, besides the colours dry in a moment.
Your pieces being thus done in oyl, or water colours, may receive a very additional and improving beauty by overlaying all the colours, except the ground, with leaf silver, which will appear very glorious and lively on such as are transparent, to wit, lakes, verditers.

General remarks for all colours.
The first time a new pot is put into the furnace, it always leaves some sully or foulness on the glass, which spoils the colours; for this reason they always begin to melt white glass in it first, which afterwards they pour out again into another vessel, to make common glass of it. This the workmen very well know; but the second time, there will appear nothing of this foulness.
Particular care must be taken, that when you prepare materials for tinging glass, the most whereof are extracted from minerals, to do it in a separate furnace, or not have any vessels in it that you use for crystalline materials; for the smoke of metals and minerals, make crystal pale and uneven. The vessels or pots which serve for one colour must not be made use of for another, and every colour ought to have its own pot.
Care must also be taken not to calcine materials more than is necessary, for then they burn and are good for nothing.
As a proportion ought to be kept and minded in every thing we do, so we will here lay down some which must not be exceeded whether for fruit or colours. Notwithstanding when the workman makes any essay, if his colour be net deep enough in his mind, he may add as much as he shall think necessary, which sometimes depends on the preparation of the metals more or less calcined, and often on the fancy of the workman.
It is necessary also to be observed, that all the dose of the colouring ought not to be thrown on the melted glass at once, but at several times, and in proportion according to the quantity of it, stirring each time the materials, that they may both incor porate, and at the same prevent them from rising and running over.

How to order the GLAss in the furnace after it has been painted.

After the glass has been completely painted, and the draughts perfectly finish'd, the difficulty remains in baking the pieces, so as to give it a consistency with the glass, by penetration, which is to be done as follows:

You must work with the furnace here describ'd, and its stove made of good crucible earth, to contain all the work, which must be stratified in the following manner.

Take good quick lime well digested, powdered, and finely searced, and for the better security, let it be digested three times in a potter's furnace, and then powder and searce it; then lay it very even about half an inch thick on the bottom of the stove, and upon that a layer of pieces of broken Glass, and upon that another layer of the powder, and so another of glass, then an other of powder; the reason of making this stratification of powder and old glass is to prevent any injury from the violence of the fire, which will be very intense under the stove.

This done, upon the third bed or layer of powder, lay a layer of painted glass, and so continue to lay layer upon layer, each lay of powder and glass being evenly made until all the pieces of painted glass are put in or the stove full, and upon the last lay of glass, lay a layer of the powder somewhat thicker than the former.

Then cover the furnace with its shrowds of earth, joining and luting them well together all round with the best lute, so that it may admit of no respiration, but through the fire holes or the opening of the furnace; while you draw out the proofs or trials (by some call’d watches) which are bits of broken glass painted with the colours, and put in purely for the purpose of taking out and examining how the work goes on.

Having thus ordered the furnace, and the lute being well dried, begin to heat it gently with some charcoal on the outside of the furnace at the entrance, and so proceed by degrees, and very leisurely heightening it, left it should break the glass, or spoil the paint.

Continue this for two hours, then thrust the fire in further, and let it remain there for an hour, putting it in by little and little under the stove, where let it stand two hours longer; then increase the fire by degrees for two hours, and so continue to apply fuel till the furnace be full of charcoal, and you perceive the flame to convey it self through every hole of the cover; keep it thus violent for three or four hours, shutting the door of the furnace.

You must be very cautious and careful during the whole work from the first two hours that the fire remains at the en trance.

From time to time you must draw out some of the pieces of glass that you put into the stove for trials or watches to see if the colours be melted and the yellow be qualified. You may perceive how the work goes on by the sparkling of the iron bars under the stove.

As soon as you find the colours almost done, improve the fire with some very small billets of dry wood; these must be very small that they may be put in the more easily, smoke the less, and to make the flame inviron, reverberate over and round about the stove, which must be continued till the work is finished, which will be in twelve or fourteen hours; then let the fire go out, and the work cool of it self; then it will be finish'd, and take it out, or else it would soon burn the colours and break the glasses.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Painting or staining glass.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
The antient or primitive manner of painting glass was very simple, and consequently very easy; it consisted in the mere arrangement of pieces of glass of different colours in some sort of symmetry; and constituted what is now call'd MOSAIC work.

In process of time they came to attempt more regular designs, and also to represent figures heightened with all their shades; yet they proceeded no farther than the drawing the contours of the figures in black with water, and hatching the draperies after the same manner on glasses of the colour of the ob ject they designed to paint.

For the carnations, they us’d glass of a bright red colour, and upon this they drew the principal lineaments of the face, &c. with black.

But in time the taste for this sort of painting improving considerably, and applying the art to the adorning of churches, basilicks, &c. they found out means of incorporating the colours in the glass it self, by heating them in the fire to a proper degree, having first laid on the colours.

The first notion of this is said to have been given by a French painter of Marseilles, after he had been at Rome, under the pontificate of julius II. But the first who carried it to any heighth were Albert Durer and Lucas Van Leyden.

The colours us'd in painting or staining of glass are very different to from those us'd in painting either in water or oil colurs.

In the windows of antient churches, &c. there are to be seen the most beautiful and vivid colours imaginable, which far exceed any of those us’d by the moderns; not so much because the secret of making those colours is intirely lost; as that the moderns won’t go to the charge of them, nor be at the necessary, pains, by reason that this sort of painting is not now so much in esteem as it was formerly.

Those beautiful works which were made in the glass-houses were of two kinds.

In some the colour was diffus'd through the whole substance of the glass; in others, which were the more common, the colour was only on one side, scarce penetrating even the surface more than one third of a line, tho’ this was more or less according to the nature of the colour, the yellow being found always to enter the deepest of any colour.

These last, though not so strong and beautiful as these mentioned before, were of more advantage to the workmen, because that they could on the same glass, tho' already coloured, shew other kind of colours, where there was occasion to embroider draperies, inrich them with foliages, or represent other ornaments of gold, silver, &c.

In order to this, they made use of emery, grinding or wearing down the surface of the glass, till such time as they were got thro’ the colour to the clear glass; this done, they apply'd the proper colours on the other side of the glass.

By this means the new colours were hindred from running and mixing with the former, when they expos'd the glasses to the fire as will appear hereafter.

When the intended ornaments were to appear white, the glass was only bared of its colour with emery, without tinging the place with any colour at all; and this was the manner by which they wrought their lights and heightenings on all kinds of colours.

The first thing to be done, in order to paint or stain glass in the modern way, is to design and even colour the whole subject on paper.

2. To chuse pieces of glass proper to receive the several parts.

3. To divide or distribute the design itself or papers it is drawn on into pieces suitable to those of the glass, always taking care that the glasses may join in the contours of the figures, and the folds of the draperies.

4. To order them so that the carnations may not be impair'd by the lead, with which the pieces are to be join'd together.

5. Having made the distribution, take care to mark all the glasses as well as papers, that they may be known again.

6. Then applying each part of the design upon the glass intended for it to transfer the design upon the glass with the black colour diluted in gum water, by tracing and following all the lines and strokes, as they appear thro’ the glass with the point of a pencil.

7. Then the glasses must be set by till they are thoroughly dry, which will be in about two days; then the work being in black and white, is to have a slight wash over with urine, gum arabick, and a little black, and repeated several times, according as the shades are desired to be heightened, with this precaution, never to apply a new wash till the former is sufficiently dried.

This done, the lights and risings are given by rubbing off the colour in their respective places, with a wooden point or the handle of the pencil.

Then having all your colours in a readiness, fill your pieces. with colours, for which use the nib of the pencil, especially in carnation, where you must be very exact; you must also be very circumspect and expeditious, and take a great deal of care not to blot or blur the tracings, and choose rather to paint on the other side of the glass.

All the colours, except yellow, may be applied on the same side, and that you must do on the contrary side, because it is, apt to mingle with the other colours, and if near the blue, will compose a green; so that for want of such precaution, the whole work may be spoil'd; if the yellow transmit it self perfectly through the quarre, it is as well as if it had been done on the same side; and take notice by the way, that the other colours have not so ready a transition, betause they consist of a grosser body.

The yellow ought to be very equally and justly laid on in a greater or lesser quantity, as you would have your shadows; ob serve this too in the rest, especially to lay them on as quick as possible, as we have already said, particularly the azure green and purple require the most exactness of any.

Now to set off and heighten the lights, in piling a beard, de scribing hair in drapery, or otherwise, use the handle or butt end of the pencil, a small pointed stick or quill, wherewith take. off the colours in those places you would enlighten, which is easily done.

Such works as are done in grisaille, you must paint after this manner: trace your piece with black, and let it dry for two days intirely; do it over very lightly and equally with a wash. So thin laid on as not to efface the first lines, and let it dry for two days; after this, run them over again with the same wash where you find it convenient to give a second tinge, and let it dry two days longer; then to give it the lights and convenient heightening, take the sharp butt end of your pencil or pointed stick or pen as before, and take off the colour of the first wash. in the most necessary places, and so your work will be finished.

To make this wash is easy; take a small pewter cup or other vessel, and put therein a quantity of black colouring; then dissolve gum arabick powdered in its weight of wine, throw this on the black in the pewter dish or sawcer, that it may be very clear and not easily dryed, and that you may have your wash for painting glass in grisaille or gray.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. The following account of the colours for painting on glass we have from the celebrated M. Felibien.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
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Take two thirds of flakes or scales of iron; beat them up, and mix them with one part of rocaille, or little glass beads.

For an azure BLUE.
Proceed as in the green, only leaving out the æs ustum; instead of it, use sulphur. For CARNATION. Use forett, and rocaille.

For colours of HAIR, TRUNKS of trees, &c.
Take feretto, rocaille, &c.

Take æs ustum one ounce, black-lead the same quantity, and four ounces of white-sand incorporated by fire; to which, after calcination, add a fourth part of salt-petre; then calcine again, adding a fixth part more; after which it is usual to give it a third coction before it is used.

Proceed as in the green, only leaving out the acs usium, and instead thereof use perigueux.

For RED.
Take litharge of silver, and scales of iron, gum arabick, harderia, glass beads, and blood stone nearly in equal quantities. This is one of the most difficult colours, and the Preparation is not to be learn'd but by experience.

Proceed as for green, but leaving out the as usium, and instead of it use both sulphur and perigueux.

Take sand or little white pebbles, calcine them, pound them in a mortar, and afterwards grind them on a marble with one fourth part of salt-petre added to them; calcine the mixture, and pulverize it over again, and when you are ready to use it, add a little gypsum or plaister of Paris, &c.

Grind leaf silver, mix it up in a crucible with sulphur or salt-petre; then having well beaten or ground it on a porphyry stone, afterwards grind it over again with nine times the quantity of red oker.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. To make a milk white colour in glass. Another fairer and whiter colour. To make common glass become white and crystalline. To make marble colour in glass.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
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To make a MILK WHITE colour in GLASS.
To make the milk white colour well, requires no less exactness than the blue.
To succeed in it, take twelve pounds of good crystal frit, two pounds of calx of lead and tin, one of each, and half an ounce of manganese of Piedmont prepar’d; the whole being pulveriz'd and mixt together, put them into a pot heated in the furnace; let it stand there for twelve hours, then mix the whole well and make an essay of it.
If the colour don't please you, add to it some calx of the two metals beforementioned, which incorporate with the glass, mixing it well. In eight hours time after the glass will be fit to work, and white as milk.

Another fairer and whiter colour.
This second way of giving a milk white colour to glass is much better than the precedent, and the work more exquisite.
We only make use of calx of tin, without mixing any lead, and we put fifteen pounds of that calx to a hundred pounds of pure crystal frit, with twelve ounces of manganese of Piedmont prepar'd; the whole being well pulveriz'd and mix’d, put it into a pot heated in the furnace, there to purify during eight days.
Then cast the matter into water, the better to purify it; then after it has been dry'd, put it into the same pot to be melted again.
If it be transparent, you must add three pounds twelve ounces of the same calx of tin as before, mixing it well with the melted metal, to make it the better incorporate; and in twenty four hours it will be finer and whiter than snow, and fit to be wrought.

To make common GLASS become white and CRYSTAL LINE.
If you put in a convenient pot frit of polverine, you will have a common white glass.
If you add salt of rochetta to this fritt, you will have a very fair crystal glass, which will be between ordinary glass and crystal.
To make it very fine, you must add the same dose of manganese of Piedmont prepar'd as for crystal; for the manganese takes away all greenness in the glass, and makes it very white.
If you would have a very fine glass, you must always cast the crystalline matter into water; you may also do the same by common glass to bring it to perfection.
When this has been done, put the matter into the pot again, and when it is melted, put it again into water, repeating this till it be purified and made fine.
To have glass finer than ordinary, this casting of it into water must be very exactly observ’d; for besides its whitening, it is there calcin’d and purified, and has fewer blisters and pustles.
But to raise the matter to the greatest perfection, mix fifty pounds of crystalline glass, and as much common, and put to it ten pounds of purified salt of tartar; that will give a glass and crystal more than ordinary fine, provided you always take care not to mix it with the collets of the glass, which has touch'd the iron rod; for they always make the glass blackish, and are only fit for green glass.

To make marble colour in GLASS.
White marble being very simple, it is easy to imitate; the way of doing it only requires crystal frit, which must be wrought as soon as it is melted, before it be purified, for so it will give a very fair marble colour.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. To give glass the colour of lapis lazuli.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
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Lapis Lazuli, which is a fine blue, and full of veins of gold, will not be easy to imitate, without a great deal of care and industry in its preparation.

To make this fine colour, you must use the same matter as for the fine white; and when it is in fusion in the pot, you must add to it by little and little, the blue enamel in powder, which is made use of by painters, mixing the whole well together each time, and that as often as there is occasion to make this colour.

Then try it, whether the colour is to your mind, and when it is, let it stand for full two hours, and make a second essay of it; if the colour be perfect, let it stand ten hours, and then mix it again.

If it keeps in the same estate without changing the colour, you may employ it in making what vessels you please, which will be of the true colour of Lapis Lazuli.

If in working this glass it hapens to rise, you may cast in a little leaf gold, which will make the glass approach yet nearer to Lapis Lazuli, and which will in a moment stop the rising of the metal, as sugar will do in boiling oil.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. To tinge Glass of a deep red. To make a peach colour in Glass. To make a gold yellow in glass.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
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To tinge Glass of a deep red.
Opake colours have a body, but the transparent ones none; for which reason this deep red must be mix'd with matters that give it one, as shall be shewn.
Take twenty pounds of crystal frit, one pound of pieces of white glass, and two pounds of calcin'd tin; mix the whole well together, and put it into a pot, and set it in a furnace that it may purify.
When it is melted, cast in an ounce of calcin'd steel well pounded, and an ounce of scales of iron from the anvil well pulveriz'd and mixt together, and keep stirring the glass well with an iron stirrer, while you are putting in the powder, to hinder it from rising too much.
You must take care not to put in too much of the powder, for that would make the glass black, whereas it ought to be clear, shining, and of an obscure yellow colour.
Then take about six drams of calcin’d copper prepar’d, cast it upon the melted glass, often mixing it two, three or four times, and the glass will be as red as blood.
If the colour be as you would have it, you must work it off presently, for fear it should turn black, and the colour be lost, of which great care must taken.
But if notwithstanding this the colour comes to be lost, you must add more scales of iron in powder, and it will return.

To make a PEACH colour in GLASS.

To make this colour, which is a very agreeable one, take glass prepar'd and ting'd of a milk white, and when it is in good fusion, put in some manganese of Piedmont prepar’d, and that by little and little, stirring the matter well at each time, till the colour becomes as fine and perfect as you define it; but you must work the glass in time, otherwise the colour will be lost; but by so doing, you will have a very fair peach-colour.

To make a GOLD yellow in GLASS.
Gold colour being one of the most noble and finest we can make, by reason of its imitating the most perfect metal in na ture, must be made with the purest materials and greatest precaution.
Take two parts of crystal frit, made with tarso, and not with sand, which is not so good, and one part of frit compos'd of two thirds of tarso, and one third of fine salt of polverine prepar’d; pound and mix them well, and to each fifty pounds of this composition, add half a pound of tartar purified, pounded, and searced fine, and half a pound of manganese of Piedmont prepar’d, mixing these powders well with the two frits, because you must not cast them on the melted glass as in other colours. Then put the whole by little and little into a pot, and set them in a furnace, in which let them stand at an ordinary fire four days, for fear the Glass rising should run over.
When that matter is well purified, you may use it for making vessels, and what other works you please, which will be of a fair colour.
If you would have the colour yet clearer, you must add more powder, and you will have a very fine golden colour.
If you would have it yet finer, take fine crystal frit made of polverine of rochetta, and the golden colour will be yet more fair.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Gilding.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
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GILDING is the art of spreading or covering a thing over with gold, either in leaf or liquid.

The art of Gilding was not unknown to the ancients; though it never arriv'd among them to the perfection to which the moderns have brought it.

Pliny relates, that the first Gilding that was seen at Rome was not till after the destruction of the city, in the time of the consulship of Lucius Mummius; at which time they began to gild the ceilings of their temples and palaces; the capitol being the first structure adorn'd with this inrichment.

He also adds, that luxury grew so hastily upon them, that in a little time you might see all even private and poor persons gild the very walls, vaults, &c. of their houses.

But we have this advantage of the ancients in the manner of using and applying the gold, the secret of painting in oil, lately discovered furnishes us with means of Gilding works, that will endure all the violences of time and weather; which was impracticable to the ancients.

They knew no way of laying the gold on bodies, that would not endure the fire; but with whites of eggs or size, neither of which will endure the water; so that they could only gild those things, which stood in such places as were sheltered from wet, and the humidity and moisture of the air.

The Greeks us’d a sort of composition for Gilding on wood, which they call'd leucopheum or leucophorum; which is describ'd as a sort of glutinous compound earth, which in all probability serv'd to make the gold stick and bear polishing.

But as to the particulars of this earth, its colour, ingredients, &c. naturalists and antiquaries are not agreed.

There are several methods of Gilding in use among us, as Gilding in water, Gilding in oil, Gilding by fire, &c.

The method of WATER GILDING.

Water Gilding requires more preparation than oil Gilding, and is chiefly on wooden works, and those made of stuc, and these too must be sheltered from the weather.

A size is us'd for this way of Gilding made of shreads, &c. of parchment, or gloves boil'd in water to the consistence of a gelly.

If the thing to be gilt be of wood, it is first wash’d with this size, boiling hot; and then set to dry, and afterwards with white paint, mix up with the same size.

Some use Spanish white for this purpose, and others plaister of Paris, well beaten and sifted.

This siz'd paint must be laid on with a stiff-brush; which is to be repeated seldomer or ostener, according to the nature of the work, as ten or twelve times in flat or smooth works; but seven or eight will be sufficient in pieces of sculpture.

In the former case they are apply'd by drawing the brush over the Work, in the latter by dabbing it.

When the whole is dry, they moisten it with fair water, and rub it over with several pieces of coarse linen, if it be on the flat; if not, they beat or switch it with several slips of the same linen tied to a little stick, to make it follow and enter all the cavities and depressures thereof.

Having thus finish'd the white, the next thing to be done is to colour it with yellow oker; but if it be a piece of sculpture in relievo, they first touch it up, and prepare the several parts which may have happened to have been disfigured by the small iron instruments, as gouges, chiffels, &c.

The oker us’d for this purpose, must be well ground and sifted, and mix’d up with the size beforementioned.

This colour is to be laid on hot; and in works of sculpture supplies the place of gold, which sometimes cannot be carried into all the depressures and cavities of the foliages and other ornaments.

A lay is also apply'd over this yellow; which serves for the ground on which the gold is to be laid; this lay is usually com pos'd of Armenian bole, blood-stone, black-lead, and a little fat; to which some add soap and oil of olives; others burnt-bread, bistre, antimony, glass of tin, butter and sugar-candy.

These ingredients being all ground together with hot size, three lays of this composition is apply'd upon the yellow, the one after the other has been dry'd; being cautious not to put any into the cavity of the work to hide the yellow.

The brush u'd for this purpose must be a soft one, and when the matter is become very dry, they go over it again with a stronger brush to rub it down, and take off the small grains that stick out; in order to facilitate the burnishing of the gold.

To be prepared for Gilding, you must have three sorts of pencils; one to wet, another to touch up and amend, and a third to flatten; also a Gilding cushion for spreading the leaves of gold on when taken out of the book. See CUSHION, a knife to cut them and a squirrel's tail fitted with a handle; or else a piece of fine soft stuff on a stick, to take them up directly and apply them.

You are first to begin with wetting your pencils; by which the last lay laid on with water is moistened, that it may the better receive and retain the gold. Then you are to lay the leaves of gold on the cushion, and if whole, you must take up with the squirrel's tail; but if in pieces, with the other instrument, or the knife wherewith they are cut, and lay and spread them gently on the parts of the work you had moistened before.

If the leaves (as they frequently do) happen to crack or break in laying on, these breaches must be made up with small bits of leaf taken up upon the repairing pencil, and the whole work is to be smooth'd either with the same pencil or another something larger; the gold being pressed into the dents, into which it could not be so easily carried by the squirrel's tail.

The work having been thus far gilded, must be set by to dry in order to be either burnished or flatted.

Burnishing is smoothing and polishing it with a burnishing tool, which is usually a dog's or woolf’s tooth or a blood-stone fitted into a handle for that purpose. See BURNISHING.

Flatting it is giving it a light lick, in the places not burnish'd, with a pencil dipt in size, in which a little vermilion sometimes has been mixt. This serves to preserve and prevent its flawing when handled.

The last operation is the applying the vermeil in all the little lines and cavities; and to stop and amend any little faults with shell gold.

The composition call’d vermeil is made of gum guttæ, vermilion, and a little of some ruddy brown colour ground together, with Venetian varnish and oil of turpentine. Some gilders instead of this, make shift with fine lucca or draggon's blood with gum water.

Sometimes instead of burnishing the gold, they burnish the ground or composition laid on the last before it, and only afterwards wash the part over with the size.

This method is chiefly practis'd for the hands, face, and other nudities in relievo; which by this means, don’t appear so very brillant as the parts burnished; though much more so than the parts perfectly flat.

To gild a piece of work, and yet preserve white grounds, they apply a lay of Spanish white, mix'd with a weak fish glue on all the parts of the ground, whereon the yellow or the last lay might run.

The method of GILDING in oil.

This operation requires much less apparatus than that before mentioned.

The basis or matter whereon the gold is laid, in this method is the remains of colours found settled to the bottom of the pots in which painters wash their pencils.

This matter which is very viscid or sticky, is first ground, and then pass'd through a linen cloth; and thus lay'd with a pencil on the matter to be gilt, after it has been wash’d once or twice over with size; and if it be wood with some white paint.

When this is almost dry, but yet is still unctuous enough to catch and retain the gold, the leaf gold is laid on; either whole, if the work be large, or cut to pieces if smaller; the leaves of gold are taken up and laid on with a piece of fine, soft, well carded cotton; or sometimes by a palat for the purpose, or sometimes with the knife with which the leaves were cut, according to the parts of the work that are to be gilded, or the breadth of the gold that is to be laid on.

As the gold is laid on, they pass over it a coarse stiff pencil or brush to make it stick, and as it were incorporate with the ground; and after this they mend any cracks that may have happened in it, either with the same pencil or one that is smaller; as has been shewn before in water Gilding.

This kind of Gilding is chiefly us'd for domes and roofs of churches, courts, banquetting-houses, &c. and for figures of plaister of Paris, lead, &c.

The method of GILDING with liquid gold.

This is perform'd by gold reduc’d to a calx and amalgamated with Mercury, in the proportion of about an ounce of Mercury to a dram of gold.

To perform this, they heat a crucible red hot, and then put the gold and Mercury into it, stirring them gently about till the gold be found melted, and incorporated into a mass with the Mercury.

When this is done, they cast them into water to wash and purify them; and out of that into other waters, where the amalgama which is almost as liquid, as if there were nothing but quicksilver in it, may be preserv'd a long time for use.

Before they proceed to lay this amalgamated gold on the metal, they first render the metal rough, by washing it over with aqua fortis or aqua secunda; and afterwards rinse the metal in fair, water, and scour it a little with fine sand, and then it is ready for the gold.

Then they cover over the metal with the mixture of gold and Mercury, taking it up with a flip of copper or a brush made of brass wire, spreading it as even as possible, to do which they wet the brush from time to time in fair water.

Then they set the metal to the fire upon a grate or in a sort of cage, under which stands a pan of coals; and in proportion as the Mercury evaporating and flying off discovers the places where gold is wanting, they take care to supply them by adding new parcels of amalgama.

Then the work is rubb'd over with the wire-brush dipt in beer or vinegar, which leaves it in a condition to be brought to a colour, which is the last part of the process; and which the gilders keep to themselves as a mighty secret; though it is cer tain, it cannot differ much from the manner of giving gold species - their colour in coining.

The method of GILDING by fire on metal.

There are two ways of performing this. The one with leaf gold and the other with liquid gold.

To prepare the metal for the first, they scratch it well or rake it; then polish it with a polisher; and afterwards set it to the fire to blue, i. e. to heat, till it appear of a blue colour.

When this has been done, they clap on the first lay of leaf gold, rubbing it lightly down with a polisher; and expose it thus to a gentle fire.

They usually only give it three such lays or four at the most, each lay consisting of a single leaf for common works; and of two for extraordinary ones, after each lay it is set fresh to the fire, and after the last lay, the gold is in condition to be burnish’d.

The way of GILDING and LACKERING in oil.

Of mixing and laying on the gold size.

1. First prime the piece with the priming. Take the best gold size, fat oil, of each according to the quantity of your work, grind them well on a stone, and put them into a gally-pot.

2. Pass the piece all over with a clean brush dipt into this size, but do not lay it on thick, jobbing and striking the point of the pencil into the hollow places of the carv'd work, so that no part may escape; for if any place be untouch'd with the gold size, the gold will not stick upon it, and in those places the work will be faulty.

Let it stand by (perhaps twenty four hours or more) so that it may be but just clammy enough to hold the metals, to know if it be in a fit condition; breathe upon it, and if your breath remains upon it like a mist, you may then, lay on your leaf gold; or if it is so dry, that it does not discolour, nor stick to your finger, but is clammy, and not parting very readily with your finger; it is then in a fit temper.

3. If you should lay on your metal before the size is dry enough, it would as it were drown the leaf gold, silver, &c. and deprive it of its gloss and lustre; and if it should be let stand till it is too dry, then the gold, &c. would not stick.

How to lay on leaf gold.

Cut the leaf gold and silver on your Gilding cushion, with a thin, broad, smooth, sharp edg'd knife.

Then having your pencil, cotton or pallat ready (made of a fguirrel's tail) breathe upon the gold, and touch and take it up, and lay it upon the place you intend for it, pressing it down close with your pencil or cotton.

And if any parts have escaped being covered with the gold, cut some small pieces and lay them on; proceeding after this manner, till the whole work is gilded or covered with your metal.

After twenty four hours, jobb down and press over the whole work gently with a fine large brush, to make the gold stick upon all the uneven and hollow parts of the carving; then with fine soft shammy leather, as it were polish and rub it over smoothly.

This being done, the gold will appear of an admirable lustre, and the beauty of it will be so durable, that though it be expos'd to the wind and weather, it will not receive any damage for many years.

GILDING. To lay gold on any thing.
Take red-lead ground fine, temper it with linseed-oil, write with it, and lay leaf gold on it, let it dry and polish it.

To gild GLASS.
Take chalk and red-lead of each a like quantity, grind them together and temper with linseed-oil; lay it on, and when it is almost dry, lay leaf gold on it; let it dry, and then polish it.

To gild IRON with a water.
Take spring water three pounds, roch allum three ounces, Ro man vitriol and orpiment of each one ounce, verdigrease twenty four grains, sal gemma three ounces; boil these all together, and when it begins to boil, put in tartar and bay-salt, of each half an ounce; continue the boiling a good while, then take it from the fire, strike the iron over with it, dry it against the fire, and burnish it.

To GILD IRON or other metals with GOLD.
Take one pound of liquid varnish, linseed-oil and turpentine, of each one ounce; mix them well together, strike them over any metal, and afterwards lay on leaf gold or silver, and when it is dry, polish it.

To GILD silver, bras, or copper with GOLD WATER.
Take two ounces of quicksilver, put it into a crucible, set it on the fire, and when it begins to smoak, put in an angel of fine gold; then take it off immediately, for the gold will be presently dissolv'd: then, if it be toothin, strain a part of the quicksilver from it through a piece of fustian; when you have done this, rub the gold and quicksilver upon bras or silver, and it will cleave to it; then put the said bras, or silver upon quick coals, till it begins to smoke, then take it from the fire, and scratch it with a hair brush; this do till all the Mercury is rubb’d as clean off as may be, and the gold appear of a faint yellow; then heighten the colour with sal armoniack, bole and verdigreas, ground together and tempered with water.
Where you must take notice, that before you gild your metal, you must boil it in tartar or beer and water.

Another water for GILDING iron, steel, knives, swords, &c.
Take fire-stone, reduce it to powder, put it into a strong red wine vinegar in a glaz'd pot for twenty four hours, adding more vinegar to it as it evaporates or boils away; into this water dip the iron, steel, &c. and it will be black; dry it, and then polish it, and you will have a gold colour underneath.

Another way of GILDING IRON.
Take salt-petre, roch allum burnt, of each an ounce, sal armoniack two ounces, all reduc’d to fine powder; boil them in strong vinegar in a copper-vessel, with which wet the iron, &c. and then lay on leaf gold.

Another way.
Grind roch allum with the urine of a boy, till it is well dissolv’d, with which anoint the iron, heat it red hot in a fire of wood coals, and it will be like gold.

Another way.
Put two ounces of allum, three ounces of sal gemmae, Roman vitriol and orpiment, of each one ounce, of fos aeris twenty four grains into three pounds of water; and boil them all in tartar and water, as is directed in Gilding iron with water.

To make iron of a golden colour.
Take linseed oil six ounces, tartar four ounces, aloes an ounce, saffron ten grains, turmerick four grains; yolks of eggs boil'd hard and beaten four ounces, boil them all in an earthen vessel, and anoint the iron with the oil, and it will look like gold. If the linseed-oil be not enough, you may put in more.

Another way for iron, glass or bones.
Take a new lay’d egg, make a hole at one end, and take out the white and fill up the egg with quicksilver two parts, sal armoniack reduc’d to a fine powder one part; mix them all together with a wire or little stick, stop the hole with melted wax, over which put an half egg-shell; digest it in horse dung for a month, and it will be a fine golden coloured liquor.

Take bole armoniack and oil of ben, of each a sufficient quantity; beat and grind them together, and smear the wood, or stone, and when it is almost dry, lay of leaf gold, let it dry, and polish it.

To gild with leaf gold.
Grind leaves of gold in a few drops of honey, and add to it a little gum water, and it will be excellent to write or paint with.

To gild silk and linen.
Lay some parchment glue on the silk of linen, gently that it may not sink; then mix and grind ceruss; and verdegrease together, of each a like quantity, mix them with varnish in a glaz'd vessel, let it simper over a small fire, and keep it for use.

Another of a pure gold colour.
Take the juice of fresh saffron, or saffron ground, the best clear orpiment, of each a like quantity; grind them with goat's gall or gall of a pike (which is better) digest twenty eight days in horse-dung, and it is done.

To gild iron or steel.
Take of tartar one ounce, vermilion three ounces, bole armoniack and aqua vitæ, of each two ounces, grind them together with linseed-oil, and put to it thefo of a hazle-nut of lapis calaminaris, and in the end grind a few drops of varnish; then take it off the stone and strain it through a linen cloth (for it must be as thick as honey) then strike it over iron or steel, let it dry; then lay on your silver or gold and burnish it.

To colour tin or copper of a gold colour.
Set linseed-oil on the fire, scum it and put in amber, aloes, hepatick, of each a like quantity, stir them well together till it grows thick; then take it off, cover it close, and set it in the earth for three days; and when you use it strike the metal all over with it, let it dry, and it will be of a golden colour.

To silver any metal.
Dissolve fine silver in strong aqua fortis, and put in as much tartar finely powdered as will make it into a paste; with which rub any metal, and it will look like fine silver.

To gild so as it shall rot out with any water.
Take calcin'd oker and pumice-stone, of each like quantities, and a little tartar, beat them with linseed-oil and five or fix drops of varnish; strain all through a linen cloth, and with this liquor you may imitate Gilding.

To gild paper.
Grind bole armoniack with rain water, and give one laying of it when it is dry, take glair of eggs, and add to it a little sugar candy and gum water, which lay over the former, and upon this, when it is dry enough, lay leaf silver or leaf gold.

To gild the leaves of books.
Take bole armoniack eight penny weight, sugar candy two penny weight, mix and grind them with glair of eggs, then on a bound book (while it is in the press, after it hath been smear'd with glair of eggs and is dry'd) smear the said composition, let it dry, then rub it well and polish it; then with fair water wet the edges of the book, and suddenly lay on the gold, press it down gently with cotton, let it dry, and then polish it with a tooth.

Of GILDING wood with burnisht gold and silver.

1. Take parchment size, for priming or whiting the piece, do it over with this seven or eight times, letting it dry between every time.

2. If it is a carv'd frame, that is to be gilded, grind yellow cker fine with water, adding to it a little weak size to bind it; warm it and colour over the frame, and let it stand to dry.

3. Take either of the gold sizes. (See SIZE) but rather the seventh, melt it and make it blood-warm; but so as it may be somewhat thin, stir it well with a fine brush, and size the piece over twice with it, without touching the hollows, or deepest parts of the carving; because the yellow colour first laid on, is near in colour to the gold, and a fault in the gold's not taking, will not be so easily cover'd because of the shadows.

4. Let it stand five or six hours to dry, and try if your gold will burnish upon it, if not alter your gold size, and do it over again.

5. To lay on the gold for burnishing, do as follows.
Having fixt your work almost upright, but in a posture a little reclining that the water may run off, and not settle in any of the cavities; lay some leaves of gold on your Gilding cushion, which hold in your left-hand with your pallat and pencil; let also a bason of water stand by you, and dry whiting to rub your knife sometimes with, that the gold may not stick to it.

6. Then with a swan's quill pencil, or a large one of camer's hair, being dipt into the bason of water, wet so much of your work as will take up three or four leaves, beginning at the lower part, ascending and Gilding upwards, laying on either whole leaves or half leaves, or lesser pieces as the work requires, taking care to make as little waste of gold as possible.

7. When you have laid on the gold all over what you first wetted, then wet another part of the work, and lay on the leaves of gold with your pencil, cotton or pallat, pressing them down close; following this method, till you have finish'd the whole piece.

8. Having done this, look over your work examining if any parts have escap'd Gilding, and if there is any such cut some leaves of gold into small pieces, and wetting the ungilded parts with a small pencil, apply the bits of leaf gold to them, then set the work by for twenty four hours; but no longer, and then begin to burnish it.

9. The burnishing is to be perform'd with a tool call’d a burnisher, by rubbing it smoothly on it, till it attains a gloss; and having burnish’d so much of the work as you defign, leave the round of the carving untouch'd, and some other parts which you shall think fit; which being rough, if compar'd with the other, will set off and beautify that which is burnish’d.

10. Those parts which are not burnished, must be clothed or secur'd with size, seed lac, varnish or lacker, if you would have it to be deep coloured; but you must take care to touch these parts only, and not that which has been burnish’d.

11. Then the work is to be set off with lacker varnish, mixt with sanguis draconis and saffron or with ornatto, with which and a fine pencil touch the hollowness of the carving, hollow veins of leaves and foldings; and if you do not think it deep enough, go over it again, with the lacker before directed.

12. To lay on silver size.
Take silver size newly ground, and mix’d with weak size, warm it, and a clear pencil fit for the work, size it over once or twice, then let it stand to dry to a just temper, trying it whether it will burnish, which if it will, burnish it, but if not, you must size it again with some alteration in the size.

13. Then wet the work, and lay on the leaf silver, after the same manner directed for the laying on of leaf gold, and when it has been so done, burnish it over, if it be not frosty weather; but if it be a hard frosty season the priming will be apt to peel off, and the size will be apt to freeze in laying on.

14. Let your parchment size be something strong and new; for if stale, it loses its strength; nor should you grind any more gold or silver size, then what you will want for present use.

And be sure to keep your work clean and free from dust both before and after it is gold siz’d and gilded; otherwise in Gilding it will be full of scratches, and look ill.

The method of GILDING metals.

In order to prepare the gold for this work. Take leaf gold, or ducket gold beaten very thin, and cut into little bits, what quantity you please, put it into a gally-pot, and put to it so much - quicksilver, as will just cover it; stir them with a stick and make an amalgama, and when you have so done, strain them through a piece of shammy leather, squeezing the leather hard with your hand; that which remains behind in the leather, and looks like silver, is the gold amalgamated, and that which is to be us'd in this work.

The method of Gilding silver, or brass, copper, or prince's metal.

1. The thing to be gilded must first be scrubb'd with a wire brush and a little fair water, till it is perfectly clean.

2. Then having put an ounce of quicksilver into a vial, drop into it three, four or five drops of aqua fortis; with this mixture and a rag rub over the metal to be gilded, till it is every whereas white as silver.

3. Then with a small knife spread your amalgamated gold over the whole piece, taking care not to miss any part of it; then give it a heat over a fire to force the quicksilver to evaporate or fly away, and the gold will remain sticking close to the piece.

4. But before you give it a thorough heat, let it have two or three little heats, that you may with a small hair brush, almost like that of a comb, dab and spread the gold, which you may the easier do, because the warmth you give it makes the quicksilver the more ready to spread; after which give it the thorough heat beforementioned.

5. Afterwards take it from the fire, and with a hair scrub brush, which has never touch'd quicksilver, rub and cleanse it as you did before. And you must take notice, if there be any spot left ungilded, you must after you have cleans'd it with the wire brush, proceed again as before.

6. If you would have the work more rich and lasting, besmear it again with quick/over and aqua fortis, and lay on the gold again, after the same manner as before; and this you may repeat so often till the gold lies as thick as your nail upon the metal you gild.

7. To heighten the colour if you think fit.
Take argal, salt, and sulphur of each what quantity you think convenient, and put to them as much fair water as will just cover the thing that you put into it to be gilded; boil them over the fire, and having ty'd the gilded piece to a string, put it into the boiling liquor for a little space, viewing it every minute; and when it has obtain’d a colour according to your mind, put it immediately into cold water, and it is done.

Another way to heighten the colour of gold.
Take nitre, sal-armoniack, sandever, verdigrease, white and green vitriol of each a like quantity, grind them with white wine vinegar, which lay over all your work; then lay it on a fire, and give it a small heat, that it may smoak, and so take it off and quench it in urine.

Another way to gild silver, brass, &c.
First cleanse the metal with aqua fortis, then quicken your work with Mercury, then take off the gold amalgamated as before directed, and lay it on with a small knife, spreading it every where, and do in all things as before directed.

To silver over bras or copper plates, as clock-makers do their dial-plates.
Procure either leaf or burnt silver, and put to it as much aqua fortis as will cover it, let it stand an hour or two; then decant off the aqua fortis as clean as may be, wash the silver three or four times in fair water; and then let it dry, and then mix with it, one part of fine argal to three parts of the silver, with a little fair water.
When you use this, rub it on the work with a cork, till it is silvered all over, and lies very fair, and afterwards dry it well with a linen cloth, and warm it; then wash it over three or four times with the best white varnis), which will preserve it from tarnishing, and other injuries of the weather.

To gild brass, cooper, iron or sleel, with leaf silver or gold.
If you would gild brass or old iron, first cleanse it very well with a wire brush; but if it is new iron or steel, first make it very smooth, and hatch it all over very neatly with a hatching knife (which is a knife with a short blade and a long handle).
Then give it an heat on a charcoal fire, so as to make it look blue, take it from the fire and lay on the gold or silver, and burnish it down a little with a blood-store or burnisher; and then give it the same heat again, and burnish it all over.
This work of Gilding may be repeated six, eight, or ten times, still observing to give it the same heat, before you lay on the gold and silver, and then burnish it as before directed.

Beat in a mortar and grind together bole-armoniac and oil of behn, of each a sufficient quantity, with this smear the wood or stone, and when it is almost dry, lay on the leaf gold; let it dry and polish it.

To GILD with leaf GOLD.
Grind leaves of gold with a few drops of honey, to which add a little gum water, and it will be excellent to write or paint with.

To GILD so as it shall not rot out with any water.
Take calcin’d oker and pumice-some of each alike quantity and a little tartar, pound them with linseed-oil and five or fix drops of varnish, strain all through a linen cloth, and with this liquor you may imitate Gilding.

Grind bole-armoniack with rain water, and give one laying of it; being dry, take glair of eggs, and add to it a little sugar: candy and gum-water, which lay over the former, and upon this (when it is in a fit dryness) lay on either leaf silver or gold.