A Treatise on Calico Printing, Of Pitches.

A Treatise on Calico Printing, VOL. I-II
Printed for C. O'Brien, Bookseller, Islington, and fold by Bew, Paternoster-row: Richardson, Royal Exchange: Murray, Fleet-Street: And the Booksellers of Manchester, Glasgow, Dublin, &c.
In the first place it can never do any injury always to have squates cut at the corners, and oftentimes in the middle, both of ends and sides, the necessity of which the nature of the pattern will determine; but at any rate (as above said) they are needful at the corners, as they determine when you join the print by them, whether the pitch pins are on the square or not; and that you may the better join the print by the squares, let the shape of them be as fig. 69, or rather as fig. 70, to hinder the clogging of the colour in the corners, unless the situation of the work hinders their being so cut, and let them stand out as far at least as the pitch-pins; because in the, first trial of the joinings (supposing the squares are cut as they should be) the print may be joined by them, as the pins may bs then adjusted, if not put in right, or if moved by any accident.

If it were not for the conveniency of joining by the squares, instead of the shape above recom mended, it would be best to cut them as at fig. 71; but however, when they are cut at fig. 72 (for as fig. 73 they never should, though too, commonly done so, as the impression gives no certain shape) they should not be drawn on the ruled line, as the ruling will perhaps misguide the cutting of them; and if the squares are left for the purpose of ruling grounds from, they, should be drawn within the square line.

2. At the head the pitches should stand out from the work near one quarter of an inch, that the wood may not press on the cloth in pitching the head of the print, and of course appear heavier than the rest of the work.

The first pin at the head should be at least, one quarter of an inch within the square line of of the near side, for sear of the near edge running on the table; the second pin, for the convenience of the off-edge printing, should be regulated according to the width of the print, and of the cloth it is likely to work on; for if the width of the print is such, that the  edging is less than; half that width; which by the way is a bad circumstance for the face of the print (as observed, already) there is no occasion for a middle pitch, either for print or grounds; and the sewer pins for pitches is always the better; for if the first pitch should get off the near edge, the Printer, for the sake of the grounding, must get on again if he even makes a cut: as for the third or off pin, it is little matter how near the off-square it is, so it does not stand out beyond the line of the work on the off-edge, as it then would be particularly liable to accidents.

3. As the pitches of the print, from their outward situation, are in danger of being removed or otherwise injured, it should be a rule to put stout pieces of wire deep in the wood, rather slanting, and lessen the tops with a file or other instrument; and in case the print should run on the table, it would not be amiss, especially if it be a close one, to put pins at the off-edge, unless the shape of the work will answer the purpose, to fall into certain places, in order to fill up the vacancy, if there be any of consequence, at the near edge. Likewise for sear the print should come off the near edge, and of course the side pitches for the grounds be rendered useless let there be a pin at the bottom oT the ground to sall into the work, if it can be so ma naged, at the bottom of the print.

4. The first side pitch should be about half an inch down the side, the other as near the bottom as con venient, and if it can be. done, let them pitch into objects so that they be little seen, taking care however that the joining of the print does not obscure them. Side-pitches need not be out farther than just to be clear of the work; in order to prevent a light edging.

5. The pitches for the print being ascertained, put in the pitches for the grounds which work next in succession; these must be distinct from the pitches of the print, and be clear when the print is joined; one pin towards the bottom of the near side is sufficient for, the ground, taking care to place it below the side pitch of the print, that it may not hinder the printer from seeing his print pitch; this however is not necessary to be particular about when the ground pitch is placed  within the work: Endeavour likewise at all times to make one pitch or a shape do for as many grounds as you can, observing however, that a ground that works to another ground ought not to pitch to the print.

6. If the work is to be grounded after it comes off the grafs (as you can make no alteration then) be; particularly careful that the pitches for those grounds be not obscured by any means, and if you can place them where pale colour only will cover them, it will be the better, as that will partly hide them; and let them be but just large enough to be seen, which rule indeed should be carefully observed in respect to pitches in general, or if large pins are put in, the tops should be lessened.

* For if a Cutter has a pique against the Drawer, or bears ill-will to the master, or if only through wantonness he may alter the joinings, the direction of a stalk, or shape of an object, or in grounds, he may cut out of shape, or move an object out as its place (for such things have been done) and then, without some check, what can the Putter-on say in excuse, or how clear himself.7. To be more certain of having your pitch pins in their proper places, they had better be put in before prints or grounds are given to be cut (un less you have no doubt of the carefulness of the cutter, in that respect) and before your prints or some certain grounds go out, be fuse to rub off parts of the drawing on paper, making a memorandum what parts you rub them from, as they will be checks against the cutter in proving whether he has or has not deviated from the drawing, and probably prevent a deal of altercation, when the work is done; or, as a further caution,* the whole face joinings and all may be procured, by damping a stout piece of paper, laying it on the surface and gently rubbing the back, till you have a flight counterpart of the drawing; and a very flight one will be sufficient to shew the trail, or the shape and situation of flowers, and other objects.

A Putter-on, and indeed any other person, is likewise here advised for his own sake, to make minutes of what may have been matter of opinion or contention between his employer and himself, about the mode of performing any thing, when his Employer or Principal has it done his way; and have those minutes ready to produce, if, in consequence of such determination, the effect happens not to be as it fcould, or if the performance be not successsul in other respects.

As well as advising a Putter-on to be guarded against the Cutter, the writer advises the Cutter to be on his guard, and that is, to see the rubbing off performed, and that his employer keep one in his possession; or else to demand one for himself, otherwise it is possible the putter-on in his way, may do a Cutter an injury, by altering the rubbing off in some mode or other, and thus make it appear as if the Cutter had not attended to the drawing or other particulars.

The writer is of opinion, that a putter-on at shop, is not amenable in general, for what: cutting may be faulty, when brought home; nor can be with propriety be asked, if he put the whole or any part of it on, in this or that manner; for to say he did not, if the cutting be faulty, is criminating the Cutter, even if he has his checks by him; and to say he himself was in fault, every one knows is aukward enough; as in this case the putting-on should have been examined, and if faulty in any shape, rectified, ere it went out; for to let putting-on go out in such a state, implies incapability or carelessness in the Principal, or any other who may have  superintend such matters.


A Treatise on Calico Printing, Rules &c. for putting on.

A Treatise on Calico Printing, VOL. I-II
Printed for C. O'Brien, Bookseller, Islington, and fold by Bew, Paternoster-row: Richardson, Royal Exchange: Murray, Fleet-Street: And the Booksellers of Manchester, Glasgow, Dublin, &c.
When a Pattern is given to the Drawer to be put on, the first thing is to note what sorts of blocks it requires, whether with hard or soft faces, whole or joined ones, crossed or single oak or other backs, the grain lengthways or crossways, &c.

* The writer's opinion is more in favour of found single oak backs, with stout dove-tail backs let in cross ways:-See the section on blocks.Under these considerations it may be observed, that if it be a close small Pattern, a clear whole face is best; and if nice in the joinings and will require smart knocking with the maul, firm crossed oak backs are generally preferred:* If the Pattern be pretty open, the joinings not very nice, and the grounds not difficult to hit in, the warping is not of such consequence, as if other wise, and therefore, larger blocks with joined faces may do; and as light patterns do not need much knocking, deal backs may answer.

If the Cutting be coarse, and can be made to work without hatting, soft wood is preferable to hard, although the soft wood itself may need hatting; but then the boundage for the hat may be much larger.

In some instances, where solids are wanted to furnish, and they are not very large indeed, sycamore or some other spungy wood is still better.

In respect to work that is quite with the grain, it seems that the grain of the face should not entirely correspond with it, as fine lines lying; with the grain, and with the bottom proportionably slender, cannot stand very firmly, especially if cut deep; therefore in this case, if the grain be rather waving or curly, the work - will have a firmer bottom; indeed if the work be of such a nature that a strong or coarse bottom: may be left, it cannot be the worse for a strait grain.

It is, however, very faulty where a pattern chiefly confifts of fine lines or shades, to put: them on across the grain, and therefore in such cases, it is needful sometimes that the grain be across a block.

It is full as bad, and under some circumstances, much worse, to put on work with a fine face oil a beachy block; as in printing, or even under a Cutter's hands, the surface will crumble away.

Other circumstances may spring up which can not be precisely ascertained, but by attending to the above particulars, many of them may be obviated with very little trouble.

* This may not ploase some cutters, but the Writer makes equally free with masters, as will appear.2. Take notice,or discover in what particular the pattern consists, whether in respect to the colouring of it, or the size, quantity, or disposition of the commanding objects; or, if a trail, whether it be upright or meandering, close or open, and the like —which having ascertained, consider how to preserve or produce that effect on the cloth, against the chance of indifferent cutting, printing or colour; at the same time consider where it may weil be altered, or what may be left out in the cutting*, or eased in the penciling; or, in other words, how it may be executed with the greatest ease and least expence.

3. If the pattern be on so large a scale as to require, it, be informed of what width the cloth is for which it is intended, or on what it is most likely to be worked, on account of the joining of the selvedges; making some allowance for the variation that will happen in respect to the width of cloth of the same kind.

Small patterns, it may be observed, cannot be affected in their appearance by the joining of the selvedges when made up: the rule particularly alludes to surnitures, whether trails, sprigs or stripes; for if this circumstance be not attended to, much of the cloth will be cut to waste, or the joinings of the selvedges will have a very aukward appearance; and it is not every Upholsterer or Mantua-maker that is very ready at joining a Pattern by the selvedges, even if contrived in the best manner for that very purpose.

It is likewise necessary to attend to the above  rule, in regulating the width of the Print, on account of the off-edge printing; as printing an,edging with a fine print does it considerable injury; besides, if the edging be printed as the piece goes on, the colour gathers on the off-side of the print, and causes an, otherwise, unnecessary brushing of it, or a very bad impression at the beginning of the next table; and if the edgings are left till the whole piece is printed, the edging is frequently fuller or barer than the rest of the work.

The observations on Squaring a Block comes in here properly, but being made a Section of itself, it is considered further on.

* The repetition of a small part is, however, very hazardous, for though not visible on the block it may be so in the piece, as it hangs on the rolls.4. If you have to make out the pattern, as it often happens, from a small part; and you mean to copy exactly that small part,* take care that the repetition be not visible, and that one part does not appear heavier than the rest, and  therefore, if it be a trail with objects on it or about it, observe whe ther the objects, the trail in general, or any particular part of it soonest catches the eye; if it be the objects that are most striking, they must be properly disposed first, or at least their intended situations marked out, and the stalk or trail then drawn to them, taking care at the same time to balance and uniformly mix it: If it be the trail only, or any part of it that strikes most, that, by the same rule, should be marked out first, for these most essential parts being judiciously or ad vantageously disposed, it must consequently follow that the remaining subordinate parts may be made to compleat the uniform appearance of the whole, with proportionably less trouble.

In order to be certain of the joinings exhibitingas even an appearance as any other part of the face, let your joining (if possible) be taken from. about the middle of your sketch when made complete.

5. If the pattem you have to put on, be composed entirely of objects, or in which the objects are the commanding part, that stand promiscuous, as fig. 1, whether close or wide apart, be careful that one part be not more crouded, or tne objects larger than in another; for nothing is of greater con sequence to guard against, as it is obvious to any person, when the aspect of a Pattern is unequal on a piece, or even when made up.

As it is very difficult by the eye to keep objects promiscuously situated, and at the same time preserve an even face, the following expedient is offered to accomplish it, when the objects are not very close to each other, or not of a  long or straggling shape, as fig. 2, 3, and 4, as then it is best to set them at equal distances and vary the face by turning the objects about in as many dif serent directions as you can, or that the nature of the pattern will allow.

Rule a number of lines, as you can best make out, from the pattern, according to the distance the objects stand from each other, as Fig. 5, which done, place an object in every other square, as fig. 6, that is, one at the top of a square, another near the middle, another near the side, and so on, thus will you be certain of the objects having a regular appearance in the general disposition of them, and at the same time standing promiscuously.

6. In order to ascertain on the paper on which you make your sketch or tracings the joinings of trails as well as of sprigs that are irregularly disposed whether closely or widely situated, make use of this method.

 After you have made your sketch or tracing, repeat, either on separate papers, or on one large enough for the purpose, as much as is necessary to shew the joinings at the head and sides, in or der to supply that which is defective or remove whatever may be improper; having done this, hold it slopingly from your sight, and look at the whole from top to bottom, from side to side, and from corner to corner, to see that no lights nor heavy lines nor bodies of objects appear, and as there is generally in trails what may be called the main stalk, see that it branches out regularly from side to side, so that one side balances the  other, and that the branchings so run into, each other that it may seem to flow regularly all over, and to be still more certain of its even disposition, hold it with,the back towards you betwixt yourself and the light, that by seeing it reversed you may know if it lean more to one side than the other.

* Meaning that unless it is. on a small scale, it ia unadviseable to do so, from the great difficulty of preventing a repetition being seen.7. In small patterns it cannot be amiss to put on the halves or quarters exactly alike, according to the nature of the pattern*, taking, care that the halves or quarters are not to be distinguished, in the repetition of them, for the conveniency of one block answering for the grounding of each part after it comes off the grass whether the pattern was intended to be so grounded or not; for which purpose, as rubbing off is the least certain method, an oiled paper, or a drawing from a stensil is to be preserred, and a stensil seems best, because, as it is only a part of the pattern that is affected by the grafs grounds: except when composed only of plain set objects. If openings are cut in the stensil to fit the places that are either to be covered by the grounds as fig. 7, or left open by them, as fig. 8, their situations may be easily ascertained by marking thro these openings with a tracer or pencil, and then the other parts of the pattern may be added in whatsoever manner the drawer most approves.

8. Endeavour to keep all sprigs, or bunches of flowers, or even single flowers, whole on the piece, and likewise the main stalk of a trail, if you know what will be the width of the cloth: as it will be of some importance in the sale of a piece and the making of it up.

This leads to the observation that a Printer should not let a sprig, or principal flower, or other object get off the edge one side or the other; for in the case of sprigs, &c. standing wide apart, he may try, at least, on cloth of any width, if he can preserve them whole without leaving too broad anedging on either side.

9. A pattern with six sprigs or commanding objects standing as fig. 9, cannot join whole or in halves, but must drop or rise one third as fig. 10, or the objects will not be at proper distances in the joinings, but then, of course, the pitches must be made to answer in the same manner.

10. In transverse patterns, that is, in patterns in which the trail lines or objects run across from corner to corner, the way as represented by fig. 11, whether in stripes or all over, let the transverse disposition appear on the cloth the way as shewn fig. 12. as it will thwart the right hand disposition of the parts of a pattern generally observed in drawing, and the aptitude we usually have to look from the left to the right; as the light is from the left, and the hand in drawing naturally tends that way, otherwise we should be always incommoded by the shade of it.

11. The straiter the work is of the side or near the edge, the better it is, as there will be the fewer, gaps, and the necessity will be obviated of having (what the Printers call) a list to make up the deficiency, and less will be cut to waste in the making of it up.

This rule, however, should not be so strictly adhered to as to make the joinings too nice, by cutting straight through every thing, or particularly through a number of objects; for the more they can be preserved intire, the less injury is done to the pattern, as the print being pitched too high or too low, or too close or slack, renders them all unshapeable; it is likewise better to keep them whole on account of the grounds, especially the grass ones, as they by being disjointed must add to the bad shape of the objects; but, as it may happen that the breaking of tbe objects is of little consequence from their shape or situation, or that the ground-work may be of more consequence to preserve; the above observation must be regulated by attending to what are the characteristic parts of the pattern, or what first catches tie sight, and these must suffer the least possible injury, whatever may be the sate of the subordinate parts.

12. If some part of the pattern be coarse or have a body, it will not allow the fine parts to be so close or so fine as they otherwise might be, as the quantity of colour requisite to supply the solid parts will choak up those that are close, or cause those to work coarsely that are fine; and here it may again be observed, that though neat drawing on is to be commended, yet, if not drawn sufficiently open or clear; where for instance, there may be shades or shapes as fig. 13, 14, and 15, though cut by the best cutter, and may appear tolerably open and fair on the block, they will not appear so in the impression, to say no thing how they may suffer from a bad cutter or printer, or from being printed on coarse cloth, or when half worked out; for a print should be calculated to work decently when a certain quantity of work generally expected to be executed by one is nearly compleated, and therefore (to give some instances) in drawing or cutting shades as fig. 16, 17, it is not adviseable to put them on in that manner, however graceful they may appear on the block or even in the cutting, because the colour will hang in the corners and give the work a clumsy appearance, hence to cut them with less of a curve as fig. 18, 19, they will, by working clearer and neater, amply compensate for such a deviation.

13. Avoid, if you can, having any part of a close trail as in fig. 20, at the head of a print, as the pressure from the pitching of the print will render it coarser than any other part of the trail: the pressure however may possibly be prevented by the pitch pins standing out farther than com mon from the work: for which preventative see the rules for making pitches.

14. When you have shades, as fig. 21, or particularly lights standing or running with the grain as fig. 22, 23, be careful to have them cut sufficiently open, otherwise you will be deccivad by their working closer than intended; for when print gets moist the opening closes considerably, and what may have appeared open in putting on, or when cut, will be choaked up in the printing, especially is cut with a thick knife, or if not sufficiently cleared at the bottom and sides. — See more respecting this article in Rule 6, for cutting.

15. In joinings either at the head or side, the more a stalk or trail joins in this upright direction fig. 24, the better it is for working, instead of joining fig. 25, as the best Printer cannot at all times, on account of the varying of the cloth, keep the joinings so well in command at the side as he can at the head.

* An imperfection of this kind runs nearly all through the work of one of the first Printers about town. — This, with similar observations will be en larged on, in the progress of this work. 16. In drawing leaves or sharp-angled objects that are to be pencilled, it is recommended to terminate them as fig. 26, 27, or fig. 28, instead of fig. 29, 30, 31, as such a finish will keep the penciling, particularly the blue colour, an account of its thickness, from being run into white, or the ground; for without such a filling up of the ends, the pencillers will either leave a light at the corners, as fig. 31, or, in en deavouring to fill them up, they will be apt, from the largeness of their pencils, to come over the line, as fig. 32, and the same observation will hold good respecting every other place where the pencilling goes into corners or angles.*

Note. In calculating the expence of pencilling; and thereby fixing what quantity should be in a Pattern, a certain number of strokes or dashes, which a Penciller is supposed to make in a stated time, is worth a certain price.

17. In putting on the block, nothing is more deceptive than having ao leave lights in dark grounds; for if any shape is drawn fig. 33, you may be deceived when the ground is filled up, as it takes in the line you have drawn, and makes the light within-side appear less; it is still more deceiving if you have to draw the boundage as fig. 34, as its thickness gives the whole object a larger appearance than it really has. Here it may be noticed (though touched on before) in putting on  a print that is to have a thick boundage, see fig. 35, particularly if it is to be a doppy, that the shades and other work within fide see fig. 36, must be kept sufficiently clear and open; or the weight of colour requisite to furnish the boundage, or doppy, will be too much for such close shades or fine work. Observe likewise is there be lights as fig. 37, to give intimation to the Cutter to strike the ends with a small gouge, as fig. 38, which will prevent the colour from hanging in those otherwise sharp ends.

18. In drawing on grounds that have large bodies as fig. 39, that are to work in thin colour, especially if they stand wide apart, remember that they will in the working, from the sinking or spreading of the colour, and its adherence to the sides, make larger impressions than the surface of the cutting otherwise would; hence they should be proportioned to that circumstance, and put on perhaps smaller than they are in the pattern. And as the pale colours worked with such solids, will be lost, or appear much paler when impressed from fine lines or pins if on the same block; therefore in such cases separate grounds should he had for the fine parts or for the pins.

Under this head would be considered the drawing on blotch grounds, and the other grounds that fall into boundages, but as the cutting far ther or less into the boundage is partly regulated by the thickness of it; no precise direction can be given, as every one knows the circumstance to be attended to, in this case, is to prevent any, light edges from appearing either within or with out the boundage. — See more to this purpose Rule 7, under the article Cutting.

19. Wherever there are to be pins, mark them on the block previous to its going into the Cutter's hands, that the wood be not chisselled away, and where the pins touch or join the cutting, mark them accurately, and give intimation to the Cutter, that the ends of the shades or stalks may be cut downright, otherwise a disagreeable gap will be lest, as fig. 43; and in ascertaining the sizes of pins, be aware that as the wood gets coarse by working, the pins fink in, from the repeated blows at the back; and if worked in colour that has any corrosive quality in it, they soon get finer; hence if provision is not made for these circumstances, the impression of the wood wood and pins will in a little time be very disproportioned. It is likewise needful to inform the Cutter of what quality the pins are to be, that the depth of the chisselling maybe regulated accordingly.

20. In ruling Bengals the following mode is recommended, in order to make the ends join each other, (provided the block has not been too much warped, or any particular accident happened.)

Make on a flip of thick paper,or rather thin lead, with which tea-chests are lined, as many divisions as you have Bengals to put on, then fixing it to the square line at one end, prick through the divisions on the paper, and transser them to the block, the finer the pricked holes the better; having done this, remove the flip carefully ta the square line at the other end, taking care that the two extreme holes answer to the corners of the square, and prick through the same divisions as you did before; then rule as usual from the pricked marks, thus will each end of your square be a correct copy of the other; but as the ends of Bengals are of most consequeace to preserve, it may not be amiss with a sharp thin blade, to cut a little into the wood at each end.

21. If it be a joined block that you use, take care that the joint comes between the Bengals, and as a preventative against the consequences of a print with Bengals warping under the Cutter's hands, it may be necessary to let one end of the Bengals be cut thicker than the other; see fig. 44, and make the ends join by cutting away from the broad ones, when the print goes to work; or whenever Bengals do not pitch to. themselves, that is, when they join by pitchpins, it may be usesul to cut both ends, as fig. 45, and in the joining let the points run into each other, as you thereby prevent the [disagreeable appearance that the junction has when two square ends join badly, as fig. 46, but in the other instance, at the worst, tHey will appear as fig. 47, which is considerably better.

22. When you have a number of set objects., such as rosettes, rings, leaves, &c. to put on, it being very difficult, if not impossible, to trace or draw them alike in the usual way, it is best to have the objects cut accurately, and impressed or printed on the block, which if you can do clear enough  to cut from, it will save much time and; labour; or if you cannot do it so smartly as you wish, make a mixture of lamp black and flake white, so as to be about the hue of black lead, the paler the colour the better, and let there be little, if any, gum in it; spread this pretty thinly on a piece of soft leather, and so take off your impressions on the block, which done, draw over the objects, lo printed, with well-tempered carmine (some add gum bogia) and when finished clear away as much as you can of the colour you printed on, with a piece of stale bread; for if you use India rubber, it will change any colour which has gum bogia in it, to a very dark and dirty one.

Another method is by printing by our object on paper with a proper mixture of carmine and treacle, which a little practice will ascertain, and then rub it off from the paper on to  the block; the advantage of which mode is, that the colour does not speedily dry, so that you may take what time you please in rubbing it on; but the neatest method is by the object being engraved, and then taken off on paper, either by hand or a press, in the red oil colour that is used in the printing  on paper; which not speedily drying any more than the treacle colour, it may be rubbed on the same manner.

Other methods of a similar kind for another purpose, are proposed further on.

23. If for any particular purpose you want to fix your colour on the wood, a thin white transparent varnish will secure it; or if you use a black lead pencil only, strew some powdered rosin all over, and then move a hot iron about at a little distance over it, by which method the rosin will liquidate and form a kind of varnish over it; or what is still more simple, if you only draw your tongue wet with saliva, over a black-lead drawing, and let it dry, the black lead cannot be easily removed.

24. When you have a pattern to put on, consisting of very small objects, very closely and promiscuously situated, an eligible way to preserve an even face, is to take a small portion of the square of the block (in some cases half an inch will do) and see how many objects will go in it, and then repeat this portion on another paper, to what size you please; varying the disposition of the objects as much as the pattern will admit, in order to prevent the appearance of a repetition.

Note, Small close patterns will well bear enlarging a little, else in the cloth they appear smaller and closer.

As circles, rosettes, and other common objects, are always in use, it would not be amiss to have punches of different sorts and sizes, to use occasionally on paper or blocks, particularly where the objects are on dark grounds, as fig. 48, or have a thick boundage, as fig. 49, as the object impressed on the wood will be visible to cut or gouge from; or if the impressions suffer from damping, they may be drawn over in red, and thus from their accuracy much trouble would be saved; or if you want a solid object repeated accurately, it may be managed by stenselling it, that is, by an object as fig. 50, cut out of a piece of oil-skin, a piece of thick paper rubbed over with bees wax, or a piece of thin sheet lead, and then lay the colour on, with a pad, or in what other, manner you find convenient; or if you want to do something like fig. 51, it may be managed by cutting out the object nearly all round, as fig. 52, leaving just joining enough to prevent the inner piece from falling out, the impression of course will be imperfect as fig. 53, which imperfection must be made good by the pencil.

As sometimes on emergency things cannot be got on too soon, you may, after having put on the print, trace the same accurately with a firm oiled paper, and then retrace it on another block, or at least those parts that the ground which you mean to put on, falls into, or joins; on which accordingly draw your grounds; but strict charge must be given to the cutter that he does not deviate in the least from the drawing.

The advantage of this mede is evident, in having the principal grounds ready as soon as the print; and if they do riot exactly fit, perhaps a little alteration may make them; and that is better than setting some prints to work before the grounds are cut, as then whatever is amiss in the impression of the print, must remain so.

It is however suggested concerning this article and the preceding one, that they should only be used in cases of absolute necessity, as their neat ness and accuracy cannot be much insisted on.

In fact, every one must grant that any operation, especially where contrivance is necessary, and has to go through many hands, if exe cuted with precipitancy, cannot reasonably be expected to be free from some fault or other; and in this instance it most undoubtedly is requisite, that, with very few exceptions, prints and grounds should be adjusted to each ether be fore they go to work.

27. In finishing the joinings of some certain prints it will do no harm, to let the ends of stalks or objects, that join at the heads and sides, be a little too long, it being an. easy matter to pare or cut away what is superfluous; or sometimes if particular parts of a joining are suffered to remain rather longer than might seem needful, as fig. 54; they prevent the appearance of a break in the stalk, see fig. 55, 56, 57, if the print is slackly joined.

28. Avoid so disposing of a leaf, a flower, or several stalks at the corners of a print, as to require four joinings to bring them together, see fig. 58, 59, 60, but, if possible, let the corners of the square fall in some open or blank  part of the pattern, as the joinings are less likely to be perfect at the corners than any where else.

The above rule, it may be observed, chiefly respects patterns where the work is close, or the objects small; as in loose patterns, or where the are large, and light of work, it may not be of much consequence where the joinings are made.

N.B. In joinings it is perhaps best not to give much latitude, to Printers, as it thereby makes foma of them more careful in the joining, and rarely satisfy them how the grass grounds fall; for if they know they may run their, joinings a little, they will be apt to over-run that latitude; It is however necessary to inform them what work is to be grounded, that they may be accordingly careful in pulling over, their pieces, and folding them smoothly and even. The Foreman of a shop should be informed of the design of every pattern.

 29. Instead of the common way of making cut the joinings, by rubbing off from black lead, or by an oiled paper, the following mode is: offered where particular nicety is required, at least it must be something more certain, fromthe circumstance of one side and end being cut, than the usual mode, as there is always a probability of the Cutter deviating - from the drawing, or the marking; out of the joinings.

 After having regulated your joinings, draw or finish one end and one side, as you mean it be joined to the others, leaving the other end and side unfinished, at least within a quarter of an inch, or perhaps less, where the joinings are to be made; then let the end and side that you have drawn perfect, be cut a little way in the work, and likewise the squares; then dab a little treacle and lamp-black oa the edge of the part that is cut, and lay over it a flip ot strong paper, and press it sufficiently to receive an impression, taking care that you take the impression of the squares, unless you chuse to prick through the two corners, for the purpose of transserring them to the other;. either way remove the paper carefully to the other side or end, by joining the squares that you have rubbed off, to the other squares, or fixing the pricked holes to them: then rub the impression which you have, received from the end or side which you have cut, which will convey it to the block, to which impression you accordingly have to make good the drawing for the joinings. - In some cases it may be more convenient to let the print be cut all over to within a very little of one of the sides and ends, observing the same process of rubbing, as before suggested. Or, by  putting temporary pitches at a distance from the square, at the bottom and off-side, and having holes or pins to answer to them, within the squares, and at the same distance from them, if you strike an impression on paper, and then join it, (observing to guard the blank part of the block from the dipping) you will have at once the impression of that part of the block which is cut, and by which you may the easier regulate the joinings.

30. In prints with sprigs that stand wide apart, or in very loose trails, if it can be done without hurting the ground, a few pins placed between, and filed nearly to a point, and rather below the surface of the wood, will keep the cloth down; and cause the work to appear neater, by preventing the edges of the objects pressing too much on the cloth; it likewise answers the purpose of keeping the substance of the block nearly equal, as otherwise a deal of wood must be handtooled out; and the hollows that remain must weaken the block, and render it more apt to warp, or perhaps split, if the print requires much knocking. In grounds where the parts stand far from each other, it can be done very conveni ently, by letting these (what may be called) guard  pins, sall into parts of the impression of the print.

It is granted that an objection lies against this observation, as the points of pins standing at great distances from each other, are apt to make hole in the sieve, or in the cloth, especially where coarse or too much blanketing is used on the table; and if one thread of the piece is broken, it will in the process of copper or field-work be come a hole; therefore some caution is needful in this case to place the pins, not too far from the work, especially round the outside of it, so that the circumstance alluded to be prevented-

31. Where a print or ground is put on with out any drawing, such as rings, bengals, that are executed with dividers, tracers, &c. so that only an indenting is made in the wood, if a thin mixture of colour be spread all over, and the block afterwards scraped with a fine edge, some of the colour will remain in the indentings or hollows, and be tolerably visible; besides, by pursuing this method, if the wood be damped, and the indentings swelled up, there will be some guide to the Cutter; in short, it will have nearly the same effect as oiling the wood where a curf line is cut.

32. In drawing for pinning, be aware that though in the drawing, your lines may appear to stand distinct as fig. 61, 62, 63, yet the print when pinned will not have that appearance, the certain vacancy between the pins destroying if, as the pins will appear as fig. 64, 65, 66. Observe the same in drawing lights in bodies of pins, as fig. 67, for though the object may appear tolerably shapeable, while only as a line, yet it will be destroyed when enclosed in pins as fig. 68, there fore in such cases, let there be a proper openess. observed or provided for.

33. In drawing pinwork for cylinders, recollect that there will be some difference between the width of the surface of the pins, and: the bottom of them which in rings, rosettes, &c. will be of some consequence.

34. In adjusting the joinings and pitches, it may not be amiss, indeed it is necessary, if there be among the Printers, one who has a general judgment, to consult with htm respecting them.

* This kind of refinement is what the writer several times points out as objectionable in the patterns as executed on the cloth by some of the first Printers; in one ground almost all the leaves (as mentioned already) are of that long shape, fig. 110, so as to heighten the inconvenience when formed with pins; and in another, (perhaps the first in this country, for the variety of patterns it has produced, and the taste displayed in them) those leaves fig. m, are very frequent: but the ill effect is at all times visible, though the pencilling is as neat as can possibly be done here; therefore the drawing on paper should be regulated in a degree by the similitude that is attainable on the cloth; and, according to the principle of keeping the last stage in view, a little deviation had better, be made from the original, though in respect to itself not bettering the appearance, provided it tends to give the whole a better aspect; and particularly so, if it renders the operations easier, or more facile, in any of the branches.3. Though the following observation more concerns the designer, yet as the putter-on is sometimes left to his discretion, it is intimated here that pin shapes for leaves are bad for penciling two colours, viz. the blue over yellow, or yellow over bine, as the blue, and yellow are never so exactly on each other but that, they are seen at the edges; and so likewise are the edges of leaves or other objects of. this kind, fig. 106* and of pin shapes, those are the worst that are in this form fig. 107 on account of the sharp end; but, if such shapes must be retained, it is advised to end them thus fig. 108. Besides, there is another inconvenience attending pin shapes, indeed a general one, which is, that the surfaces of the pins continually get finer; hence, if not put in as close as possible to each other, or if put in of the smallest sizes, (speaking of them as boundages for colour) there soon will be very little line to be seen; and every one knows pumicing them must render the wood-work coarser; and it may be said too of this kind of shapes, fig. 109, that a small accident or little violence soon breaks them; or if the texture of the wood be not very firm indeed, they soon crumble away, or work gouty.

36. Observe as a general rule, that pins and wood never work well together, especially large pins with fine cutting, or fine pins with coarse cutting, and particularly where they stand close to the wood. See Rule 19.

37. In drawing on grounds that are to work in thin colour, if they have shades, or other long and thin shapas, terminating in points, remember that such long shades do not shew as such, even if very wide apart; and if put close together, they blotch up; therefore in many instances they should be drawn rather longer than apparently needful, and the Cutter must be directed to cross the ends with his knife.


A Treatise on Calico Printing, Of putting on the Block.*

A Treatise on Calico Printing, VOL. I-II
Printed for C. O'Brien, Bookseller, Islington, and fold by Bew, Paternoster-row: Richardson, Royal Exchange: Murray, Fleet-Street: And the Booksellers of Manchester, Glasgow, Dublin, &c.


* Drawing on the block is a less uncouth phrase; but it is not always proper; as some Patterns do not require any drawing on the block.

** To which may be added not allowing sufficient time in difficult cases, aņd where some consideration is required.
It is a disagreeable-truth to advance, and it will doubtless seem to many Callico Printers, a bold astertion in the writer to say, that a great number of them labour under an egregious error, which error has been the cause of many excellent: Patterns being ruined in their appearance on the cloth; and that is, by imagining the most inferior Drawers are adequate to the business of putting on the Block;** for every person in the Callico Printing business knows, that a Drawer - who is deemed only a putter on, is not held in a very respectable light, though a distinction; should be made between a good putter on and  a bad one, for a good one is a valuable acquisition to a Printer, while an indifferent one, every person will allow, is of little use; but, by a good putter on, is here meant one who is ready at contriving and adapting, under the variety of circumstances for which no rules can precisely  provide, every requisite towards the pattern appearing as it should do on the cloth; and not, as is the notion of many, in being merely able - to draw neatly and correctly; for the drawing may be very correct, and the cutting answerable to it, and yet in the end the work not fit to be seen: It must not however be inferred, that neatness and correctness is here deemed of little value; it is only considered in that light, when not combined with other estential requisites; for this may be observed in general, and will be noticed in different parts of this publication, whether speaking of Drawing, Cutting, or any other process, the operator must always be looking forward to the manner in which the work will appear when offered for sale; and it is this faculty of looking through every process to the ultimate object, that stamps the value of an artist or workman, and renders him very far superior to one, who, though excellent in his department, has not an idea beyond the general directions given him, or perhaps any further than as it is repeatedly pointed out to him in what manner to proceed.

The writer therefore prefuming the truth must be pretty evident of the observation just advanced, that putting on the block is an operation of more importance than generally deemed; he confequently thinks he cannot be too strenuous in exploding the contrary idea; for even those who have adopted it, must allow, that being the first operative or mechanical movement, according as that, is adjusted or managed, the after-processes must be more or less perfect or accurate.

Indeed when a person who, from his situation, cannot be supposed to know much of the matter, seems it a trifling performance, and easily at tained, such an idea is not to be wondered at; but when one who has been his whole life in the business, particularly if in the situation of a Principal, and has often verified and felt the consequence of errors or failures in that department, treats it in such a manner, or thinks that the mere command of the pencil, constitutes good putting-on, it is much to be wondered at: therefore the writer is also induced to enlarge on his assertion, that good putting on the block principally confifts in the contrivance and ad justment of one requisite with another, for the well finishing of the whole process; to perform which, implies the possession of judgment, and  experience in the operator, and who must necessarily be supposed to have reduced his observations to that point, which tends to some method in the performance of it.

* The writer is the more particular on this head, having been in situations with and without such accommodations, and the difference to him has been such as even to induce him to give up engagements otherwise desireable enough; however, want of time and conveniences would not be so grating, but that, unfortunately and absurdly, work is often expected to be as complete as if performed under every advantage; or at least if it is not, a dissatisfaction is rarely with helđ; as for time necessary to be allowed, that can only be comparative; but at any rate, according to the motto on the title page, there is a wide difference between expedition and hurry. Sometimes it is necessary, in all stations, to be particularly expeditious, and then of course, every nerve should be strained; but it is impossible for the tension to be perpetually kept up. As for saying as some will, that when a Drawer has to put on a pattern, he should take half an hour, or an hour to consider about it,it is but partially applicable some patterns requiring little, if any, consideration, while in others, the whole process is hardly anything else. This oeconomy in point of time, and restraint in point of convenience, has been in a great measure the cause of such general incorrectness in country work.-Of which see more further on.

** That is, in respect to engaged patterns, but with those who print for themselves, the case is: something different.
But, let every one well note, that the possession of natural and acquired abilities, combined with any set of operations, reduced into a system, can be of little help to the operator, or of advantage to his employer, unless properly accommodated in respect to time, utensils, situation, and other conveniences;* in short, no rules can be of service, any more than the greatest abilities, if the means are with-held that should give energy to them.

It may however be said, that this department has suffered in the common estimation of its value, from being a branch that does not appear the most conspicuously when the work is finished; as then the colours only taking the eye, and nearly excluding every other consideration, the putting on is hid, as it were, or forgotten, whatever the trouble might have been, as tending to produce that appearance which pleases, though not thought of, as owing to that operation, but in the instances of bad joinings, and other glaring faults it must strike every indifferent person as a defect in the management of it. In truth, according  to common speaking, or in a loose description of the business, putting-on the block is spoken of in this manner (which by the bye is nearly all the information the writer could procure from all the publications he has examined) "A design is made on paper, which is transferred to a block of some close grained wood, and given to a workman, who with small knives, chissels, and other instruments, leaves in relief, what was drawn on the block;" and this leads him to say, that perhaps he may be excused for the vanity of thinking, he is the first who has formed the subject of this publication into some order or arrangement, and shewn the connections and dependances subsifting between the different departments; and he ventures to suggest it has been owing to the want of some such arrangement, that many have looked at the department of putting on the block in so indifferent a light, and not having had leifure or inclination to form any set of rules, or to make minutes of observations, their memories have not been faithful when particularly needed. But, (as already intimated in the introduction) he has ventured on untrodden ground, he may of course be expected to make frequent deviations, and can therefore look on the work as little more than a sketch of a system, which probably may hereafter be moulded into a more methodical or intelligent form.

Respecting putting on, it is further observed, that Cutters, Printers, Pencillers, and Masters, have different ideas concerning it; a Cutter is. for clean drawing, without caring too often how it is to work, or even whether it can work at all. A Printer thinks little about fine drawing, so that when cut it is but a handy print, and (as. the phrase is) that it will make a good mark. A Penciller, every one knows wants a good line; the Principal (as may be supposed) cares not: how many essential requisites are combined; but chiefly, that the work be found enough to do a great many pieces; or if an engaged pattern, that it be able to do all the order well, with wanting little repair; each of these parties assume a certain 'portion of judgment, though (naturally enough) paying particular regard to their particular departments; but, after all this, perhaps the writer starts a novel suggestion, which is, that the Draper is the only judge;** for unless, (as often touched on in this work) the desired - effect is not produced, or that effect which for wards the sale, fine drawing, fine cutting, fine printing, &c. has been bestowed on the pattern to, very little purpose.

After these general hints, (adverting to what is advanced in the beginning of this section that is, the error of deeming inferior drawers competent to the business of putting on the block) it is to be observed, that a good designer may not be a good putter-on; as putting-on requires judgment only; and this necessarily impels the writer to speak of the time needful to be allowed for the contriving part of putting-on, similar, in that light, to what he has said in speaking of pattern drawing; as many thinking little done, unless they see something drawn with colour on the block, make little allowance for mental operations; but, in this case it is asserted (and will very likely be repeated) it can only be in the general run of what a person can perform that a proper deducement can be made respecting his expedition; for a person whose business is to study or contrive, is always at work, as he must be continually thinking in what manner he is to proceed; since, besides being under the necessity of proceeding cautiously himself, he has to provide for the incautiousness of others; and that at all times, (if he has the interest of his employer in view, or has any solicitude about his own reputation) is sufficient employment for his hopes of success, or his fears of mischance.

Recurring further to the intimation that the time necessary for the contriving part of putting on the block is more than some principals think needful, the writer observes, that many often conclude no work, or but very little, is done, unless they see a gradual progress of operation, probably from the very circumstance of making little allowance for the time necessary for contrivance, or else from over-looking every other circumstance but that of gain, which to be sure is excuseable, because natural; as for mere drawing, it is frequently what takes the least time, except in variegated patterns, and where the work is very fine and intricate; besides, in some instances, drawing on the block is time and trouble thrown away, particularly where gouges and other tools are used that take out certain shapes, as round holes, barlycorns, diamonds, ovals, and the like; the eye in such cases never being able, in drawing, to carry the exact shape of every object; and to have a shape cut and print it, is not always easily or accurately done.

As Cutters very often affect to determine on the merits of putting-on, it is intimated respecting them, if the drawing be ever so excellent, it is generally half destroyed by damping or scraping, though the stroke of the pencil may however still be clear; but if a Cutter has not some idea of air or gracefulness, or what the intention of the design is, he will, very likely, produce a stiff or aukward piece of work from the most exquisite drawing on; but, on the contrary, if a Cutter be a master of his business, he does not always deem this or that little nicety very essential, and in many cases needs little more than a sketch for his guide; further, it sometimes happens by incautiousness or accident, that many parts of the putting-on are obliterated; hence if a Cutter absolutely need such formality of direction, he will often, be at a stand, and his deficiency will be greatly to his disadvantage and discredit.

* A word or two respesting mistakes, or imperfections, either as tending to prevent them, or how to treat them when they happen, would not be improperly inserted in this section; but being of general application, they are reserved for another part.

** While work sells well with very capital faults, which sometimes happens, a Draper does not always concern himself much about them; but when work of such a complexion cannot be disposed of, then he may be expected soon to point them out; and then no Callico-Printer need be informed of the use of a Draper’s damage-book. It may be even said, for true enough it is, that when tolerable or good work does not go off, some few Drapers are pretty ready at discerning faults, or even magnifying those that are trifling

*** Of late the aspect of some country-work has improved, but this is a point that will be spoken of in another place.
The writer now more immediately addresses himself to the Drawer, respecting the operation,* though in a general manner, (the particulars being contained in the following rules) supposing, for form sake, as those matters have been spoken of, that he is accommodated in every  shape, and that he has a capability naturally of profiting by instruction, or his own experience; otherwise, every body knows, all that can be said or exhibited, must be to no purpose in any particular; this - allowed, it is observed, that there are two species of faults or errors, which should always be distinguished by the operator, and though no fault is too small to be disregarded, yet some are more to be guarded against than others: one species of the faults alluded to, is that which must strike every person as such, the other is what would only appear as such to a Drawer, or other person well-acquainted with the business; or (more briefly) one kind is what only can be seen on searching for it; the other is what will force itself to be seen.

 The kind easily distinguished by every body; as far as relates to putting on, is, when a joining is very badly managed, or when the face of the drawing, exclusive of the joinings, is very uneven, of course, in putting on a pattern, these are of the first consideration, for a failure in either of these cases, must, in a greater or less degree, hurt the sale of the work; people being displeased with something that is faulty, though - they  may not be able to specify why it is so;** for if indifferently executed in these material points, no cutting, no colour, nor any operation that is to follow, can ever make work appear as it should do, cover the faults just specified, or compensate for others less likely to be publicly noticed; and to point out more particularly the consequence of these circumstances not being at tended to, how many prints that have been ex ecuted in the country, as well as many that have been executed in town, have been thrown by, from the circumstances of not joining well, or having an uneven face, though perhaps nicely drawn, and excellently cut.***

From all this, the attention of every one is pressed to what has been advanced, as well as to what will be displayed further on, and the more it is attended to by a Drawer, he will be the abler to add many articles as he proceeds, which only his own observations and experience can produce; and which every fresh pattern that he may have to put on will furnish him with; for mechanical as it may feem to some to put on well, it is very far from being so, as in many instances the judgment must be employed, and judgment can only result from ex perience or close observation: as for the rules which follow, if ten times as many could be displayed, they would not be much more than general ones, almost every pattern (as just hinted) requiring something to observe, which no rule nor precept can thoroughly supply; and, let it be re membered, that if a person with all the advantages - acquired from genius and general experience, be liable to err, how much more so is he who has paid but little attention to what ought to have been his immediate concern; especially, if he considers, that in every stage of it, something may occur from causes too difficult and numerous to explain or exhibit, which the utmost precautiọn cannot prevent, nor the greatest experience account for whenever they do appear.

* See Rule 34 for putting onAs a word of advice, the writer adds, that as much as possible to provide against inaccuracies, a Drawer should not rely on his own judgment in cases out of the common way, whatever he may think of his fagacity, or faculty of preventing mistakes; for let him remember, if he errs, his mortification will be in proportion to the value he fets on himself; and so likewife will be the triumph of those who can detect him in an error; but by taking the opinion of others,* if a failure happen, his own mortification, and the triumph of others, will be proportionably decreased: In few words, absurdly vain and arrogant indeed must that artist or workman be, who will take on him to conduct an operation without failing in any respect; and proportionably weak must that employer be, who ever looks for it from an operator the most reputably perfect.


A Treatise on Calico Printing, Of Pattern-Drawing

A Treatise on Calico Printing, VOL. I-II
Printed for C. O'Brien, Bookseller, Islington, and fold by Bew, Paternoster-row: Richardson, Royal Exchange: Murray, Fleet-Street: And the Booksellers of Manchester, Glasgow, Dublin, &c.
For reasons which will afterwards appear this Work is not paged;—and every Secion or Branch of the Business treated of, is begun on this Side.

As designing or drawing Pattern is the obvious source of the business on which this tract is written, it may be expected that something will be laid on it by way of instruction or advice; but, as Pattern-Drawing depends so much on what every one understands by genius, and is so much governed by fancy, little can be said on it to any advantage j however, as bearing some assinity with it, it will be considered in what the ex cellency of a Pattern-Drawer consists, arid what some of the helps are, which genius may possibly receive from that experience which forms the basis of prosessional judgment.

By a good Pattern-Drawer should be under stood one, who poflesles a sertility of invention, with judgment to adapt that sertility to the best purpose, as it regards taste, effect, execution and expence; or at least, one who can improve on what is doing by others, or can readily catch the reigning style, and by adopting it, form his designs accordingly.

He should likewise have a knowledge of the business in every stage of its process, and conse quently be enabled to answer, in some degree, how every intended effect may be obtained pre vious to the executive part being put into operation.

Hence the Writer ventures to say, that how ever excellently a Drawer can copy nature, or combine a number of colours, yet, if that be all, his utility is very limited, when compared with him, who without great neatness of drawing or brilliancy of colouring, can produce that variety which gives a spring to a business, ever dependant on the capriciousness of taste, and the fickleness of fancy.

It may nevertheless be observed (making a transition from Pattern-Drawing to the Patterns themselves) that it is difficult to say, what really constitutes a good pattern, as decisions on that subject are formed by different persons from very different motives; for instance, a Drapers determination of one is biassed by what will best suit his line of trade; a Printer's, that which is adapted to produce the desired effect at the least expence; while a buyer's opinion is guided by what is most generally exhibited in the shops; and many patterns acquire the character of being good ones, merely from a Draper having it in his power to command a general display of them under every advantage; for the most fanciful and best executed pattern would have little chance of selling well, if seen but in a few places, or the sale not otherwise forwarded; as it then would not have the appearance of a generally approved one, and consequently it would be disregarded in a proportionate degree. But, as this will be occasionally considered in other places, a few sentiments-respecting Genius, Fancy, and Invention, as more immediately the subject of this section, will be now offered; as well as what those helps are,of which genius may avail itself, toward directing its progress; with the needsulness and means of restraining its impetuosity, or preventing itsccentricity: some other thoughts will likewise be advanced, rather more remote to the immediate subject, but still having so much affinity with it, as to come under the cognizance of a Designer, or those who have, or desire to have, any concern in that department. But, it may be necessary to observe, that as the subject gives rise to several observations, not sufficiently close to be interwoven with it, theresore, for the sake of being as methodical as possible, and the keeping together what is more immediately to the point, they will be reserved for the Essay surther on.

Previous likewise to what will be said in this, and the following section, relative to putting-on the block, the writer intimates, that, to avoid consusion of terms, when speaking of Pattern- Drawers, he shall most frequently call them designers; patterns he shall call designs; Putters-on the Block he shall call Drawers; and their performances putting-on; but, in displaying the irules, such distinction will not be affected, as he shall use them indifferently as best suits the im mediate purpose. As for the terms Genius, Invention, and Fancy, though distinct ones, Fancy will be most, likely adopted to serve for either, as being most applicable to designing for Callico-printing.

In the beginning of this section, it being said a deal depends on Genius in regard to the subject now in view, it may be expected, that,preparatory to what will be exhibited as mechanical helps tolt, something will be said wherein it consists, how it is to be improved, what are its indications, and the like; it will therefore be attempted, not as aspiring to any thing doctrinal, specifically descriptive, or as seeking controversy, but only as it seems to hold a connection with the subject treated of; for, till terms are explained, understood, and universally received in one unequivocal sense, we animadvert in the dark, hence to ask what Genius is, how it originates, how it performs, or where is it seated? leads into such metaphysical obscurity or perplexity, that the most intelligent are at a loss how to satisfy such inquiries; for knowing little of the elementary principles of things, as the sources are so remote, how can positive or clear consequences be educed? therefore we sit down at last with simply calling it a faculty of the mind, and to express its operations, say something like what is ventured to be offered surther on, taking certain positions as principles or maxims, and accordingly draw our deductions and argue from them.

As for the display or productions of genius or fancy, enough is visible in every station, and therefore though only treating of pattern-drawing, an occupation of little worth or merit in the eyes of those who hold a high rank in the scale of artists, as if requiring little strength of intellect, compass of invention, or accuracy in execution; yet, in its proper sphere, taken in all circumstances, it is with those whom it immediately concerns, of as much importance, and as difficult to attain, as many arts or sciences that are universally dignified.

Genius in any shape, it is observed, is not satisfied unless exploring unbeaten tracks, or rendering that perfect which cannot be rendered so by the efforts of mediocrity; to constitute which and to empower it so to act, there must be fancy, judg ment and taste: by fancy, various ideas seem to be carried to the mental repository and there, stored up to he occasionally made use of; but then fancy should be restrained or governed by judgment, or its emanations will be eccentric or extravagant; and this faculty of judgment seems to be properly employed in going through its collection of ideas, to separate or arrange them as maybe required; er in other words, judgment is a kind of counterbalance to the eccentricity of fency, curbing it (as before intimated) when im petuous, and guiding it when prone to deviate.

Further, As judgment is chiefly understood to keep the fancy within proper bounds, so that no thing be unnatural or distortive; another power is requisite to render whatever is produced, not merely free from fault, but to give it a beauty, and an elegant and highly polished finish; which power is generally expressed by the term taste; of which much has been written to define, and to bring under certain rules, but with little effect, being a faculty more acquired by accident than by nature, and partly depending upon circumstances not always regulated by strict propriety; but as it takes in the consideration or knowledge of what is generally, and (in some cases) universally, allowed to give a finish to the works of art; it is therefore able to form a decision, either as applicable to the performance under the designers hands, or in determining on the works of others. Taste, however, according as it is employed, is either superior, or subordinate to judgment; as the arbitrator of ornament, it is despotic; but in following nature, it must be subjective; hence, according as the fancy or judgment is likely to be employed, let the designer attend to this distinction, as, in the instance of pattern-drawing, taste is to he understood as the uppermost quality to be acquired, nature being no way in that business likely to be very closely imitated; but in other situations where the performance consists in its resemblance of nature, and that, resemblance is required, there, judgment (with taste however at its call) must claim the precedency or first notice.

Again, either of these three qualities is of little service without the assistance of the others, fancy alone being very inadequate to produce what is requisite (even when required to be wild or grotesque) for though its productions may please, it can be but for a moment; but, when regulated by judgment and adorned by taste, it strikes almost universally; the decorative part pleasing those who know but little, or overlook that of the natural; and those who look for propriety, find it, with the addition of that heightening or vivification which true taste imparts; for when these are united, they of course strengthen and add to each others power and effect, exhibiting something novel, expressed with propriety, and embellished with elegance; genius, which is the vivifying spark, giving a spring and spirit to the whole; and without which, the most elaborate works of judgment will never give much pleasure to any one of a refined and comprehensive turn, though for a while they may please a frigid observer.

It is not the business of this little effusion to particularize the indications of genius further than as immediately applicable to the mechanical operations displayed further on; the writer how ever will just mention that many have been de ceived by an early indication of such a gift, forming great expectations that when ripened, it would acquire much celebrity; but, it is not easy in juvenile objects to say into what road it may hereaster strike, for until their productions may be supposed to be regulated by that degree of discernment, which requires some maturity of years, there can be little of what is termed judgment: hence many youths have been put to designing though it has afterwards appeared their talents have been much over-rated,; and in deciding on such indications, a caution mould be observed, for though genius may seem to improve as maturity approaches; yet ere that epocha conimences, it may have pasted its meridian; which is seen,  frequently to be the  case, whenever a remarkable early display of genius has been visible: besides, people who thus hastily decide, are not aware, that while they do not expect a perfect perform ance, and look but for an attempt, they only commend its proximity to perfection; but when the time comes that something masterly should be produced, the performer may shew that his genius was not of the kind to arrive at that height; and then, those who predicted great effects, are proportionably disappointed and mortified.

* This may be alluded to as particularly applicable to lads being put out to Pattern-drawers who work at home (and it holds good respecting Cutters and Engravers) though this is an error in those who put them out; for when out of their times they have in effect another term to serve before they know any thing beyond the use of the pencil, the knife, or graver, otherwise than by mere precept; and, of course, can be but of proportionate service at a manufactory.It is impossible to specify all the impediments to a lad's improvement, or the helps he may receive, a deal depends on either; for instance, a youth with strong indications of genius may be placed where there is no one proper to cultivate it, the situation or course of work may not be congenial to his natural aptitude, or he may be precluded those circumstances which are necefc sary to give him considence, and improve his understanding in general matters; these are points (lamentably for the youth) too often totally disregarded,—and from these and other reasons, it may be advanced, that there are so very few good pattern drawers, (according to the de finition just given) though such numbers have served as apprentices, or been pupils to pattern drawing, and this leads to say, thinking how forward many are, to take pupils or apprentices to drawing (leaving the weighty consideration of premiums out of the question) that those who have youths to put out, and those who are inclined to take them, should not be very prompt either way, from the considerations mentioned above, as well as what follows; for it is of little signification to say, that such a lad shews a great genius or taste for drawing, or any business de pending on fancy, unless there is some indication of an understanding equally acute and comprehensive in general matters, with other concomitants of vivacity, good disposition, and a plastic temper; as then, and then only, there seems hopes of his genius, whatever bent it may take, furnishing itself in its approaches to maturity, as circumstances offer, with every requisite towards improving it, and that without the formal imposition of precept, rule, and frigid advice; consequently when arrived at that age, in which something beyond a mere effort is expected, his own hopes and views, as well as those of others, will not be disappointed.

It is begged that what is above advanced be not understood as giving into the common mode of inveighing against taking apprentices, from the probability of lessening the value or scarcity of designers, who have pasted their noviciate (as may likewise be said of other branches) what has been said, is more directed to parents, who are prejudiced in favor of their children's talents, or through fondness mistake their inclination for genius, for unless a lad is likely to shew those faculties which will get him through lise with credit and ease as an artist (in which class designers may be included) he had better be put to any common mechanical employment, as certainly nothing can be a greater misery to a man, than to think his living depends upon the productions of fancy, and he is unfortunate enough not to possess a single ray of it, and that, consequently, his utmost exertions are despicable, and of course not worth exhibiting.

The writer will now endeavour, perhaps not over methodically, to throw in such documents as seem to him most likely to assist the fancy in its exertions, and with such remarks as occasionally arise, either as more or less applicable to the designer or his employer; and before he speaks of the mechanical parts of designing, he will dwell a little on some circumstances not totally irrevalent to such employment, and probably not absolutely unworthy the notice of either party; for, though the aim may be milled, the intention is to render the performance more easy to one party, and consequently more advantageous to the other.

* Those are particularly alluded to here, who are engaged as Designers to work a stated number of hours in a day. But to treat Designers with proper address is what few Principals are competent to. — See something to this effect in the Note at the end of PinningIn the first place, it is suggested, a Designer ought not, by any means, to be considered in so mechanical a light, as if fancy or invention were of such a nature, that he can at all times command a successful operation*; similar to a person performing a merely mechanical piece of work, in which little more than utensils are needsul, and the subject to be acted on is imme diately and conveniently at hand. To illustrate which, it may be observed, that Principals them selves, at times, afsect to say, Designers should only work when so disposed, yet many of them,- inconsistently with such a position, think nothing done unless they see something on paper; making hardly any account of wliat the invention is at work upon; but, contrary to this practice, it is here said, that the designer mould not be asked, except on singular occasions, how he means to ido such a part? what will be put in this or that place? what will be the colour of this object? and soon? but that a proper mode is, (when not left entirely to work from his own fancy) for him to be told what sort of patterns is wanted; on which, he accordingly draws a number slightly, or perhaps nearly perfects agreeable to the nature of them; from these a selection is made as having the best effect; afterwards another is made, including that quality, with their adaptation for working; and even from these it may be needsul to make a selection as proper to shew, or to be put into execution.

All this is however offered as matter of opinion, or only to be put in practice where and when it can be done conveniently, as at all times and in all places it cannot, neither is it always necessary; but this is however insisted on, that a Designer can do little with pleasure to himself at a Printing-ground, if under restraint, or subject to that kind of controul, or enquiry, which has been expresied above; or if his employer be of that cast, who consider all under them as but mere machines to procure themselves profit, and that as such, they have nothing to do but to spur every one on by any method, however coarse and unfeeling.

Respecting this operation, and indeed any other, it may likewise be noted, that one person only is proper to give orders (no matter how many have been previously advised with) for rarely do two or more agree in opinion; and for a designer or any other to receive orders from several, and those orders different, or countermanding, no one need be informed, is productive of much embarraffinent, and often subversive of what each party desires.

But turning now to the immediate subject of this section; and in particular alluding to fancy, it is suggested that every one is prejudiced in savor of his own ideas, or what he concludes or wishes to be understood as such, Principals are particularly prone to be much in love with such apparently new ideas, and not being always un der the necessity of consulting any one, they often adopt and put in execution, too precipitately, what has struck them as valuable; not discovering how they have deceived themselves, till they find no other person seems struck by its appearance when displayed, as they were by it in idea; for if they first speak of such an idea to their subordinates as very striking, they not being always at liberty to pass sentence, or even give their opinions with that freedom which the principal can and will on what they might offer, the insatuation does not go off so soon, nor is it seen as such till too late.

* The above suggestions lead the Writer to observe that some will say if they could but use the pencil, they are sure they could produce something wonderful new, and striking in effect ! — to combat unthoughtful prepossessions of such a kind the writer knows would be to little purpose; he will only say of this, that he who advances such a notion, can know nothing of the operation of the inventive facility in such a case, and of course does not distin guish between a certain end or point represented to him by the liveliness of imagination, divested of all obstructions to its appearing so forcible in novelty and effect, and the operation neceflary to produce or display it on paper by a mechanical or manual process, with the usual interruptions of objections, impediments, revisions, dissatisfactions, &c.

** Speaking of this infatuation in favour of selfcreated ideas, the following little anecdote is offered, and which (hews at the same time how with a little finesse, a weak side may be played with: A person having to shew a number of patterns, as townsman (when it was the custom to take a quantity of patterns only at stated times, and after shewing them, to make them general) having displayed them before a Draper, He, after praising some, and rejecting others, said of one, that if altered in such a manner it would be much better; the person who shewed the patterns, willing to tempo rize, told him his observation was judicious, and added, to heighten the flattery, that several others had made exactly the same observation; this so pleased the Draper, that he set about altering every one of the patterns in the same judicious stile, and took such pleasure in his employment, and retained the other so long, that he had little time to go else where that day, resolving to take care for the future, how he commended the alterations suggested by the same person again.

*** This may be illustrated by a capital connection in town, fruitlessly attempting for two or three seasons to force stripes into vogue; but though the work was generally good, the effort subsided under the prevalency of a different style.

**** This was at West-Ham, Essex.

***** What is a man's genius or fancy worth, when distressed, brow beaten, or otherwise illiberally treated? and how little do many think of what are often the real causes of the great difference which at times appear in the works of men of genius?

******These may seem to many but trivial observations, the writer however, from experience, knows the contrary; and he is certain some others in the most eligible situation as engaged Designers, know the same; indeed an engaged Designer at a Printing-Ground is now little more than a Compiler.
Drapers likewise frequently getting hold of an idea, adopt it as a good one, and endeavour to communicate it (perhaps with a friendly intention) but are often greatly disappointed when, what is drawn in consequence of such communication does not give the effect they want*. A great deal of time, trouble, and other inconvenience would however certainly be prevented, by letting those wonderfully striking ideas rest a little till thought of more coolly; and then, if no dimunition happens in their apparent value,  or ideal effect, there is the greater probability of their succeeding and striking more universally.**

It often happens too, that many (Drapers particularly) are violent in requiring something  new, or totally different from what has ever been seen; all this has a busy sound, and in idea promises great deal, or at least implies the hope of a great deal; but could it be procured, the expectation might not be answered, as it generally seems that when any thing happens to be produced, very different from the common run or appearance of work, or what may be called the reigning style; it has not the chance of getting into vogue, for reasons already given, except when a Draper of eminence, who holds his connections as it were by a bridle, is determined to push what is a favourite of his; though even that will not always succeed; for somehow or other capital blunders are now and then made by the most experienced, in the chusing of patterns. Cautious Drapers however are not very forward in this respect; they know, indeed all must, that though at all times there are certain classes of patterns that ensure sale, yet a continuation of one stile, will tire in time; and the utmost efforts to continue it, will not always be propitious;*** for innovations in style, rarely happen abruptly; they are brought about by flow degrees, or in fact more by accident than design, and oftentimes in a manner contrary to what any one might conceive. Much, to be sure, is sometimes said of the fickleness and whimsicalness of Drapers and others, but there surely is little cause, it being natural to be tired of any thing ever so excellent when very familiar, and of course novel or different appearances are sought after; but when interested views are annexed, and those variations cannot be sufficiently obtained, it is just as natural to repine.

There was a time when no one thought grounding off the table could be performed as it now is; the writer well remembers when it was in agitation, to print two reds and two olaves at the house where first executed****. All the Printers exclaimed that the two after-colours could never be put in according to the designs;it was however attempted, and it succeeded, an J nothing but that course of work wa« done there that season. The next season, indeed ihortly after, it was attempted at other places; and now little difficulty (comparatively speaking) is ex perienced in it.

It may likewise be said of black, dove, and yellow patterns; at first the grand objection to executing them was that a black could not be procured; hence when dove was introduced, it was done off the table, by those, who wedded to the old system, execrated an innovation, which then, for the honour of a good black, appeared discreditable; but others, who were less tenacious of such honour, as well as for other sufficient reasons, soon brought that course of work into vogue; and now, or at least very lately, what course was more general? it may be said too, in speaking of black, that formerly it was a maxim no pattern with a mixture of colours would do without it; but it is not thought so now.

What the writer has now to advance, as rules or documents respecting designing, would follow here properly enough, but having little to advance, and that little not satisfactory even to himself, he will defer it to the end of the section; observing however, as leading to what he means to say about Genius, Fancy, Invention, and drawing, that more might very probably be said or advanced as Rules, but Genius or Fancy cannot be dictated to; Fancy must, in many cases, be left almost intirely to itself, as not coming under a mechanical description, or analysis: much to be sure may be said, and pretty disquisitions have been given, (perhaps these in this article are of the number) about judgment presiding with coolness, while fancy is wandering here and there; then taste is ushered in to the assistance of judgment, and so on; but he is induced to think, that in genius is comprized that faculty which soon avails itself, whenever opportunities happen, of what is necessary to render its emanations effective; in fact, Rules' imposed on a natural genius, too often shackle it, and it is almost proverbial, that true genius soars above all precept, and looks with a becoming disdain at the formality of rule; often producing what never would have appeared, is rules authoritatively given, had been closely adhered to; and it may be said, when Fancy suffers itself to be pinned down to Rule, it is to be suspected there is not a great deal of genius, and that those who can produce little without certain rules to lead them, are not much better than copyists or imitators; but turning to the point in view, which is the province of fancy, namely, designing, it is only at certain times that it is alive,***** and then it despises setters; when it is not free, like every thing else in distress, it catches at any assistance, and is thankful for any help that offers itself.

Fancy notwithstanding, should be (as before said) at all events, free from certain impediments or restraints; which applying to a Designer's performance at a Printing-ground, can hardly be done; from the mind being confused with various considerations, that obstruct or divert its efforts, such as receiving orders from several, murmurings at not always succeeding, being forced to do duty at all times, and the like******; but chiefly too much (it is again hinted) from many Principals incessantly desiring to be occularly convinced he has not been idle; for it is here asserted, that the first Designer in the Printing business (however the assertion may wound his pride) would be ashamed to have it seen, how dissatisfied he is sometimes with what he most endeavours to render perfect, the re petitions which he makes, the doubts he is in about rejecting this or that idea, the difficulty of fixing his attention, etc. and it is thence as considently said, that those patterns which for several seasons have been allowed the first place, would probably never have been produced, if the Designer had been shackled by the direction of others, or been in that controuled or subordinate state, where his own inclination must have given way to the frigid direction of those, who, more alive to gain than reputation, find no impulse to ascend beyond a certain height, or stretch out beyond a certain distance from the beaten path.

As for invention, strictly speaking, it is not here offered to say what it is, much less how to describe it; there is a mutation of stile or taste, to be sure, but nothing new; for novelty is only a name for an old effect or appearance revived with a little alteration and (making a metaphysical excursion) if the question were asked, what is original? an answer could not be easily obtained sussicient to satisfy some enquirers; the term having no precise meaning, till it is agreed on all sides, how ideas are acquired, whether intuitively or by sensation, or, in other words, whether product ions termed original, are or are not but mere copies of certain archetypes, conveyed to the mind by its attendant faculties: and if the proudest designer in the printing or any other business, would be candid, he would confess there is not near so much of invention in what he produces, as he desires the world to give him credit for; since if traced to the source it will generally appear that the mind received a hint, if not something more expressive, from some visible, object or other; and it may further be said, that the greatest genius would be ashamed to be discovered at the little shifts he often makes to attain a certain end, by searching into nooks and corners, as it were, for objects to strike out something from or at the quantity or collection of subjects he secretly heaps up to supply himself with thoughts and hints, and the methods he takes to disfigure the ideas he thus more or less surreptitiously purloins, to make them appear novel; and too glaring  it is, how a reputed genius will contend about his claim to what is palpably plagiarism; and which among Designers in the Callico-printing business, is certainly as frequent as among other classes: Besides, if it be considered what a number of Designers are always at work, and how many thousand patterns are produced in a year, but how few of them remarkable for novelty, it must seem still more clearly there is very little of striking out of the beaten path, and much less of originality than might be expected.

In some cases it is more difficult to imitate than invent; for the quality generally demanded in an imitation, is to excel the original; but unhappily that word excel, in this case, is very vague; it may very likely be altered for the better, if alluding to its being rendered easier to work; but almost every different person will have a disserent idea about its appearing better, or having a better effect, at least as far as they chuse to speak, or are at liberty so to do. 
*It is a common mode of speaking when applied to any art or science, to say, what a genius he must have had, who invented it; or what an excellent invention it was: such an exclamation is truly - ridiculous, and void of thought: as in the instance: of Callico-printing, it is very likely the first efforts concerning it, were hardly worth notice, but succestive improvements have formed it into some system.

** This should be understood as likewise addressed to Principals, who affect to oppose a prevalency of  style.

*** It has the appearance as if a certain house saw no beauty in any leaf but of this kind, fig. 119, as almost all other kinds of leaves feem to be avoided, and respecting which, see Rules 17 and 35, for putting on.

**** Perhaps the idea may seem strained and wide from Pattern-drawing, but such is the connection between things apparently remote, that a good piece of History Painting, as comprehending design, colouring, effect, &c. may be considered as a model to form a chintz pattern from, by supposing each, figure a flower, and the background, the attributes, and other appendages, as leaves, or ornamental parts.

***** A mistake is here just mentioned, prevalent chiefly among subordinates, which is, that a master’s business depends on having a good Drawer; this in some cases is far from truth; for the goodness of his Drawer is of little service, if his connections are not respectable; good drawings will undoubtedly help to procure work, but they will not force it, if there be no good understanding in another shapet and which every Printer who works for Drapers well knows.

****** This is instanced in a late imitation of a dark ground pattern, with a kind of moss or spray hanging down in great quantities, as from the judicious circumstance of throwing in more body colour in the commanding flowers, than the original had, the copy hạd on the whole a better effect.

******* Of all technical phrases among Callico Printers, it is worth remarking, that those processes which are the most simple, should be denominated chemical, to distinguish them from those that have a stronger claim, in every respect, to that appellation. - Perhaps the writer is wrong from not knowing how it originated; but every profession has its vitiated or perverted terms; and if rendered proper, they would not long remain so.
As applicable to the preceding sentiments, it is observed that some will say, when a Designer means to produce something remarkably excellent, he first fixes on a plan in his own mind, and nearly forms it there before he transfers it to paper; all this the man of fancy smiles at, knowing its fallacy; for whatever may be said of the mind forming a plan of something, the judgment regulating it, and thus mentally working on it till compleat, it is frange that any person is infatuated enough to believe such a thing, or ridiculous enough to assert it can be done; the works of the greatest genius’s that have been produced, no matter of what species, have been perfected but gradually, and as it were by piece-meal, but to advance the: position just mentioned, is just as if a person said, I have an original in my mind, and I will set down and copy it on paper; - he may to be sure set about it, but the original in his mind will be very far from being faithfully copied; for he may begin as the ideas present themselves, but by being obliged to disjoint that mental original, he very soon in his progress loses the first appearance, and before the completion of his copy, through repeated alterations, rejections, &c. it may very probably be quite of a different shape and complexion; and that this is the case in *Pattern-drawing, the writer ventures to say  few of his brethren will deny.*

The writer begs not to be understood by any thing which he has suggested, as meaning to depreciate merit or genius, (he himself as a Designer is more put to his shifts than he at all times chuses to own) his aim partly by speaking thus freely, is to induce those who are reputed possessors of it, to be cautious how far they give, themselves praise or credit for what they do possess, as rarely half what a person advances of himself, is believed; and in this case, Designers as well as others, whose existence depends on public caprice, would be less arrogant or puffed up in the zenith of their reputation, if they frequently reflected on the versitality of taste or fashion,  not knowing how soon such caprice or mutability may affect them; as it is not every one that can readily come into every turn of that fickle despot: that this has been the case, is well known in instances of several who have been deemed capital Drawers, but are now almost - totally difregarded; hence, if the writer may venture to advise in this point, let every Designer who wishes to secure his creditas long as possible, not foolishly affect to stand alone or obstinately to oppose or contemn that stile which is prevalent**; but gradually slide into the changes as they happen, or blend them with his own peculiar manner; otherwise, certain is must be, that from the fickleness of opinion or fancy, and the confequential change of fashion, together with the probability of a rifing generation of Designers eclipfing him, he, at a certain period, will regret that self-sufficiency which blinded him to natural defects, or that restlessness which stifled what prudence ought to have fuggested.

It is time now to turn from these excursions, and proceed to give some hints (Rules they cannot be called, nor are they inserted as such) respecting the operative parts of designing, more to evince a readiness to do those some service who perhaps expect it, and are not to be persuaded but that it may be obtained in such a - manner, than from any confidence in their value, or satisfaction in their display; as, in respect to utility or practice, they can only be general documents, from the changeableness of stile or taste; besides, every person who is in a situation to decide, and can have his decision put in practice, has his fixed ideas of taste, propriety, good drawing, &c. some through prejudice, some through affectation, and others through opposition. As for example, some explode a certain shape of a leaf, a leaf, a flower, or other object,*** either as being too plain, stiff, common, and the like; or else as expensive in cutting, difficult to pencil, and so on; while others have their reasons for adopting the very contrary; the same may be said of trails, some rejecting a curled one, others an upright one; in short, it would be endless to particularize those different opinions, or what by different persons are adhered to as standards of elegance, propriety or grace; all see through different mediums, and of course are differently affected.****

N. B. Respecting the following hints, it may be noticed, that several of the Rules for putting - on should be kept in fight by the Designer,- especially about the width of the cloth, - an even face, - easiness of pencilling, - oeconomy in cutting, &c. Rule 6 for putting-on is almost a counterpart of the following.

HINTS, &c. for Defigning or Pattern drawing. 15

In drawing trail patterns, if you mean to have flowers or other objects stand so as to appear distinct from the other parts, first mark their distances, observing to make the trail spread regularly; then mark what objects are to be of - different colours, keeping two or more objects tbat are similar in shape and colour, as far from each other as you can, and let every colour speak as it were, but particularly those that are the leading or characterizing ones; or, in other words, let nothing be lost or kept back, but what is of the leaft consequence.

In groups the greater the contrast, the better the effect, as a light object among dark ones generally fucceeds; reds and greens being the most harmonizing colours, or the most agreeable when put together, should therefore be properly attended, so that they may command an appearance: where there are two or three reds it is certainly best to let the body colours, that is, the - palest colours, stand clear, or without being co vered too much by the deep ones;****** but on the contrary, when elaborateness and delicacy is affected, these observations cannot avail.

In dark or shady patterns (according to the present humour) there seems to be a requisition for a plain white object to stand forward; and if kept in an harmonious proportion to the whole, it certainly has an enlivening effect; but to judge of it according to the principle of harmonious colouring, or distribution of shade, the effect is too abrupt to produce harmony, though as above said, it may be lively.

Small copperplate dark grounds feem particularly to require white object, or a distinct white part of one, and it would not be amiss in copper plate small patterns, to manage them so, that when the light parts are gone, something expressive may be left behind.

This enlivening effect is generally destroyed in dark patterns, where the colour ends in shades within an object, or without being bounded by a line of some fort, as it gives the white about it a tinge, and in woalded work, the less the yellow touches or goes over the black it is the better, as it generally hurts and renders it of an olave hue; this however depends upon the colour, but but particularly so when executed without grassing or fielding, as in the case of patterns brought up in sumach and bran bleached, the cloth not  being then of a good white.

In drawing some classes of patterns, it is as well to make them as general as possible, though that, it is granted, is rather an after-consideration; and in patterns that are to have chemical or loose colours thrown in*******, which soon fly off, there should be fast colours, (unless the whole is in chemic) under them, or so connected, that there may seem as little deficiency as possible, when such loose colours disappear.