A Dictionary of Arts: Brown Dye.

A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines; containing A Clear Exposition of Their Principles and Practice

by Andrew Ure, M. D.;
F. R. S. M. G. S. Lond.: M. Acad. M. S. Philad.; S. PH. DOC. N. GERM. Ranow.; Mulh. Etc. Etc.

Illustrated with nearly fifteen hundred engravings on wood
Eleventh American, From The Last London Edition.
To which is appended, a Supplement of Recent Improvements to The Present Time.

New York: D Appleton & company, 200 Broadway. Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut St.


BROWN DYE. Upon this subject some general views are given in the article DYEING, explanatory of the nature of this color, to which I may in the first place refer. This dye presents a vast variety of tints, from yellow and red to black brown, and is produced either by mixtures of red, yellow, and blue with each other, or of yellow or red with black, or by substantive colors, such as catechu or oxyde of manganese, alone. We shall here notice only the principal shades; leaving their modifications to the caprice or skill of the dyer.

1. Brown from mixture of other colors.

Wool and woollen cloths must be boiled with one eighth their weight of alum and sulpho-tartrate of iron (see this article); afterwards washed, and winced through the madder bath, which dyes the portion of the stuff imbued with the alum red, and that with the salt of iron black; the tint depending upon the proportion of each, and the duration of the madder bath.

A similar brown is produced by boiling every pound of the stuff with two ounces of alum, and one ounce of common salt, and then dyeing it in a bath of logwood containing either sulphotartrate, acetate, or sulphate of iron. Or the stuff may be boiled with alum and tartar, dyed up in a madder bath, and then run through a black bath of iron mordant and galls or sumach. Here the black tint is added to the red till the proper hue be hit. The brown may be produced also by adding some iron liquor to the madder bath, after the stuff has been dyed up in it with alum and tartar. A better brown of this kind is obtained by boiling every pound of wool with 2 ounces of alum, dyeing it up in cochineal, then changing the crimson thus given into brown, by turning the stuff through the bath after acetate of iron has been added to it. Instead of the cochineal, archil, or cudbear, with a little galls or sumach, may be used.

Wool or silk may also receive a light blue ground from the indigo vat, then be mordanted with alum, washed, and turned through a madder bath till the wished-for brown be brought out. For the deeper shades, galls or sumach may be added to the paler Brazilwood, with more or less iron mordant. Instead of indigo vat, Saxon blue may be employed to ground the stuff before dyeing it with madder, or 5 pounds of madder, with 1 pound of alum, a solution of one tenth of a pound of indigo in sulphuric acid, may be used with the proper quantity of water for 20 pounds of wool; for dark shades, some iron mordant may be added. Or we may combine a bath of cochineal or cutbear, fustic, and galls, and to it sulphate of iron and sulphate of indigo, blunted with a little potash.

If we boil woollen cloth with alum and tartar, then pass it through a madder bath, and afterward through one of weld or fustic, containing more or less iron mordant, we obtain shades variable, according to the proportions of the materials, from mordoré and cinnamon to chestnut brown.

After the same manner, bronze colors may be obtained from the union of olive dyes with red. For 25 pounds of cloth, we take 4 pounds of fustic chips, boil them for 2 hours, turn the cloth in this bath for an hour, and drain it; then add to the bath from 4 to 6 ounces of sulphate of iron, and 1 pounds of ordinary madder, or 2 pounds of sandal-wood; put the cloth again in this compound bath, and turn it through, till the desired shade be obtained. By changin the proportions, and adding an iron mordant, other tints may be produced.

This mode of dyeing is suitable for silk, but with three different baths; one of logwood, one of Brazil-wood, and one of fustic. The silk, after being boiled with soap, is to be alumed, and then dyed up in a bath compounded of these three decoctions, mixed in the requisite proportions. By the addition of walnut peels, sulphate of copper, and a little sulphate of iron, or by passing the silk through a bath of annotto, a variety f brown shades may be had.

Or the silk may receive an annotto ground, and then be passed through a bath of logwood or Brazil-wood. For 10 pounds of silk, 6 ounces of annotto are to be taken, and dissolved with 18 ounces of potashes in boiling water. The silk must be winced through this solution for 2 hours, then wrung out, dried, next alumed, passed through a bath of Brazil-wood, and finally through a bath of logwood, containing some sulphate of iron. It is to be wrung out and dried.

Brown of different shades is imparted to cotton and linen, by impregnating them with a mixed mordant of acetates of alumina and iron, and then dyeing them up, either with madder alone, or with madder and fustic. When the aluminous mordant predominates, the madder gives an amaranth tint. For horse-chestnut brown, the cotton must be galled, plunged into a bath, then into a bath of sulphate of copper, next dyed up in decoction of fustic, wwrung out, passed through a strong madder bath, then through the sulphate of copper solution, and finished with a soap boil. Different shades of cinnamon are obtained, when cottons first dyed up with madder get an olive cast with iron liquor in a fustic bath.

These cinnamon and mordoré shades are also produced by dyeing them first in a bath of weld and verdigris, passing them through a solution of sulphate of iron, wringing and drying them; next putting them through a bath containing 1 pound of galls for 10 pounds of stuff, again drying, next aluming, and maddering. They must be brightened by a boil in soap water.

A superior brown is produced by like means upon cotton goods, which have undergone the oiling process of the Turkey red dye. Such stuffs must be galled, mordanted with alum (see MADDER), sulphate of iron, and acetate of lead (equal to 3/4 of the alum); after washing and drying, dyed in a madder bath, and cleared with a soap boil. The tint of brown varies with the proportion of alum and sulphate of iron.

We perceive from these examples, in how many ways the browning of dyes may be modified, upon what principles they are founded, and how we have it in our power to turn the shade more or less toward red, black, yellow, blue, &c.

Brown may be produced by direct dyes. The decoction of oak bark dyes wool a fast brown of different shades, according to the concentration of the bath. The color is more lively with the addition of alum.

The decoction of bastard marjoram (Origanum vulgars) dyes cotton and linen a reddish brown, with acetate of alumina. Wool takes from it a dark brown.

The bark of the mangrove tree (R[h]izophora mangle) affords to wool boiled with alum and tartar a fine red brown color, which, with the addition of sulphate of iron, passes into a fast chocolate.

The Bablah, the bods of the East Indian Mimosa cineraria, and the African Mimosa nilotica, gives cotton a brown with acetate or sulphate of copper.

The root of the white sea rose (Nymphæa alba) gives to cotton an wool beautiful shades of brown. A mordant of sulphate of iron and zinc is first given, and the wool is turned through the decoction of the root, till the wished-for shade is obtained. The cotton must be mordanted with a mixture of the acetates of iron and zinc.

Walnut peels (Juglans regia), when ripe, contain a dark brown dye stuff, which communicates a permantent color to wool. The older the infusion or decoction of the peels, the better dye does it make. The stuff is dyed in the lukewarm bath, and needs no mordant, though it becomes brighter with alum. Or this dye may be combined with the madder or fustic bath, to give varieties of shade. For dyeing silk, this baths should be hardly lukewarm, for fear of causing inequality of color.

The peelings of horse-chestnuts may be used for the same purpose. With muriate of tin they give a bronze color, and with acetate of lead a reddish brown.

Catechu gives cotton a permanent brown dye, as also a bronze, and mordoré, when its solution in hot water is combined with acetate or sulphate of copper, or when the stuff is previously mordanted with the acetates of copper and alumina mixed, sometimes with a little iron liquor, rinsed, dried, and dyed up, the bath being at a boiling heat.

Ferrocyanate of copper gives a yellow brown or a bronze to cotton and silk.

The brown color called carmelite by the French is produced by one pound of catechu to four ounces of verdigris, with five ounces of muriate of ammonia. The bronze (solitaire) is given by passing the stiff through a solution of muriate or sulphate of manganese, with a little tartaric acid, drying, passing through a potash ley at 4° Baumé, brightening and fixing with solution of chloride of lime.


A Dictionary of Arts (supplement): Bronzing.

(A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines; containing A Clear Exposition of Their Principles and Practice)
Recent improvements in
Arts, Manufactures, and Mines:
Being A supplement to his Dictionary
by Andrew Ure, M. D.,

Illustrated with one hundred and ninety engravings.

New York: D. Appleton & Company, 200 Broadway.  Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut St.

BRONZING (of Objects in Imitation of Metallic Bronze). Plaster of Paris, paper, wood, and pasteboard, may be made to resemble pretty closely the appearance of articles of real bronze, modern or antique. The simplest way of giving a brilliant aspect of this kind is with a varnish made of the waste gold leaf of the beater, ground up on a porphyry slab with honey or gum-water. A coat of drying linseed-oil should be first applied, and then the metallic powder is put on with a linen dossil. Mosaic gold ground up with six parts of bone-ashes has been used in the same way. When it is to be put on paper, it should be ground up alone with white of eggs or spirit varnish, applied with a brush and burnished when dry. When a plate of iron is plunged into a hot solution of sulphate of copper, it throws down fine scales of copper, which being repeatedly washed with water, and ground along with six times its weight  of bone-ashes, forms a tolerable bronzing.

Powdered and sifted tin may be mixed with a clear solution of isinglass, applied with a brush, and burnished or not, according as a bright or dead surface is desired. Gypsum casts are commonly bronzed by rubbing brilliant black-lead, graphite, upon them with a cloth or brush. Real bronze long exposed the air gets covered with a thin film of carbonate of copper, called by virtuosi antique arrugo (patine antique, Fr.) This may be imitated in a certain degree by several applications skilfully made. The new bronze being turned or filed into a bright surface, and rubbed over with dilute aquafortis by a linen rag or brush, will become at first grayish, and afterward take a greenish blue tint; or we may pass repeatedly over the surface a liquor composed of 1 part of sal ammoniac, three parts of carbonate of potash, and 6 of sea salt, dissolved in 12 parts of boiling water, to which 8 parts of nitrate of copper are to be added; the tint thereby produced is at first unequal and crude, but it becomes more uniform and softer by time. A  fine green-blue bronze may be obtained with very strong water of ammonia alone, rubbing it at intervals several times upon the metal.

The base of most of the secret compositions for giving the antique appearance is vinegar with sal ammoniac. Skilful workmen use a solution of 2 ounces of that salt in an English quart of French vinegar. Another compound which gives good results is made with an ounce of sal ammoniac, and a quarter of an ounce of salt of sorrel (binoxalate of potash), dissolved in vinegar. A good result will also be obtained by adding half an ounce of sal ammoniac, instead of the spirits of hartshorn. The piece of metal being well cleaned, is to be rubbed with one of these solutions, and then dried by friction with a fresh brush. If the hue to be found too pale at the end of two or three days, the operation may be repeated. It is found to be more advantageous to operate in the sunshine than in the shade.

A Dictionary of Arts: Brazil-Wood.

A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines; containing A Clear Exposition of Their Principles and Practice

by Andrew Ure, M. D.;
F. R. S. M. G. S. Lond.: M. Acad. M. S. Philad.; S. PH. DOC. N. GERM. Ranow.; Mulh. Etc. Etc.

Illustrated with nearly fifteen hundred engravings on wood
Eleventh American, From The Last London Edition.
To which is appended, a Supplement of Recent Improvements to The Present Time.

New York: D Appleton & company, 200 Broadway. Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut St.


BRAZIL-WOOD. (Bois de Fernambouc, Fr.; Brasilienholz, Germ.) This dye-wood derives its name from the part of America whence it was first imported. It has also the names Fernambuca, wood of Saint Martha, and of Sapan, according to the places which produce it. Linneaus distinguishes the tree which furnishes the Brazil-wood by the name of Cæsalpinia crista. It commonly grows in dry places among rocks. Its trunk is very large, crooked, and full of knots. It is very hard, susceptible of a fine polish, and sinks in water. It is pale when newly eleft, but becomes red on exposure to the air.

It has different shades of red and orange. Its goodness is determined particularly by its density. When chewed, a saccharine taste is perceived. It may be distinguished from red saunders wood, as the latter does not yield its color to water.

Boiling water extracts the whole coloring matter of Brazil-wood. If the ebullition be long enough continued, it assumes a fine red color. The residuum appears black. In this case, an alkali may still extract much coloring matter. The solution in alcohol or ammonia is still deeper than the preceding.

The decoction of Brazil-wood, called juice of Brazil, is observed to be less fit for dyeing when recent, than when old or even fermented. By age, it takes a yellowish-red color. For making this decoction, Hellot recommends to use the hardest water; but it should be remarked, that this water deepens the color in proportion to the earthy salts which it contains. After boiling this wood reduced to chips, or, what is preferable, to powder, for three hours, this first decoction is poured into a cask. Fresh water is poured on the wood, which is then made to boil for three hours, and mixed with the former. When Brazil-wood is employed in a dyeing bath, it is proper to enclose it in a thin linen bag, as well as all the dye-woods in general.

Wool immersed in the juice of Brazil takes but a feeble tint, which is speedily destroyed. It must receive some preparations.

The wool is to be boiled in a solution of alum, to which a fourth or even less of tartar is added, for a larger proportion of tartar would make the color yellowish. The wool is kept impregnated with it for at least eight days, in a cool place. After this, it is dyed in the Brazil juice with a slight boiling. But the first coloring particles that are deposited, afford a less beautiful color; hence it is proper to pass a coarser stuff previously through the bath. In this manner a lively red is procured, which resists pretty well the action of the air.

Brazil-wood is made use of for dyeing silk what is called false crimson, to distinguish it from the crimson made by means of cochineal, which is much more permanent.

The silk should be boiled at the rate of 20 parts of soap per cent., and then alumed. The aluming need not be so strong as for the fine crimson. The silk is refreshed at the river, and passed through a bath more or less charged with Brazil juice, according to the shade to be given. When water free from earthy salts is employed, the color is too red to imitate crimson; this quality given it by passing the silk through a slight alkaline solution, or by adding a little alkali to the bath. It might, indeed, be washed in a hard water till it had taken the desired shade.

To make deeper false crimsons of a dark red, juice of logwood is put into the Brazil bath after the silk has been impregnated with it. A little alkali may be added, according to the shade that is wanted.

To imitate poppy or flame color, an annotto ground is given to the silk, deeper even than when it is dyed with carthamus. It is washed, alumed, and dyed with juice of Brazil, to which a little soap water is usually added.

The coloring particles of Brazil-wood are easily affected, and made yellow by the action of acids.

They thus become permanent colors. But what distinguishes them from madder and kermes, and approzimates them to cochineal, is their reappearing in their natural color, when they are thrown down in a state of combination with alumina, or with oxyde of tin. These two combinations seem to be the fittest for rendering them durable. It is requisite, therefore, to inquire what circumstances are best calculated to promote the formation of these combinations, according to the nature of the stuff.

The astringent principle, likewise, seems to contribute to the permanence of the coloring matter of Brazil-wood; but it deepens its hue, and can only be employed for light shades.

The coloring particles of Brazil-wood are very sensible to the action of alkalis which give them a purple hue; and there are several processes in which the alkalis, wither fixed or volatile, are used for forming violets and purples. But the colors obtained by these methods, which may be easily varied according to the purpose, are perishable, and possess but a transient bloom. The alkalis appear not to injure the colors derived from madder, but they accelerate the destruction of most other colors.

In England and Holland the dye-woods are reduced to powder by means of mills erected for the purpose.

The bright fugitive red, called fancy red, is given to cotton by Nicaragua, or peach-wood, a cheap kind of Brazil-wood.

The cotton being scoured and bleached, is boiled with sumach. It is then impregnated with a solution of tin (at 5° Baumé, according to Vitalis). It should now be washed slightly in a weak bath of the dyeing wood, and, lastly, worked in a somewhat stale infusion of the peach or Brazil wood. When the temperature of this is lukewarm, the dye is said to take better. Sometimes two successive immersions in the bath are given. It is now wrung out, aired, washed in water, and dried.

M. Vitalis says, that his solution of tin is prepared with two ounces of tin and a pound of aqua regia made with two parts of nitric acid at 24° Baumné, and three parts of muriatic acid at 22°.

For a rose color, the cotton is alumed as usual, and washed from the alum. It then gets the tin mordant, and is again washed. It is now turned through the dye-bath, an operation which is repeated if necessary.

For purple, a little alum is added to the Brazil bath.

1. For amaranth, the cotton is strongly galled, dried, and washed.

2. It is passed through the black cask (tonne au noir,) see Black Dye, till it has taken a strong gray shade.

3. It receives a bath of lime-water.

4. Mordant of tin.

5. Dyeing in the Brazil-wood bath.

6. The two last operations are repeated.

Dingler has endeavored to separate the coloring matter of the different sorts of Brazilwood, so as to obtain the same tint from the coarser as from the best Pernambuco. His process consists in treating the wood with hot water or steam, in concentrating the detoction so as to obtain 14 or 15 pounds of it from 4 pounds of wood, allowing it to cool, and pouring into it two pounds of skim milk; agitating, then boiling for a few minutes, and filtering. The dun coloring matters are precipitated by the coagulation of the caseous substance. For dyeing, the decoctions must be diluted with water; for printing they must be concentrated, so that 4 pound os wood shall furnish only 5 or 6 pounds of decoction, and the liwuor may be thickened in the ordinary way. These decoctions may be employed immediately, as by this treatment they have acquired the same property as they otherwise could get only by being long kept. A slight fermentation is said to improve the color of these decoctions; some ground wood is put into the decoction to favor this process.

As gelatine produces no precipitate with these decoctions, they consequently contian no tannin. Gall-nuts, however, sumach, the bark of birch or alder, render the color of Brazil-wood more durable, upon alumed linen and cotton goods, but the shade is a little darker.

In dyeing wool with Pernambuco, the temperature of the baths should never be above 150° fahr., since higher heats impair the color.

According to Dingler and Kurrer, bright and fast scarlet reds may be obtained upon wool, by preparing a decoction of 50 pounds of Brazil-wood in three successive boils, and setting the decoction aside for 3 or 4 weeks in a cool place; 100 pounds of the wool are then alumed in a bath of 22 pounds of alum and 11 pounds of tartar, and afterwards rinsed in cold water. Meanwhile we fill two thirds with water, a copper containing 30 pails, and heated to the temperature of 150° or 160° F. We pour in 3 pailfuls of the decoction, heat to the same point again, and introduce 30 pounds of wool, which does not take a scarlet, but rather a crimson tint. This being removed, 2 pails of decoction are put in, and 30 pounds of wool, which becomes scarlet, but not so fine as at the third dip. If the dyer strengthens the color a little at the first dip, a little more at the second, and adds at the third and fourth the quantity of decoction merely necessary, he will obtain a uniform scarlet tint. With 50 pounds of Pernambuco 1000 pounds of wool may be dyed scarlet in this way, and with the deposites another 100 may be dyed of a tile color. An addition of weld renders the color faster but less brilliant.

Karkutsch says the dye may be improved by adding some ox-gall to the bath.

In dyeing cotton the tannin and gallic acid are two necessary mordants, and the color is particularly bright and durable, when the cloth has been prepared with the oily process of Turkey red.

It is said that stale urine heightens the color of the Brazil dye when the ground wood is moistened with it.

The quantity of Brazil or Nicaragua wood imported into the United Kingdom in 1835, was 6,242 tons, whereof 1,811 were exported; of Brazilietto 230 tons. The duty upon the first article is 5s. per ton.


A Dictionary of Arts: Borax.

A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines; containing A Clear Exposition of Their Principles and Practice

by Andrew Ure, M. D.;
F. R. S. M. G. S. Lond.: M. Acad. M. S. Philad.; S. PH. DOC. N. GERM. Ranow.; Mulh. Etc. Etc.

Illustrated with nearly fifteen hundred engravings on wood
Eleventh American, From The Last London Edition.
To which is appended, a Supplement of Recent Improvements to The Present Time.

New York: D Appleton & company, 200 Broadway. Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut St.


BORAX. A native saline compound of boacic acid and soda, found abundantly in Thibet and in South America. The crude product from the former locality was imported into Europe under the name of tincal, and was purified from some adhering fatty matter by a process kept a long time secret by the Venetians and the Dutch, and which consisted chiefly in boiling the substance in water with a little quicklime.

Gmelin found borax, in prismatic crystals, to contain 46*6 oer cent. of water; and Arvredeon, in the calcined state, to consist of 68*9 of acid and 31*1 soda, in 100 parts. M. Payen describes an octahedral borax, which contains only 30*64 per cent. of water, and is therefore preferred by the brasiers in their soldering processes.

Borax has a sweetish, somewhat lixivial taste, and affects vegetable colors like an alkali; it is soluble in 12 parts of cold and 2 of boiling water. It effloresces and becomes opaque in a dry atmosphere, and appears luminous, by friction, in the dark. It melts at a heat a little above that of boiling water, and gives out its water of crystallization, after which it forms a spongy mass, called calcined borax. The octahedral borax, which is prepared by crystallization, in a solution of 1*256 sp. gr., kept up at 145° F., is not efflorescent. When borax is ignited, it fuses into a glassy-looking substance.

The following is the improved mode of purifying borax. The crude crystals are to be broken into small lumps, and spread upon a filter lined with a lead grating, under which a piece of cloth is stretched upon a wooden frame. The lumps are puled up to the height of 12 inches, and washed with small quantities that the resulting solutions stands 20° B, (sp. gr. 1*160.) Carbonate of soda, equivalent to 12 per cent. of the borax, must now be added; the mixed solution is allowed to settle, and the clear liquid syphoned off into crystallizing vessels. Whenever the mother waters get foul, they must be evaporated to dryness in cast-iron pots, and roasted, to burn away the viscid coloring matter.

Borax is sometimes adulterated with alum and common salt; the former addition may be readily detected by a few drops of water of ammonia, which will throw down its alumina; and the latter by nitrate of silver, which will give with it a precipitate insoluble in nitric acid.

The native boracic acid obtained from the lakes of Tuscany, which has been manufactured in France into borax, has greatly lowered the price of this article of commerce. When MM. Payen and Cartier first begun the business, they sold the crystals at the same price as the Dutch, viz., 7 francs the kilogramme (2 1/8 lbs. avoird.); but, in a few years, they could obtain only 2 francs and 60 centimes, in consequence of the market getting overstocked. The annual consumption of France in 1823 was 25,000 kilos., and the quantity produced in M. Payen's works was 50,000. The mode of making borax from the acid is as follows:- The lake water is evaporated in graduation houses, and then concentrated in boilers till it crystallizes. In that state it is carried to Marseilles. About 500 kilogrammes of water are made to boil in a copper, and 600 kilogrammes of crystallized carbonate of soda are dissolved in it by successive additions of 20 kilogrammes. The solution being maintained at nearly the boiling point, 500 kilogrammes of the crystallized boracic acid of Tuscany are introduced, in successive portions. At each addition of about 10 kilogrammes, a lively effervescence ensues, on which account the copper should be of much greater capacity than is sufficient to contain the liquors. When the whole acid has been added, the fire must be damped by being covered up with moist ashes, and the copper must be covered with a tight lid and blankets, to preserve the temperature uniform. The whole is left in this state during 30 hours; the clear liquor is then drawn off into shallow crystallizing vessels of lead, in which it should stand no higher than 10 or 12 inches, to favor its rapid cooling. At the end of three days in winter, and four in summer, the crystallization is usually finished. The mother water is drawn off, and employed, instead of simple water, for the purpose of dissolving fresh crystals of soda. The above crystals are carefully detached with chisels, redissolved in boiling water, adding for each 100 kilos., 10 kilos. of carbonate of soda. This solution matks 20°B. (sp. gr. 1*160); and, at least, one ton (1000 kilos.) of borax should be dissolved at once, in order to obtain crystals of a marketable size. Whenever this solution has become boiling hot, it must be run off into large crystallizing lead chests of the form of inverted truncated pyramids, furnished with lids, enclosed in wooden frames, and surrounded with mats to confine the heat. For a continuous business, there should be at least 18 vessels of this kind; as thu solution takes a long time to complete its crystallization, by cooling to 30° C (86° F.) The borax crystals are taken out with chisels, after the liquoe has been drawn off, and the whole has become cold.

One hundred parts of the purest acid, usually extracted from the lakes of Tuscany, contain only fifty parts of the real boracic acid, and yield no more, at the utmost, than 140 or 150 of good borax.

Dry borax acts on the metallic oxydes at a high temperature, in a very remarkable manner, melting and vitrifying them into beautiful colored glasses. On this account, it is a most useful reagent for the blowpipe. Oxyde of xchrome tinges it of an emeral green; oxyde of cobalt, an intense blue; oxyde of copper, a pale green; oxyde of tin, opal; oxyde of iron, bottle-green and yellow; oxyde of manganese, violet; oxyde of nickel, pale emerald green, The white oxydes impart no color to it by themselves. In the fusion of metals, borax protects their surface from oxydezement, and even dissolves away any oxydes formed upon them; by which twofold agency it becomes an excellent flux, invaluable to the goldsmith in soldering the precious metals, and to be brasier in soldering copper and iron.

Borax absorbs muriatic and sulphurous acid gases, but no others, whereby it becomes, in this respect, a useful means of analysis.

The strenght or purity of borax may be tested by the quantity of sulphuric acid requisite to neutralize a given weight of it, as indicated by tincture of litmus.

When mixed with shellac-lac in the proportion of one part to five, borax renders that resinous body soluble in water, and forms with it a species of varnish.

Boracic acid is a compound of 31*19 of boron, and 68*81 oxygen, in 100 parts. Its prime equivalent referred to oxygen 100, is 871*96.

The following process for refining the native Indian borax or tincal, has been published by MM. Robiwuet and Marchand: -

It is put into large tabs, covered with water for 3 or 4 inches above its surface, and stirred through it several times during six hours. For 400 pounds of the tincal, there must bow be added one pound of quicklime diffused through two quarts of water. Next day the whole is thrown upon a sieve, to drain off the water with the impurities, consisting, in some measure, of the fatty matter combined with lime, as an insoluble soap. The borax, so far purified, is to be dissolved in 2½ times its weight of boiling water, and eight pounds of muriate of lime are to be added for the above quantity of borax. The liquor is now filtered, evaporated to the density of 18° or 20° B. (1*14 to 1*16 sp. grav.), and set to crystallize in vessels shaped like inverted pyramids, and lined with lead. At the end of a few days, the crystallization being completed, the mother waters are drawn off, the crystals are detached and dried. The loss of weight in this operation is about 20 per cent.

The quantity of borax imported into the United Kingdom in 1835 was 335,224 pounds; whereof 122,022 pounds were exported. The duty is 10s. upon the refined, and 4s unrefined.

A Dictionary of Arts (supplement): Bone Black.

A Dictionary of Arts (supplement): Bone Black.

(A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines; containing A Clear Exposition of Their Principles and Practice)
Recent improvements in
Arts, Manufactures, and Mines:
Being A supplement to his Dictionary
by Andrew Ure, M. D.,

Illustrated with one hundred and ninety engravings.

New York: D. Appleton & Company, 200 Broadway.  Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut St.

BONE BLACK, or animal charcoal restored. A process for this purpose was made the subject of a patent by Messrs. Bancroft and Mac Innes of Liverpool, which consists in washing the granular charcoal, or digesting it when finely ground, with a weak solution of potash or soda, of specific gravity 1.06. The bone black which has been used in sugar refining may be thus restored, but it should be first cleared from all the soluble filth by means of water.

Mr. F. Parker's method, patented in June, 1839, for effecting a like purpose, is, by a fresh calcination, as follows: -

Fig. 8 represents a front section of the furnace and retort; and fig. 9 is a transverse vertical section of the same. a is a retort, surrounded by the flues of the furnace b; c is a hopper or chamber, to which a constant fresh supply of the black is furnished, as the preceding portion has been withdrawn, from the lower part of a. d is the cooling vessel, which is connected to the lower part of the retort a by a sand joint e. The cooler d is made of thin sheet iron, and is large; its bottom is closed with a slide plate, f. The black, after passing slowly through the retort a into the vessel d, gets so much cooled by the time it reaches f, that a portion of it may be safely withdrawn, so as to allow more to fall progressively down; g is the charcoal-meter, with a slide door.

A Dictionary of Arts: Bone Black.

A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines; containing A Clear Exposition of Their Principles and Practice

by Andrew Ure, M. D.;
F. R. S. M. G. S. Lond.: M. Acad. M. S. Philad.; S. PH. DOC. N. GERM. Ranow.; Mulh. Etc. Etc.

Illustrated with nearly fifteen hundred engravings on wood
Eleventh American, From The Last London Edition.
To which is appended, a Supplement of Recent Improvements to The Present Time.

New York: D Appleton & company, 200 Broadway. Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut St.


BONE BLACK (Noir d'os, Fr.; Knochenschwartz, Germ.), or Animal charcoal, as it is less correctly called, is the black carbonaceous substance into which bones are converted by calcination in close vessels. This kind of charcoal has two principal applications: to deprive various solutions, particularly sirups, of their coloring matters, and to furnish a black pigment. The latter subject will be treated of under IVORY BLACK.

The discovery of the antiputrexcent and decoloring properties of charcoal in general, is due to Lowitz, of Petersburg; but their modifications have occupied the attention of many chemists since his time. Kels published, in 1798, some essays on the discoloring of indigo, saffron, madder, sirup &c. by means of charcoal, but he committed a mistake in supposing bone black to have less power than the charcoal of wood. The first useful application of charcoal to the purification of raw colonial sugar was made by M. Guillon, who brought into the French markets considerable quantities of fine sirups, which he discolored by ground wood charcoal, and sold them to great advantage, as much superior to the cassonades of that time. In 1811, M. Figuier, an apothecary at Montpeltier, published a note about animal charcoal, showing that it blanched vinegars and wines with much more energy than vegetable charcoal; and, lastly, in 1812, M. Derosnes proposed to employ animal charcoal in the purification of sirups and sugar refining. The quantities of bone black left in the retorts employed by MM. Payen, for producing crude carbonate of ammonia, furnished abundant materials for making the most satisfactory experiments, and enabled these gentlemen soon to obtain ten per cent. more of refined sugar from the raw article than had been formerly extracted, and to improve, at the same time, the characters of the lumps, bastards, treacle, &c.

The calcination of bones is effected by two different systems of apparatus; by heating them in a retort similar to that in which coal is decomposed in the gas works, or in small pots piled up in a kiln. For the description of the former, see GAS-LIGHT. On the second plan, the bones, broken into pieces, are put into small cast-iron pots of the form shown in fig. 135, about three eighths of an inch thick, two of which are dexterously placed with theis mouths in contact, and then luted together with loam. The lip of the upper pot is made to slip inside of the under one. Tese double vessels, containing together about fifty pounds of bones, are arranged alongside, and over each other, in an oven, like a potter's kiln, till it be filled. The oven or kiln may be either oblong or upright. The latter is represented in figs. 136, 137, 138. A is the fireplace or grate for the fuel; C C are the openings in the dome of the furnace through which the flame flows; the divisions of these orifices are shown in fig. 138. B is the wall of brick-work. D the space in which the pots are distributed. E is the door by which the workman carries in the pots, which is afterwars built up with fire-bricks, and plastered over with loam. This door is seen in fig. 136. F F are the lateral flues for conveying the disengaged gases into the air.

Fig. 139 is a longitudinal section, and fig. 140, a ground plan of a horizontal kiln for calcining bones. a is the fire-chamber, lying upon a level with the sole of the kiln; it is separated by a pillar b, from the calcining hearth c. In the pillar or wall, several rows of holes d, are left at different heights; e is the entrance door; f, the outlet vents for the gases, vapors, and smoke, into the chimney g; h, a sliding damper-plate for regulating the admission of the air into the fire in the space a.

By this arrangement the offensive emanations are partly consumed, and partly carried off with the smoke. To destroy the smell completely, the smoke should be made to pass through a second small furnace.

The number of pots that may be put into a kiln of this kind depends, of course, upon its dimensions; but, in general, from 100 to 150 are piled up over each other, in columns, at once; the greatest heat being nearest the roof of the kiln; which resembles, in many respects, that used for baking pottery ware.

In both kilns the interior walls are built of fire-bricks. In the oblong one, the fiercest heat is near the vaulted roof; in the upright one, near the sole; and the pots, containing the larger lumps of bones, should be placed accordingly near the top of the former, and the bottom of the latter. Such a kiln may receive about seventy double pots, containing in the whole thirty-five ewt. of bones.

After the earth is filled with the pots, and the entrance door is shut, the fire is applied at first moderately, but afterwards it must be raised and maintained, at a brick heat, for eight or ten hours. The door of the ash-pit and the damper may now be nearly closed, to moderate the draught, and to keep up a steady ignition for six or eight hours longer, without additional firing; after which the doors must be all opened to cool the furnace. When this is done, the brick-work of the entrance door must be taken down, the kiln must be emptied, and immediately filled again with a set of pots previously filled with bones, and luted together; the pots which have been ignited may in the course of a short time, be opened, and the contents put into the magazine. But in operating with the large decomposing cylinder retort, the bones being raked out hot, must be instantly tossed into a receiver, which can be covered in air-tight till they are cool.

The bones lose upon the average about one half of their weight in the calcination. In reference to the quality of the black, experience has shown that it is so much more powerful as a discoloring agent, as the bones from which it was made have been freer from adhering fatty, fleshy, and tendinous matters.

The charcoal is ground in a mill, either to a fine powder and sifted, or into a course granular state, like gunpowder, for the preparation of which two sieves are required, one with moderately fine meshes, to allow the small dust to pass through, and one with large meshes, to separate the proper-sized grains from the coarser lumps. Either a corn-mill, an edgestone mill, or a steel cylinder mill, may be employed for grinding bone-black, and it is generally damped in the operation to keep down the fine dust.

Bone-black, as found in commerce, is very variable in its discoloring power, which arises from its having been exposed either to too great a heat which has glazed its carbon, or too low a heat which has left its albumen imperfectly decomposed. A steady ignition of due continuance is the proper decomposing temperature. Its composition is generally as follows: -
Phosphate of lime, with carbonate of lime, and a little sulphuret of iron, or oxyde of iron, 88 parts; iron in the state of a silicated carbonet, 2 parts; charcoal containing about one fifteenth of azote, 10 parts. None of the substances present, except the charcoal, possesses separately any discoloring power.

The quality may be tested by a solution of brown sugar, or molesses, or of indigo in sulphuric acid. The last is generally preferred by the French chemists, who have occupied themselves most with this subject, and it contains usually one thousandth part of its weight of this dye-drug of the best quality. Other animal substances yield a charcoal, possessed of very considerable discoloring properties. The following table by M. Bussy exhibits an interesting comparison of almost every kind of charcoal in this point of view.

With regard to the mode of operation of bone black on colored liquids, M. Payen showed in his prize essay, 1. That the decoloring power of charcoal depends in general upon its state of division; 2. That in the various charcoals, the carbonaceous matter acts only upon the coloring matters, combining with and precipitating them; 3. That in the application of charcoal to the refining of sugar, it acts also upon the gluten, for it singularly promotes crystallization; 4. That according to the above principles, the decoloring action of charcoals may be so modified, as to make the most inert become the most active; 5. That the distinction between animal and vegetable charcoals is improper, and that we may substitute for it that of dull and brilliant charcoals; 6. That of the substances present in charcoal besides carbon, and particularly animal charcoal, those which favor the decoloring action, have an influence relative only to the carbon; they serve as auxiliaries to it, by insulating its particles, and presenting them more freely to the action of the coloring matter; 7. That animal charcoal, besides its decoloring power, has the valuable property of taking lime in solution from water and sirup; 8. That neither vegetable, nor other charcoals, besides the animal, have this power of abstracting lime; 9. That by the aid of the decolorimeter, or graduated tube charged with test solution of indigo or molasses, it is easy to appreciate exactly the decoloring properties of all kinds of charcoal.

Different varieties of lignite (fossilized wood) or even pit coal, when well carbonized in close vessels, afford a decoloring charcoal of considerable value. By reducing 100 parts of clay into a thin paste with water, kneading into it 20 parts of tar, and 500 of finely-ground pit coal, drying the mixed mass, and calcining it out of contact of air, a charcoally matter may be obtained not much inferior to bone-black in whitening sirups.

The restoration of animal charcoal from burnt bones, for the purpose of sugar refining, has been long practised in France. Mr. W. Parker has lately made the following process the subject of a patent. The charcoal, when taken from the vessel in which it has been employed for the purposes of clarifying the sugar, is to be thoroughly washed with the purest water that can be obtained, in order to remove all the saccharine matter adhering to it. When the washing process has been completed, the charcoal is laid out to dry, either in the open air in a suitable stoe, and when perfectly free from moisture, it is to be separated into small pieces and sifted through a sieve, the wires or meshes of which are placed at distances of about two and a half in every inch. This sifting will not only divide the charcoal into small pieces, but will cause any bits of wood or other improper matters to be separated from it.

The charcoal, thus prepared, is then to be packed lightly in cylindrical vessels called crucibles, with some small quantity of bones, oil, or other animal matter mixed with it. The crucibles are then to be closed by covers, and luted at the joints, leaving no other opening but one small hole in the centre of the cover, through which any gas, generated within the vessel when placed in the oven of furnace, may be allowed to escape.

The crucibles are now to be ranged round the oven, and placed, one upon another, in vertical positions; and when the oven is properly heated, gas will be generated within each crucible, and issue out from the central hole. The gas thus emitted, being of an inflammable quality, will take fire, and assist in heating the crucibles; and the operation being carried on until the crucibles become of a red heat, the oven is then to be closed, and allowed to cool; after which the crucibles are to be removed, when the charcoal will be found to have become perfectly renovated, and fit for use as before.

A Dictionary of Arts: Brass Color. Brass Foil.

A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines; containing A Clear Exposition of Their Principles and Practice

by Andrew Ure, M. D.;
F. R. S. M. G. S. Lond.: M. Acad. M. S. Philad.; S. PH. DOC. N. GERM. Ranow.; Mulh. Etc. Etc.

Illustrated with nearly fifteen hundred engravings on wood
Eleventh American, From The Last London Edition.
To which is appended, a Supplement of Recent Improvements to The Present Time.

New York: D Appleton & company, 200 Broadway. Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut St.


BRASS COLOR, for staining glass, is prepared by exposing for several days thin plates of brase upon titles in the leer or annealing arch of the glass-house, till it be oxydized into a black powder, aggregated in lumps. This being pulverized and sifted, is to be again well calcined for several days more, till not particles remain in the metallic state; when it will form a fine powder of a russet brown color. A third calcination must now be given, with a carefully regulated heat; its qualitu being tested from time to time by fusion with some glass. If it makes the glass swell, and intumesce, it is properly prepared; if not, it must be still further calcined. Such a powder communicates to glass, greens of various tints, passing into turquoise.

When thin narrow strips of brass are stratified with sulphur in a crucible, and calcined at a red heat, they become friable, and may be reduced to powder. This being sifted and exposed upon tiles in a reverberatory furnace for ten or twelve days, becomes fit for use, and is capable of imparting a calcedony, red, or yellow tinge to glass by fusion, according to the mode and proportion of using it.

The glass-makers' red color may be prepared by exposing small plates of brass to a moderate heat in a reverberatory furnace, till they are thoroughly calcined, when the substance becomes pulverulent, and assumes a red color. It is then ready for immediate use.

BRASS COLOR, as employed by the colormen to imitate brass, is of two tints, the red or bronze, and the yellow like gilty brass. Copper filings, mixed with heat, and then spread with a flat camel-hair brush evenly upon the surface of the object. The best varnish is composed of 20 ounces of spirits of wine, 2 ounces of shellac, and 2 ounces of sandarach, properly dissolved. See VARNISH. Only so much of the brass powder and varnish should be mixed at a time as is wanted for immediate use.

BRASS FOIL. Dutch leaf, called Knitter or Rauschgold in Germany, is made from very thin sheet brass, beat out under a hammer worked by water power, which gives 300 or 400 strokes per minute: from 40 to 80 leaves being laid over each other. By this treatment, it acquires its characteristic solidity and lustre. See above, the process for converting the copper superficially into brass by the fumes of zinc.


A Dictionary of Arts: Blue Pigments.

A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines; containing A Clear Exposition of Their Principles and Practice

by Andrew Ure, M. D.;
F. R. S. M. G. S. Lond.: M. Acad. M. S. Philad.; S. PH. DOC. N. GERM. Ranow.; Mulh. Etc. Etc.

Illustrated with nearly fifteen hundred engravings on wood
Eleventh American, From The Last London Edition.
To which is appended, a Supplement of Recent Improvements to The Present Time.

New York: D Appleton & company, 200 Broadway. Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut St.


BLUE PIGMENTS. Several metallic compounds possess a blue color; especially those of iron, cobalt, and molydenum. The metallic pigments, little if at all employed, but which may be found useful in particular cases, are the molybdate of mercury, the hydro-sulphuret of tungsten, the prussiate of tungsten, the molybdate of tin, the oxyde of copper darkened with ammonia, the silicate of copper, and a fine violet color formed from manganese and molybdenum. The blues of vegetable origin, in common use, are indigo, litmus, and blue cakes. The blue pigments of a metallic nature found in commerce are the following: Prussian blue; mountain blue, a carbonate of copper mixed with more or less earthy matter; Bremen blue or verditer, a greenish blue color obtained from copper mixed with chalk or lime; iron blue, phosphate of iron, little employed; cobalt blue, a color obtained by calcining a salt of cobalt with alumina or oxyde of tin; smalt, a glass colored with cobalt and ground to a fine powder; charcoal blue, a deep shade obtained by triturating carbonized vine stalks with an equal weight of potash in a crucible till the mixture ceases to swell, then pouring it upon a slab, putting it into water, and saturating the alkali with sulphuric acid. The liquor becomes blue, and lets fall a dark blue precipitate, which becomes of a brilliant blue color when heated.

Molybdenum blue is a combination of this metal, and oxyde of tin or phosphate of lime. It is employed both as a paint, and an enamel color. A blue may also be obtained by putting into molybdic acid, (made by digesting sulphuret of molybdenum with nitric acid,) some filing of tin, and a little muriatic acid. The tin deoxydixes the molybdic acid to a certain degree, and converts it into the molybdous, which, when evaporated and heated with alumina recently precipitated, forms this blue pigment. Ultramarine is a beautiful blue pigment, which see.


A Dictionary of Arts: Blue Dyes.

A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines; containing A Clear Exposition of Their Principles and Practice

by Andrew Ure, M. D.;
F. R. S. M. G. S. Lond.: M. Acad. M. S. Philad.; S. PH. DOC. N. GERM. Ranow.; Mulh. Etc. Etc.

Illustrated with nearly fifteen hundred engravings on wood
Eleventh American, From The Last London Edition.
To which is appended, a Supplement of Recent Improvements to The Present Time.

New York: D Appleton & company, 200 Broadway. Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut St.


BLUE DYES. (Teint, Germ. See Enamel.) The materials employed for this purpose are indigo, Prussian blue, logwood, bilberry, (vaccinium myrtillus,) elder berries, (sambucus nigra,) mulberries, privet berries, (ligustrum vulgare,) and some other berries whose juice becomes blue by the addition of a small portion of alkali, or of the salts of copper. For dyeing with the first three articles, see them in their alphabetical places. I shall here describe the other or minor blue dyes.

To dye blue with such berries as the above, we boil one pound of them in water, adding one ounce of alum, of copperas, and of blue vitriol, to the decoction, or in their stead equal parts of verdigris and tartar, and pass the stuffs a sufficient time through the liquor. When an iron mordant alone is employed, a steel blue tint is obtained; and when a tin one, a blue with a violet cast. The privet berries which have been employed as sap colors by the card painters, may be extensively used in the dyeing of silk. The berries of the African night-shade (solanum guineense) have been of late years considerably applied to silk on the continent in producing various shades of blue, violet, red, brown, &c., but particularly violet. With alkalis and acids these berries have the same habitudes as bilberries; the former turning them green, the latter red. They usually come from Italy compressed in a dry cake, and are infused in hot water. The infusion is merely filtered, and then employed without any mordant, for dyeing silk, being kept at a warm temperature by surrounding the bath vessed with hot water. The goods must be winced for six hours through it in order to be saturated with color; then they are to be rinsed in running water and dried. One pound of silk requires a pound and a half of the berry, cake. In the residuary bath, other tints of blue may be given. Sometimes the dyed silk is finished by running it through a weak alum water. A color approaching to indigo in permanence, but which differs from it in being soluble in alkalis, though incapable of similar disoxydizement, is the gardenia genipa and aculeata of South America, whose colorless juice becomes dark blue with contact of air; and dyes stuffs, the skin, and nails, or unchangeable deep blue color, but the juice must be applied in the colorless state.


A Dictionary of Arts (supplement): Bleaching of Paper.

(A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines; containing A Clear Exposition of Their Principles and Practice)
Recent improvements in
Arts, Manufactures, and Mines:
Being A supplement to his Dictionary
by Andrew Ure, M. D.,

Illustrated with one hundred and ninety engravings.

New York: D. Appleton & Company, 200 Broadway.  Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut St.

BLEACHING OF PAPER. The following are the proportions of liquid chloride of lime, at 10° of Gay Lussac's Chlorometre, employed for the different sorts of rags, consisting of two piles, of 200 pounds French.

Cotton | litres.
No. 1. Fine cotton rags | 10
2. Clean calicoes | 12
3. - | 14
4. White dirty calico, coarse cotton | 16
5. Coarse cotton  | 18
6. Grey, No. 1  | 20
- No. 2 | 22
Saxon gray | 24
- No. 2 | 26
Palce white and half-white shades  | 28
Saxon blues; pale pink, dark blue, velvet | 32

It is considered to be much better to bleach the fine rags with liquid chloride of lime, and not with chlorine gas, because they are less injured by the former, and afford a paper of more nerve, less apt to break, and more easily sized. But the coarse or gray rags are much more economically bleached with the gaseous chlorine, without any risk of weakening the fibre too much. Bleaching by the gas is performed always upon the sorted rags, which have been boiled in alkaline ley, and torn into the fibrous state. They are subjected to the press, in order to form them into damp cakes, which are broken in pieces and placed in large rectangular wooden cisterns. The chlorine gas in introduced by tubes in the lid of the cistern, which falls down by its superior gravity, acting always more strongly upon the rags at the bottom than those above.

When the chlorine, disengaged from 150 kilogrammes (330 lbs.) of manganese and 500 kilos. of muriatic acid, is made to act upon 2,500 kilos. of the stuff (supposed dry), it will have completed its effect in the course of a few hours. The quantity of gaseous chlorine is equal to what is contained in the quantity of chloride of lime requisite to produce a like bleaching result. The bleached stuff should be forthwith carefully washed, to remove all the muriatic acid produced from the chlorine; for if any of this remain in the paper, it destroys lithographic stones, and weakens common ink.

A Dictionary of Arts: Bleaching.

A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines; containing A Clear Exposition of Their Principles and Practice

by Andrew Ure, M. D.;
F. R. S. M. G. S. Lond.: M. Acad. M. S. Philad.; S. PH. DOC. N. GERM. Ranow.; Mulh. Etc. Etc.

Illustrated with nearly fifteen hundred engravings on wood
Eleventh American, From The Last London Edition.
To which is appended, a Supplement of Recent Improvements to The Present Time.

New York: D Appleton & company, 200 Broadway. Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut St.


BLEACHING (Blanchiment, Fr.; Bleichen, Germ.) is the process by which the textile filaments, cotton, flax, hemp, wool, silk, and the cloths made of them, as well as various vegetable and animal substances, are deprived of their natural color, and rendered nearly or altogether white. The term bleaching comes from the French verb blanchir, to whiten. The word blanch, which has the same origin, is applied to the whitening of living plants by making them grow in the dark, as when the stems of celery are covered over with mould.

he operations which the bleacher has recourse to differ according to the nature of the bleaching means, the property of the stuff to be bleached, and local customs or circumstances; and the result is also obtained with more or less rapidity, certaintity, economy, and perfection. The destruction of the coloring matters attached to the bodies to be bleached is effected either by the action of the air and light, of chlorine, or sulphurous acid; which may be considered the three bleaching powers employed for manufacturing purposes.

Bleaching by the influence of air and sunshine is the most ancient, and still the most common, method in several civilized coutries; it is also supposed by many to be the least injurious to the texture of yarn and cloth. The operations it involves are very simple, consisting in the exposure of the goods upon a grass-plat to the sky, with their occasional aspersion with moisture if necessary, in addition to the rain and dew. The atmospheric air effects the bleaching by means of its oxygenous constituent, which combines with the coloring matter, or its elements carbon and hydrogen, and either makes it nearly white, or converts it into a substance easily soluble in water and alkaline solutions. This natural process is too slow to suit the modern demands of the cotton and linen manufacturers. Fortunately for them, a new bleaching agent, unknown to our forefathers, chemistry so as to give an astonishing degree of rapidity, economy, and perfection, to this important art. It is, however, not a little surprising, that the science which has so greatly advanced its practical part should have left its theory far from complete, and should afford no satisfactory answers to the two following questions. - What is the action of the solar rays upon the colorin matter? How do air and chlorine operate upon this principle? Some suppose that light predisposes the coloring matter to combine with oxygen; other fancy that it sets merely in the manner of a high temperature, so as to determine a reaction between the elements of that substance, and to cause a new combination possessed of peculiar properties. It is generally admitted at the present day, that a portion of the oxygen of the air passes into the coloring matter, and changes its constitution. This is, however, probably not the part which oxygen plays, not is it the only principle in the atmosphere which exercises a bleaching influence. Neither is the action of chlorine such as has been commonly represented in our chemical systems.

But if authors offer us only vague hypotheses concerning the three principal agents, light, oxygen, chlorine, they afford no information whatever concerning the pheanomena due to greasy spotsa so frequently found upon cotton cloth, and so very troublesome to the bleacher. It has indeed been sometimes said in bleach-works- that fatty substances are no longer soluble in alkalis, when they are combined with oxygen. The very reverse of this statement is probably nearer the truth.

The object of bleaching is to separate from the textile fibre, by suitable operations, all the substances which mask its intrinsic whiteness: or which, in the course of ulterior dyeing operations, may produce injurious effects. In this latter respect, cotton deserves especial consideration. This substance is covered with a resinous matter, which obstruets its absorption of moisture, and with a yellow coloring matter in very small quantity, often so inconsiderable in some cottons, that it would be unnecessary to bleach them, before submitting them to the dyer, were it not that the manipulations which they removed. It is in fact a circumstance well known in the factories, that unbleached cottons may be dyed any dark color, provided they are deprived of that matter which makes them difficult to moisten. The substances present in cotton goods are the following: -
1. The resinous matter natural to the cotton filaments.
2. The proper coloring matter of this vegetable.
3. The paste of the weaver.
4. A fat matter.
5. A cupreous soap.
6. A calcareous soap.
7. The filth of the hands.
8. Iton, and some earthy substances.

1. The matter which prevents the moistening of cotton wool may be separated by means of alcohol, which, when evaporated, leaves thin yellowish scales, soluble in alkalis, in acids, and even in a large quantity of boiling water. For a long time the bleaching process commenced with the removal of this resinous stuff, by passin gthe cloth or the yarn through an alkaline ley. This was called scouring; it is now nearly laid aside.

2. The coloring matter of cotton seems to be superficial, and to have no influence on the strength of the fibres; for the yarn is found to be as strong after it has been stripped by caustic soda of its resinous and coloring matters, as it was before. The coloring matter is slightly soluble in water, and perfectly in alkaline leys. When gray calico is boiled in lime-water, it comes out with a tint darker than it had before; whence it might be supposed that the coloring matter was not dissolved out, even in part. This, however, is not the case; for if we filter the liqueor, and neutralize it with an acid, we shall perceive light flocks, formed of the resinous substance, united with the coloring matter. The dark color of the cloth is to be ascribed solely to the property which lime possesses of browning certain vegetable colors. This action is here exercised upon the remaining color of the cloth.

It may be laid down as a principle, that the coloring matter is not directly soluble by the alkalis; but that it becomes so only after having been for some time xposed to the joint action of air and light, or after having been in contact with chlorine. What change does it thereby experience, which gives it this solubility? Experiments made upon pieces of cloth placed in humid oxygen, in dry oxygen, in moist chlorine, and in dry chlorine, tend to show that hydrogen is abstacted by the atmosphere; for in these experiments proofs of dis-hydrogenation appeared, and of the production of carbonic acid. In all cases of bleaching by chlorine, this principle combines immediately with the hydrogen of the coloring matter, and forms muriatic acid, while the carbon is eliminated. Undoubtedly water has an influence upon this phenomenon, since the bleaching process is quicker with the humid chlorine than with the dry; but this liquid seems to act here only mechanically, in condensing the particles of the gas into a solution. We should also take into account the great affinity of mutiatic acid for water.

3. The weaver's dressing is composed of furinaceous matters, which are usually allowed to sour before they are employed. It may contain glue starch, gluten; which last is very soluble in lime-water.

4. When the dressing gets dry, the hand-weaver occasionally renders his warp-threads more pliant by rubbing some cheap kind of grease upon them. Hence it happens, that the cloth which has not been completely freed from this fatty matter will not readily imbibe water in the different bleaching operations; and hence, in the subsequent dyeing or dunging, these greasy spots, under peculiar circumstances, somewhat like lithographie or dunging, these greasy spots, under peculiar circumstances, somewhat like lithographie stones, strongly attract the aluminous and iron mordants, as well as the dye-stuffs, and occasion stains which it is almost impossible to discharge. The acids act differently upon the fatty matters, and thence remarkable anomalies in bleaching the place. When oil is treated with the acetic or muriatic acid, or with aqueous chlorine, it evolves no gas, as it does with the sulphuric and nitric acids, but it combines with these substances so as to form a compound which cannot be dissolved by a strong boiling ley of caustic soda. Carbonic acid acts in the same way with oil. On the other hand, when the oils and fats are sufficiently exposed to the air, they seize a portion of its oxygen, and become thereby capable of saponification, that is, very soluble in the alkalis.

5. When the hand-weaver's grease continues in contact for a night with the copper dents of his reed, a kind of cupreous soap is formed, which is sometimes very difficult to remove from the web. Lime-water does not dissolve it; but dilute sulphuric acid carries off the metallic oxyde, and liberates the margaric acid, in a state ready to be acted on by alkalis.

6. When cloth is boiled with milk of lime, the grease which is uncombined unites with that alkaline earth; and forms a calcareous soap, pretty soluble in a great excess of lime-water, and still more so in caustic soda. But all fats and oils, as well as the soaps of copper and lime, cease to be soluble in alkaline leys, when they have remained a considerable time upon the goods, and have been in contact with acetic, carbonic, muriatic acids, or chlorine. These results have been verified by experiment.

7. Cotton goods are sometimes much soiled, from being sewed or tamboured with dirty hands; but they may be easily cleansed from this filth by hot water.

8. Any ferruginous or earthy matter which get attached to the goods in the course of bleaching, are readily removable.

We are now prepared to understand the true principles of bleaching cottong goods, for the most delicate operations of the calico printer.

1. The first process is steeping, or rather boiling, the goods in water, in oder to remove all the substances soluble in that liquid.

2. The next step is to wash or scour the goods by the dash-wheel or the stocks. This is of great importance in the course of bleaching, and must be repeated several times; so much so, that in winter, when the water of the dash-wheel is cold, the bleaching is more tedious and difficult. Yarn and very open fabrics do not much need the dash-wheel.

By these first two operations, the woven goods lose about sixteen per cent. of their weight, while they lose only two parts out of five hundred in all the rest of the bleaching.

3. In the third place the calicoes are boiled with milk of lime, whereby they are stripped of their gluten, and acquire a portion of calcareous soap. Formerly, and still in many bleach-works, the gluten was got rid of by a species of fermentation of the farinaceous dressing; but this method is liable to several objections in reference to the calico printer. 1. The fermentive action extends sometimes to the goods and weakens their texture, especially when they are piled up in a great heap without being previously washed. 2. The spots of grease, or of the insoluble soaps, become thereby capable of resisting the caustic alkalis, and are rendered in some measure indelible; an effect due to the acetic and carbonic acids generated during fermentation, and which will be easily understoof from what has been said concerning the action of acids on fatty substances. It is not, therefore, without good reason that many practical men throw some spent leys into the fermenting vats, to neutralize the acids which are formed. Were it not for the presence of fat, fermention, skilfully conduc ted, would be an excellent means of carrying off the gluten; and the steep is therefore applicable to power-loom goods, which are not polluted with grease.

4. The goods are now subjected to a caustic soda ley, which dissolves out the soaps of lime and copper, as well as that portion of the coloring matter which is sufficiently dis-hydrogenated to be capable of combining with it. This bucking with ley, which is repeated several times upon the goods, in order to purge them completely from the fatty matter present in the hand-loom webs, and also partially introduced in the spinning, is almost the operation to which yarns for Turkey red are subjected. After being boiled in a caustic soda ley, they are passed through solutions of chloride of lime, and afterwards through the acid steep.

5. When the goods are sufficiently bucked in the leys, they are either exposed to chlorine, or laid out on the grass; sometimes both are bad recourse to for delicate work. These different modes of action have the same influence on the coloring matter, but they give rise to different effects in reference to greasy stains.

The goods are dipped in a solution of chloride of lime, which should be kept tepid by means of steam. Alongside of the chlorine cistern, there is another filled with dilute sulphuric or muriatic acid. When the goods are taken out of the chlorine, they are drained on the top of its cistern till no more liquid runs off them, and they are then plunged into the sour. The action of the acid in the present case may be easily explained. In proportion as a salt of lime is formed, this base quits the chlorine, and allows it to act freely upon the coloring matter. Thus we prevent the development of too great a quantity of chlorine at once, which would be apt to injure the fibres; and we pursue both a prudent and economical plan. Only so much chlorine as is strictly necessary is called forth, and hence it excites no smell in the apartment.

The chlorine serves to acidify the coloring matter, by abstracting a portion of its hydrogen; but we must take the greatest care that there is no grease upon the goods before immersion in it, for the consequience would be, as above shwon, very troublesome spots. When the cloth is laid out upon the grass, it is the oxygen of the air which acidifies the coloring matter; for which reason, the dew, which contains much air rich in oxygen, singularly accelerates the bleaching process. It is likewise, by absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere, that fats or oils pass to the state of margaric and oleic acids, and become most easily saponisified. Should the goods, however, be left too long on the grass, the fats absorb carbonic acid, and become insoluble in leys.

6. The goods must now receive a new soda ley, to dissolve out that portion of the coloring matter which has been dis-hydrogenated in the chlorine of the air, as well as the grease, if any perchance remained in the soluble state. These last two operations are to be several times repeated, because the coloring matter whould be removed only by degrees, for fear of injuring the texture of the goods, by subjecting them too much chlorine at a time.

7. We finish with the silute sulphuric acid, which should be very weak and tepid. It dissolves out the iron, and some earthy matters occasionally found upon cotton. The goods must be most carefully washed at the dash-wheel, or in a stream of water on quitting the sour bath, for if the acid were allowed to dry in them, it would infallibly injure their texture by its concentration. In winter, if the goods are allowed to get frozen with the acid upon them, they may likewise be damaged.

We may here observe, that when the goods are not to remain white, their bleaching may be completed with a ley; for though it leaves a faint yellow tint, this is no inconvenience to the dyer. But when they are to be finished with a starching after the last ley, they must have another dip of the chlorine to render the white more perfect. An immersion in the dilute acid has nearly the same effect.

The principles expounded above lead to this important consequence, that when we wish to bleach goods that are free from greasy stains, as is the case generally with the better kinds of muslins, or when we wish to bleach even greasy goods for the starch finish, we may content ourselves with the following operations: -
1. Boiling in water.
2. Scouring by the stocks or the dash-wheel.
3. Bucking with milk of lime.
4. Passing through chlorine, or exposure on the grass.
5. Bucking, or bouking with milk of lime. These two latter operations require to be alternated several times, till the whole of the coloring matter be removed.
6. Souring.

The bleaching of goods, which are never laid down on the green, and which are not dried between two operations, may be completed in a couple of days. They answer as well for the printer as the others, and they are as white. Cotton fibres or yarns suffer no siminution of their strength, when the cloth has been properly treated in the above described processes.

Accurate experiments have demonstrated that their stregth is not impaired by being boiled in milk of lime for two hours at the ordinary pressure, provided they be constantly kept covered with liquid during the whole ebullition, and that they be well washed immediately afterwards; or, by being boiled under the same pressure in a caustic soda ley, markin 3° of Tweedale, or specific gravity 1-015, though it has incgreased to double the density in the course of the boil, by the escape of the steam; or by being boiled under the atmospheric pressure at 14° of Tweedale, or specific gravity of 1.070; or bty being immersed for eiight hours in chloride of lime, capable of decoloring three times its bult, of test solution of indigo; and by being afterwards dipped in sulphuric acid of specific gravity 1.067, Tweedale 14°; or by being steeped for eighteen hours in sulphuric or muriatic acid of specific gravity 1.035, 7° Tweedale.

In other well-conducted bleach-works the following is the train of operations: - 1. Cleansing out the weaver's dressing by steeping the cloth for twelve hours in cold water, and then washing it at the stocks or the dash-wheel. 2. Boiling in milk of lime, of a strength suited to the quality of the goods, but for a shorter time than with the soda ley; two short operations with the lime, with intermediate washing, being preferable to one of greater duration. 3 and 4. Two consecutive leys of ten or twelve hours' boiling, with about two pounds of soda chrystals for 1 cwt. of cloth. 5. Exposure to the air for six or eight days, or the application of the chloride of lime and the sulphuric acid. 6. A ley of caustic soda, like the former, sometimes with less alkali. 7. Exposure to the air for six or eight days, or chlorine and the sour, as above, 8. Caustic soda ley, as before. 9. Chlorine and the sour. 10. Rinsing in hot water, or scouring at the dash-wheel.

If the number of vessels to be heated exceeds four or five, there is an economy in useing steam as the medium of heat; but under this number there is an advantage in the direct application of fire o a boiling or bucking apparatus; since when only two vessels are in activity, there is a waste of fuel by the extra steam power. It deserves to be remarked, also, that the increase of the bulk of the liquid by the condensation of the steam, does not permit the spent white ley to be turned to use for the green goods, on account of its excessive dilution. With the milk of lime boil, however, this dilution would be rather an advantage.

It has been found that the introduction of bran into the fermenting steep (when this is used) endangers the texture of the goods, by causing a putrefuctive fermentation in some places.

When in the mik of lime boil there is too much of this caustic earth, or when it is poured in on the top of the goods, they are apt to suffer damage. The milk of lime should be introduced from beneath into the under compartment of the bucking apparatus. For the same reason, after the caustic soda ley, the vessel should be filled up with water, if the goods be not immediately transferred to the dash-wheel. When they are allowed to become partially dry on the top, they are easily injured. The copper of the bucking apparatus ought to be of a size proportioned to that of the surmounting crip or vat; for when it is too small, the liquid is too long of being brought into proper circulation, and the foods may be meawhile injured. In a bucking apparatus, which requires five or six hours to be brought into full play, those goods are very apt to be injured, which lie immediately under the overflow pipe.

When the chloride of lime steep is too strong, sometimes small round holes are made in the calico, just as if they had been cut out by a punch, especially in the borders or thicker parts of the goods. The accident in owing to the presence of bubbles of chlorine. From the saturated state of the liquid, they remain gaseous a sufficient length of time for corroding the parts of the cloth with which they are in contact. These will obviously the denser parts, for they confine the gas most completely, or prevent its diffusion through the mass. This evil is prevented by diluting the chloride steep to the proper degree, and moving the goods through it.

The greasy spots, described above, show themselves in the maddering by attracting the dye-stuff more copiously than the pure parts of the cloth, so as to mottle it; they are also recognised in the white goods by being somewhat repulsive of moisture. When the combination of fatty matters with chlorine takes place at the surface of cotton goods, it is of a nature to resist the action of alkalis. It is the stearine, or the principle of suet, particularly, which, by this means, acquires such a strong affinity for cottons; the elaine, or the principle of oils, has no such remarkable affinity. Lime, in some circumstances, seems to act as a mordant to greasy matters, and to fix them fast. Hence the weaver should be prohibited, in all cases, from allowing candle-grease to touch his web. Goods soiled with it should never be allowed to lie by in the ware-house, but be immediately cleansed before the air has fixed the stearine by converting it into margaric acid. Lime should, in these cases, be prudently employed; chlorine should never be used till the greasy stains are thoroughly removed; and the bleacher should never warrant his pieces for the printer till he has verified some of them by the water test.

I shall conclude this general analysis of the principles of bleaching by a few precepts. Avoid lime, at the first ley, for goods which contain greasy spots; but use it freely after one or two soda leys, and apply two soda leys after it. Do not apply chlorine between these leys, but reserve it for the final operation. By this plant the goods will be well bleached and very little worn. Use the souring steeps freely, giving them after each ley, whether of lime or soda, since the calcareous base, with which the greasy spots get charged merely from hard water, is an obstacle to the further action of the leys.

I shall now give some practival instructions concerning the several steps of the bleaching process, as applied to cotton, linen, silk, and wool.

The first thing which the cotton bleacher does, is to mark the pieces with the initials of the owner, by means of a stamp imbued with coal tar. The linen bleacher marks with nitrate of silver, a far more expensive substance, but one which resists better the severer treatment which his goods are destined to undergo.

The cotton goods are generally singed before they are sent to the bleacher, and this is done either by passing them rapidly over a red-hot semi-cylinder of iron, or over a row of gas flames, by Mr. Hall's ingenious contrivance. (See SINGERING.) Each piece is next creased together lengthwise like a rope, folded into a bundle, and fixed by a noose at the end. In this open state it is easily penetrated by the water of the soaking cistern into which it is thrown. It is then scoured by the dash or wash-wheel. It is now ready for the bucking or steaming apparatus, where it is treated with milk of lime. The steam chamber resembles the bucking vessel, without its bottom copper; that is to say, a few inches below the grated bottom of the bucking tub, there is a close iron sole, through the centre of which the steam is admitted by several small apertures, for the purpose of diffusing it throughout the goods, and causing a liquid circulation by its pressure, as the steam does in the proper bucking boiler. One pound of lime previously made into a cream consistenced mixture, and passed through a sieve, is used for every thirty or forty pounds of cloth, according to its color and texture; and this cream mixed with more water is stocked with goods, all their interstiees are filled up with water. After the lime bucking, the cloth is transferred to the dash-wheel.

A pound of cloth requires for its whitening about half a pound of good average chloride of lime or bleaching powder, as it is commonly called, and this ought to be dissolved in about three gallons of water. Mr. Crum of Throniebank, near Glasgow, an extensive and excellent bleacher, has so modified Dr. Dalton's ingenious plan of testing the power of bleaching liquors by green sulphate of iron, as to give it much greater precision for the bleacher's use, than the discoloration of indigo originally proposed by Berthollet. Mr. Crum dissolves four ounces of fresh green vitriol in hot water, and then adds the solution of bleaching powder by small quantities at a time, till the iron becomes wholly peroxydized, when the smell of chlorine will become perceptible. When the bleacher has once found by trial the proper blanching power which his chlorine steep ought to have, he can verify its standard, by seeing how much of it must be added to an ounce, or any given weight of fresh copperas, dissolved in hot water, to cause the peroxydizement and the exhalation of the peculiar odor. M. Gay Lussac's new method by arsenious acid will be described under chlorine. From the experiments which I made some years ago, upon indigo, it will be seen that this dye stuff is so variale in its quantity of coloring matter, that no two chemists operating with it independently, as a test for chloride of lime, could arrive at the same result. They must provide themselves with absolute indigo, by an expensive and troublesome process, not suited to the busy bleacher. The vitriolage, as the French term it, or the souring of the English bleacher, consists in immersing the goods for four hours in dilute sulphuric acid, containing one gallon of oil of citriol to from 25 to 30 of water, thoroughly intermixed by stirring; for the density of the acid is an obstacle to its equal distribution through the water. This dilute acid will have a density of from 1.047 to 1.040, and will contain from 7 to 6½ per cent. by weight of the oil of vitriol.

The goods are now washed, and then boiled for eight or nine hours in an alkaline ley, containing about two pounds of crystals of soda, or their equivalent in soda ash or pearl-ash, for every 100 lbs. of cloth. The ley must be made previously caustic by quick lime. A washing in the wheel follows this boil; and then a chlorine steep for five hours in a liquor two thirds of the strength of the former. It is nect soured in the dilute sulphuric acid, for two, three, or four hours, according to the color and quality of the cotton, and then thoroughly washed.

The cloth is now bleached white, but cannot be presented in the market till it undergoes certain finishing processes. The piece is elongated from the folds which it contracts during the rotation of the dash-wheel by being thrown into a stream of water in a cistern, terminated by the squeezing rollers, which take in the end of the piece, and run it through between them, with the effect of making it nearly dry. Two pieces of cloth pass simultaneously through the rollers, and are disentangled spontaneously, so to speak, without the help of bands.

The squeezing rollers of squeezers, for discharging the greating part of the water from the yarns and goods in the process of bleaching, are represented in figs. 117, 118, the former being a side-view, to show how the rolled gudgeous lie in the slots of the frame, and how the shaft of the upper roller is pressed downward by a weighted lever, through a vertical junction rod, jointed at the bottom to a nearly horizontal bar, on whose end the proper weight is hung. In fig. 118, these rollers of birch-woods are whoen in race; the under one receiving motion through the toothed wheel on its shaft, from any suitable power of water or steam. Upon the shaft of the latter, between the toothed wheel and the roller, the lever and pulley for putting the machine into and out of gear are visible. The under roller makes about 25 recolutions in the minute, in which time three pieces of goods, stiched endwise, measuring 28 yards each, may be run through the machine, from a water through on one side, to a wooden grating upon the other.

When the goods are run through, they are carried off upon a grated wheelbarrow, in a nearly dry state, and transferred to the spreading machine, called at Manchester a candroy. In many bleach-works, however, the creased pieces are pulled straight by the hands of women, and are then strongly beat against a wooden stock to smooth out the edges. This being done, a number of pieces are stiched endwise together, preparatory to being mangled.

Calender. - Fig. 120 is a cross section of this machine, and figs. 119, 121, are front views broken off. The goods are first rolled upon the wooden cylinder a, near the ground; by the tension roller b, upon the same cylinder, the goods receive a proper degree of stretching in the winding off. They ten pass over the spreading bars c c c, by which they are still more distended; next round the hollow iron cylinder d, 16 inches diameter, and the paper cylinder e, of like dimensions; thence they proceed under the second massive iron cylinder f, of 8 inches diameter, to be finally wound about the projecting wooden roller g. This is set in motion by the pulleys h, fig. 121, and i, fig. 120, and receives its proper tension from the hangung roller k; l is a press cylinder, of 14 inches diameter, made of plane-tree wood. By its means we can at all times secure an equal degree of pressure, which would be hardly possible did the weighted lever press immediately upon two points of the calender rollers. The compression exercised by the cylinders may be increased at pleasure by the bent lever m, weights being applied to it at n. The upper branch of the lever o is made fast by screws and bolts at p, to the upper press-cylinder. The junction leg q is attached to the intermediate piece r, by left and right-handed screws, so that according as that piece is turned round to the right or the left, the pressure of the weighted roller will be either increased or diminished. By turning it still more, the piece will get detached, the whole pressure will be removed, and the press-roller may be taken off; which is a main object of this mechanism.

The unequable movement of the cylinders is produced by the wheels s t u, of which the undermost has 69, the uppermost has 20, and the carrier-wheel t, wither 33, 32, or 20 teeth, according to the difference of speed required. The carrier-wheel is bolted on at [?], and adjusted in its proper place by means of a slot. To the undermost iron cylinder, the first motion is communicated by any power, for which purpose either a rigger (driving pulley) is applied to its shaft at u, or a crank motion. If it be desired to operate with a heated calender, the undermost hollow cylinder may be filled with hot steam, admitted through a stuffing-box at one end, and discharged through a stuffing-box at the other, or by a red-hot iron roller.

Pure starch would be too expensive a dressing for common calico shirtings,and therefore an extemporaseous starch is made by mixing one pound of flour with one gallon of water, and allowing the mixture to ferment in a warm place for twenty-four hours. In this way, a portion of lactic acid is formed, which dissolves the gluten, or separates it from the starch; so that when the whole is thrown upon a sieve, a liquid paste passes through, which, being boiled, answers well for stiffening the goods, without giving them a gray tinge. The paste is thinned with water to the desired degree, and faintly tinged with solution of indigo. The starch, which is sometimes thickened with porcelain clay, Paris plaster, or Spanish white, is put into a trough, and is evenly imparted to the cloth as this is drawn down through it, by the traction of rollers. There is a roller near the bottom of the trough, round which the cloth is made to run, to secure its full impregnation; while the upper rollers serve to expel its excess of the starch, and throw it back into the cistern. See STARCHING APPARATUS.

The goods are next dried in an apartment heated by two, three, or more flues, running along the floor, and covered usually with fire-tiles. At first the heat is moderate, but it is gradually raised to upwards of 110° F.

The goods must now be passed again through the calender, in order to receive their final smoothness and lustre. They are, in the first place, damped with a peculiar machine, furnished with a circular brush, wose points revolve in contact with water in a trough placed beneath them, and sprinkle drops of water upon the goods as they are drawn forward by a pair of cylinders. They are then subjected tothe powerful pressure of the calender rollers.

The calendered pieces are neatly folded into compact parcels, and stamped with the marks of each particular manufacturer, or various devices to suit the markets for which they are designed. They are finally piled on the sole of an hydraulic press, with a sheet of pasteboard between each piece; but with occasional plates of iron to secure uniformity of pressure throughout. When sufficiently condensed by the press, they are taken out, and despatched to their respective manufactures in a state ready for sale.

There are no less than 25 steps in the bleaching of calicoes, many of them effected with expensive machinery; yet the whole do not produce to the bleacher more than 10 pence per piece of 24 yards.

The following system was purpued, a few years back, by a skilful bleacher of muslins near Gasgow: -

"In fermenting muslin goods, we surround them with out spent leys, from the temperature of 100° to 150° F., according to the weather, and allow them to ferment for 36 hours. In boiling 112 lbs. = 112 pieces of yard-wide muslin, we use 6 or 7 lbs. of pearl-ashes, and 2 lbs. of soft soap, with 360 gallons of water, and allow them to boild for 6 hours; then wash tehm, and boil them again with 5 lbs. of pearl-ashes and 2 lbs. of soft soap, and allow them to boil 3 hours; then wash them with water, and immerse them into the solution of oxymuriate of lime, at 5 on the test-tube, and allow them to remain from 6 to 12 hours; next wash them, and immerse them into dilute sulphuric acid at the specific gravity of 3½ on Tweedale's hydrometer = 1.0175, and allow them to remain an hour. They are now well washed, and boiled with 2½ lbs. of pearl-ashes, and 2 lbs. of soft soap for half an hour; afterwards washed and immersed into the oxymuriate of lime as before, at the strength of 3 on the test-tube, which is tronger than the former, and allowed to remain for 6 hours. They are again washed, and immersed in diluted sulphuric acid at the specific gravity of 3 of Tweedale's hydrometer = 1.015. If the goods be strong, they will require another boil, steep, and sour. At any rate, the sulphuric acid must be well washed out before they receive the finishing operation with starch.

"With regard to the lime, which some use instead of alkali immediately after fermenting, the same weight of it is employed as of pearl-ashes. The goods are allowed to boil in it for 15 minutes, but no longer, otherwise the lime will injure the fabric."

More recently the plan adopted is as follows; by which the purest whites are produced for the London market.

"Lime is seldom used for our finer muslin goods, as it is found to injure their fabric, and the colors do not keep for nay length of time.

"An alkaline ley is made by boilin equal weights of lime and soda together for an hour: this alkali is used for boiling goods the same as potash, but without soap.

"In finishing jacomets or muslins, after washing them from the sour, they are run through spring-water containing a little fine smalts, which give them a clear shade; if of a coarse fabric, a little well-boiled starch is added to the water. From this they are wrung or pressed, and taken up by the selvage for the bendthing frame, and are run off it upon a tin cylinder heated by steam, by which the piece is completely dried in 15 minutes: it is then stripped from the cylinder, neatly folded and presses, which finished the piece for the market. From 6d. to 9d. per piece of 12 yards is obtained for the bleaching and finishing of those goods.

"Book muslins, after being washed from the sour, are wrung or pressed; then they are hung up to dry in a heated stove, previous to being put into starch, prepared by boiling 3 lbs. of it to every 5 gallons of water, with 20 ounces of smalts: they are wrung out of this starch, and taken to a room heated to 110° F.; the starch is wrought into the piece till clear, then taken into a cold room, and the selvages dressed or set, before being put on the breadthing frame in the heated stove, where the piece is stretched to its length, while three or four persons at each selvage keep the piece to its breadth. If a still finish is wanted, they keep exactly opposite wach other; but in breadthing the piece of elastic, they cross the piece in breadthing, which gives it a springy elastic finish. From 9d. to 15d. per piece of 12 yards is obtained for the bleaching and finishing of these goods.

"Sewed trimmings, flounces, and dresses are run through spring water containing fine smalts with a little well-beiled starch. They are then taken to the drying-stove, where they are stented till dry, which finishes the pice for the market. From 6d. to 8d. per piece is obtained fro mtrimmings and flounces, and from 9d. to 1s. for dresses, bleaching and finishing."

In the bleaching of cottong cloth, where fixed colors are previously dyed in the yarn before it is woven into cloth, such as the Turkey or Adrianople red, and its compounds of lilach or purple, by the addition of iron bases, various shades of blue from indigo, together with buff and gold color, tinged with the oxydes of iron, great care is necessary.

The common process of bleaching pulicates, into which permanent colors are woven, is, to wash the dressing or starch well out in cold water; to boil them gently in soap, and after again washing, to immerse them in a moderately strong solution of the oxymuriate of potash; and this process is followed until the white is good: they are then soured in dilute sulphuric acid. If the goods are attended to in a proper manner, the colors, in place of being impaired, will be found greatly improved, and to have acquired a delicacy of tint which no other process can impart to them.

Pulicates, or ginghams, which have been woven along with yarn which has been previously bleached, are first freed by washing from the starch or dressing: they are then washed, or slightly boiled with soap. After which, they are completely rinsed in pure spring water, and then soured.

Besides these common processes for bleaching, another was some time ago introduced, which consisted in immersing the cotton or linen goods in pretty strong solution of caustic alkali, and afterwards exposing them to the action of steam in a close vessel. It is now generally abandoned.

The cotton or linen goods, having been previously cleaned by steeping and washing, were, after being well drained, steeped in a solution of caustic alkali of the specific gravity of 1020. After the superfluous alkaline ley had been drained from them, they were arranged on a grating in a receiver. The cover was then placed on the vessel, and firmly screwed down; and the steam was admitted by turning the stopcock of the pipe which communicated with a steam boiler of the common construction.

The stains which come out upon maddered goods, in consequence of defective bleaching, are called in this country spangs. Their origin is such as I have described above, as the following statement of facts will show. The weaver of calicoes receives frequently a fine warp so tender from bad spinning or bad staple in the cotton, that it will not bear the ordinary strain of the hedles, or friction of the shuttle and reed, and he is obliged to throw in as much west as will compensate for the weakness or thinness of the warp, and make a good marketable cloth. He of course tries to gain his end at the least expense of time and labor. Hence, when his paste dressing becomes dry and stiff, he has recourse to such greasy lubricants as he can most cheaply procure; which are commonly either tallow or butter in a rancid state, but the former, being the lowest priced, is preferred. Accordingly, the weaver, having heated a lump of iron, applies it to a piece of tallow held over the warp in the loom, and causes the melted fat to drop in patches upon the yarns, which he afterwards spreads more evenly by his brush. It is obvious, however, that the grease must be very irregularly applied in this way, and be particularly thick on certain spots. This irregularity seldom fails to appear when the goods are bleached or dyed by the common routine of work. Printed calicoes examined by a skilful eye will be often seen to be stained with large blotches evidently occasioned by this vile practice of a weaver. The ordinary workmen call these copper stains, believing them to be communicated in the dyeing copper. Such stains on the cloth are extremely injurious in dyeing with the indigo vat. The following plan is adopted by some Scotch bleachers, with the effect, its is said, of effectually counteracting spangs from grease.

The goods having been singed and steeped in pure water, as in customary in common bleaching, they are passed through a pair of rollers to press out the impurities which have been loosened by the steeping. It must here, however, be observed, that where the expense of one extra drying can be afforded, the process might be very much improved by steeping the brown calicoes for thirty or forty hours before singeing, because this would separate much of that impurity which usually becomes fixed in the stuff on its being passed over the hot cylinders. When the pieces have been thus singed, steeped, and pressed, they are boiled four times, ten or twelve hours at each time, in a solution of caustic potash, or the specific gravity of from 1.0127 to 1.0156, washing them carefully and thoroughly in pure water between each of these boilings. They are then immersed in a solution of the chloride of potash, originally of the stregth of 1.0625, and afterwards reduced with twenty-four times its measure with water.

When the preparation is good, these proportions will whiten cotton goods completely in eight hours. In this steep they are, however, generally suffered to remain twelve hours. It has been supposed that the common bleaching liquor (chloride of lime) cannot, without injury, be substituted for chloride of potash, but I believe this to be a mistake.

Some printers take the pieces from this solution, and, while wet, lay them upon the grass, and there expose them to the sun and weather for two or three days. They are thence removed to the sours, made of the specific gravity of about 1.0254 at the temperature of 110° of Fahrenheit In bleaching common goods, and such as are not designed for the best printing, the specific gravity of the sours is varied from that of 1.0146 to that of 1.0238, if weighed when they become of the temperature of the atmosphere. In these they are suffered to lie for five or six hours, after which they are taken to the dash-wheel and washed thoroughly. When this operation is finished, they are submited to four more boilings as before, with a solution of caustic potash; taking care to wash well between each of these boilings. Sometimes pearl-ash, made caustic, is used for the last of these boilings, lest the sulphur, which always exists in the potashes of commerce, shoul impair the whites. They are next immersed in the diluted chloride of potash, of the stregth before mentioned; adter which they are well washed in pure water, and then winched for half an hour in common rous. The last process is that of careful washing in plenty of clean water, after which tehy are not put into the stove but are immediately hung up in the airing sheds to dry gradually. The water must be good, and abundant.

The number of operations, as here described, is great; but I know of no other mode of procedure by which perfect bleaching is so likely to be effected at all times and in all seasons, without disappointment. It must here be remarked, that, for the best purposes of printing, it would not be sufficient to take goods which have been bleached in the common way and finish these by the better process; because the sulphate of lime deposited in the cloth by that operation will be apt to spoil them for madder colors; at least, a printer who is curious in his business would hesitate to work up such cloth.

Bucking or Bowking. - This is one of the most important operations in the bleaching of both cotton and linen goods. There are several methods whereby this process is carried on; but of these we shall select only two, distinguishing them as the old and new method of bucking. In the former way, the cloths have been steeped in the alkaline ley, as before described, and afterwards well washed, are regularly arranged in a large wooden vat, or kieve; a boiler of sufficient capacity is then filled with caustic alkaline ley, which is heated to the temperature of blood. The boiler is then emptied by a stop-cock upon the linens in the kieve, until they are covered with the liquor. After having remained on the cloth for some time, it is run off by a stop-cock, at the bottom of the kieve, into an iron boiler sunk in the ground, from whence it is raised into the boiler by a pump. The heat is now elevated to a higher temperature, and the ley again run upon the goods in the kieve; from whence it is returned into the boiler, as before described: and these operations are continued, always increasing the heat, until the alkaline ley is completely saturated with the coloring matter taken from the cloth, which is known by its having acquired a completely offensive smell, and losing its causticity.

When we consider the effect which heated liquids have upon colored vegetable matter, we shall see the propriety of the temperature of the alkaline ley being gradually increased. Thus, when vegetable substances are hastily plunged into boiling liquids, the coloring matter, in place of being extracted, is, by this higher temperature, fixed into them. It is on this principle that a cook acts in the culinary art, when the green color of vegetables is intended to be preserved: in place of putting them into water when cold, they are kept back until the water is boiling; because it is well known that, in the former case, the green color would be entirely extracted, whereas, when the vegetables are not infused until the water is boiling, the color is completely preserved or fixed. On the same principle, when the temperature of the alkaline ley is gradually raised, the extractive and coloring matter is more effectually taken from the cloth; and the case is reversed when the ley is applied at the boiling temperature: so much so, that linen which has been so unfortunate as t omeet with this treatment, can never be brought to a good white.

When the alkaline ley is saturated with coloring matter, it is run off as unfit for further use in this operation; but, were the goods to be instantly taken out of the kieve, and ccarried to be washed in the dash-wheel while hot, a certain portion of the coloring matter would be again fixed into them, which is extremely difficult to eradicate. In order to prevent this, the most approved bleachers run warm water upon the cloth as soon as the impure ley is run off: this combines with and carries off part of the remaining impurities. A stream of water is then allowed to run upon the cloth in the kieve, until it comes off almost transparent. The goods are now to be taken to the wash stocks, or to the dash-wheel, to be further cleaned, with the greatest efficacy.

The improved mode of bowking was the invention of Mr. John Laurie, a native of Glasgow. It is now practised by many bleachers in Lancashire, some on more perfect plans than others; but we shall give the description of the kind of apparatus apprived of by those whose experience and skill have rendered them the most competent judges.

In fig. 122, A B C D is the wooden kieve, or kier, containing the cloth; C E F D represents the cast-iron boiler, G G , the pump; g K, the pipe of communication between the kieve and the boiler. This pipe has a valve on each of its exremeties; that on the upper extremity, when shut, prevents the ley from running into the boiler, and is regulated by the attendant by means of the rod and gandle g B. The valve at X admits the ley; but, opening inwards, it prevents the steam from escaping through the pipe g K. The boiler has a steam-tight iron cover, g L; and at C D, in the kieve, is a wooden grating, a small distance above the cover of the boiler.

At M O is a broad plate of metal, in order to spread the ley over the cloth. It is hardly necessary to say that the boiler has a furnace, as usual, for similar purposes.

While the ley is at a low temperature, the pump is worked by the mill or steam-engine. When it is sufficiently heated, the elasticity of the steam forces it up through the valves of the pump, in which case it is disjoined from the moving power.

N P is a copper spout, which is removed at the time of taking the cloth out of the kieve,

The boilers A, fig. 123, used in bleaching, are of the common form, having a stop-cock, H G, at bottom, for running off the waste ley. They are commonly made of cast-iron, and are capable of containing from 300 to 600 gallons of water, according to the extent of the business done. In order that the capacity of the boilers may be enlarged, they are formed so as to admit of a crib of wood, strongly hooped, or, what is preferable, of cast-iron, to be fixed to the upper rim or edge of it. To keep the goods from the bottom, where the heat acts most forcibly, a strong iron ring, covered with netting made of stout rope, c, is allowed to rest six or eight inches above the bottom of the boiler. Four double ropes are attached to the ring x, for withdrawing the goods when sufficiently boiled, which have each an eye for admitting hooks from the running tackle of a crane. Where more boilers that, in the range of its sweep, it may withdraw the goods from any of them. For this purpose, the crane turns on pivots at top and bottom; and the goods are raised or lowered at pleasure, with double pulleys and sheaves, by means of a cylinder moved by cast-iron wheels. The lid is secured by the screw bolts D D, and rings B B. F is a safety valve.

The efficacy of Laurie's bowking apparatus is remarkable. While the heat is gradually rising, a current of fresh ley is constantly presented to the different surfaces for saturating the goods, so as to increase its detersive powers. Besides, the manner in which the apparatus is worked, first by the water-wheel or steam-engine, and then by its intrinsic operation, puts it completely out of the power of servants to alight the work; not to speak of the great saving of alkali, which, in many cases, has been found to amount to 25 per cent.

A simple modification of the bowking apparatus is shown in figs. 124, 125, 126; the first being a vertical section, the second, a horizontal section in the line x of the first. It consists of two parts: the upper wide part a a, serves for the reception of the goods, and the lower or pot, b, for holding the ley; c c is an iron grating, shown apart in fig. 126. The grating has numerous square apertures in the middle of the dic, to which the rising pide d is screwed fast. The upper cylinder is formed of cast iron, or of sheet iron well riveted at the edges; or sometimes of wood, this being secured at its under edge into a groove in the top edge of the leypot. The mouth of the cylinder is constructed usually of sheet iron. e e is the fire-grate, whose upper surface is shown in fig. 125; it is made of cast iron, in three pieces. The flame is parted at f, and passes through the two apertures g g, into the flues h h, so as to play round the pot, as is visible in fig. 125; and escapes by two outlets into the chimney. The apertures i i serve for occasionally sleaning out the flues h h, and are, at other times, shut with an iron plate. In the partition f, which separates the two openings g g, and the flues h h, runnun round the pot, there is a circular space at the point marked with k, fig. 125, in which the large pipe for discharging the waste ley is lodged. The upper large cylinder should be incaned in wood, with an intermediate space filled with sawdust, to confine the heat. The action of this apparatus is exactly the same as of that already explained.

Besides the boiling, bucking, and other apparatus above described, the machinery and utensils used in bleaching are various, according to the business done by the bleacher. When linen or heavy cotton cloths are whitened, and the business is carried on to a considerable extent, the machines are both complicated and expensive. They consist chiefly of a water-wheel, sufficiently powerful for giving motion to the wash-stocks, dash-wheels, squeezers, &c., with any other operations where power is required.

Figs. 127, 128, represent a pair of wash-stocks. A A are called the stocks, or feet. They are suspended on iron pivots at H, and receive their motion from wipers on the revolving shaft C. The cloth is laid in at D, and by the alternate strokes of the feet, and the curved from of the turnhead X, the cloth is washed and gradually turned. At the same time, an abundant stream of water rushes on the cloth throughout holes in the upper part of the turnhead. Wash-stocks are much used in Scotland and in Ireland. In the latter country they are often made with double feet, suspended above and below two turnheads, and wrought with cranks instead of wipers. Wash-stocks, properly constructed, make from 24 to 30 strokes per minute.

This mode of washing is now entirely given up in Lancashire, where a preference is given to what are called dash-wheels and squeezers. The dash are small water-wheels, the inside of which is divided into four compartments, and closed up, leaving only a hole in each compartment for putting in the cloth.

There are, besides, smaller openings for the five admission and egrees of the water employed in cleansing. The cloth, by the motion of the wheel, is raised up n one part of the revolution of the wheel; while, by its own weight, it falls in another. This kind of motion is very effectual in washing the cloth, while, at the same time, it does not injure its strength. The plan, however, where economy of water is of any importance, is very objectionable; because the wheel must move at by far too great a velocity to act to advantage as a water-wheel.

The wash or dash-wheel, now driven by power in all good bleach and printworks, is represented in fig. 129, upon the left side in a back view, and upon the right side in a front view (the sketch being halved). Fig. 130 is a ground plan.

a a is the washing-wheel; b b its shafts-ends; c c their brass bearings or plummer-blocks, supported upon the iron pillars d d. The frame is made of strong beams of wood, e e, bound together by cross bars with mortises. f f, two of the circular apertures, each leading to a quadrantal compartment within the dash-wheel. In the back view (the left-hand half of the figure) the brass grating g g , of the curvilinear form, is seen, t hrough which the hets of water are admitted into the cavity of the wheel; h h, are the round orifices, through which the foul water runs off, as each quadrant passes the lower part of its revolution; i, a water-pipe, with a stop-cock for regulating the washing-jets; k k, the lever for throwing the driving-crab l, or coupling-box, into or out of gear with the shaft of the wheel. This machine is also constructed, that the water-cock is opened or shut by the same leverage which throws the wheel into or out of gear. m, a wheel, fixed upon the round extremity of the shaft of the dash-wheel, which works into the toothed pinion connected with the prime mover. When the end of the lever k, whose fork embraces the coupling-box upon the square part of the shaft, is pushed forwards or backwards, it shifts the clutch into or out of gear with the toothed wheel m. In the latter case, this wheel turns with ts pinion without affecting the dash-wheel. n n, holdfasts fixed upon the wooden frame, to which the boards o o are attached, for preventing the water from being thrown about by the centrifugal force.

The dash-wheel is generally from 6 to 7 feet in diameter, about 30 inches wide, and requires the power of about two horses to drive it.

From one to two pieces of calico may be done at once in each quadrantal compartment, in the course of 8 or 10 minutes; hence, in a day of 13 hours, with such wheels 1200 pieces of yard-wide goods may be washed.

After the process of washing by the dash-wheel, the water is expressed from the cloth by means of the squeezers already described.

Bleaching of Linen. - Linen contains much more coloring matter than cotton. The former loses nearly a third of its weight, while the later loses not more than a twentieth. The fibres of flax possess, in the natural condition, a light gray, yellow, or blond color. By the operation of rotting, or, as it is commonly called, water-retting, which is employed to enable the textile filaments to be separated from the boon, or woody matter, the color becomes darker, and, in consequence probably of the putrefaction of the green matter of the bark, the coloring substance appears. Hence, flax prepared without rotting is much paler, and its coloring matter may be in a great measure removed by washing with soap, leaving the filaments nearly white. Mr. James Lee obtained a patent in 1812, as having discovered that the process of steeping and dew-retting is unnecessary, and that flax and hemp will not only dress, but will produce an equal if not greater quantity of more durable fibre, when cleaned in the dry way. Mr. Lee stated that, when hemp or flax plants are ripe, the farmer has nothing more to do than to pull, spread, and dry them int the sun, and then to break them by proper machinery. This promising improvement has apparently come to naught, having been many years abandoned by the patentee himself, though he was favored with a special act of parliament, which permitted the specification of his patent to remain sealed up for seven years, contrary to the general practice in such cases.

The substance which gives steeped flax its peculiar tint is insoluble in boiling water, in acids, and in alkalis; but it possesses the property of dissolving in caustic or carbonated alkaline leys, when it has possessed the means of dehydrogenation by previous exposure to oxygen. Hemp is, in this respect, analogous to flax. The bleaching of both depends upon this action of oxygen, and upon the removal of the acidified dye, by means of an alkali. This process is effected generally by the influence of air in combination with light and moisture acting on the linen cloth laid upon the grass: but chlorine will effect the same object more expeditiously. In no case, however, is it possible to acidify the color completely at once, but there must be many alternate exposures to oxygen or chlorine, and alkali, before the flax becomes white. It is this circumstance alone which renders the bleaching of linen an apparently comliented business.

Having made these preliminary observations with regard to the method of applying the alkaline leys used in bleaching linen cloth, I shall now bring the whole into one point of view, by detailing the connexion of these processes, as carried on at a bleach-field, which has uniformly been successful in returning the cloth of a good white, and has otherwise given satisfaction to its employers; and I shall only remark, that I by no means hold it up as the nest process which may be employed, as every experienced bleacher knows that processes must be varied, not only according to existing circumstances, but also according to the nature of the linens operated upon.

In order to avoid repetition, where washing is mentioned, it must always be understood that the linen is taken to the wash-stocks or dash-wheel, and washed well in them for some hours. This part of the work can never be overdone; and on its being properly executed between every part of the bucking, boiling, steeping in the chloride of lime solution, and souring, not a little of the success of bleaching depends. By exposure is meant, that the linen cloth is taken and spread upon the bleach-green for four, six, or eight days, according as the routine of business calls for the return of the cloth, in order to undergo further operations.

A parcel of goods consists of 360 pieces of those linens which are called Britannias. Each pieve is 35 yards long; and they weigh, on an average, 10 lbs. each: the weight of the parcel is, in consequence, about 3600 lbs. avoirdupois weight. The linens are first washed, and then steeped in waste alkaline ley, as formerly described under these proce[--]es; they then undergo the following operations: -
1st, Nucked with 60 lbs. pearl-ashes, wased, exposed on the field.
2d, Ditto 80 ditto ditto ditto ditto.
3d, Ditto 90 potashes ditto ditto ditto.
4th, Ditto 80 ditto ditto ditto ditto.
5th, Bucked with 80 lbs. pearl-ashes, washed, exposed on the field.
6th, Ditto 50 ditto ditto ditto ditto.
7th, Ditto 70 ditto ditto ditto ditto.
8th, Ditto 80 ditto ditto ditto ditto.
9th, Soured one night in dilute sulphuric acid, washed.
10th, Bucked with 50 lbs. pearl-ashes, washed, exposed on the field.
11th, Immersed in the chloride of potash or lime 12 hours.
12th, Boiled with 30 lbs. pearl-ashes, washed, exposed on the field.
13th, Ditto 30 ditto ditto ditto ditto.
14th, Soured, washed.

The linens are then taken to the rubbing-board, and well rubbed with a strong lather of black soap, after which they are well washed in pure spring water. At this period they are carefully examined, and those which are fully bleached are laid aside to be blued, and made up for the market; while those which are not fully white are returned to be boiled, and steeped in the chloride of lime or potash; then soured, until they are fully white.

By the above process, 690 lbs. weight of alkali is taken to bleach 360 pieces of linen, each piece consisting of 35 yards in length; so that the expenditure of alkali would be somewhat less than 2 lbs. for each piece, were it not that some parts of the linens are not fully whitened, as above noted. Two pounds of alkali may therefore be stated as the average quantity employed for bleaching each piece of goods.

The method of bleaching linens in Ireland is similar to the foregoing; any alteration in the process depending upon the judgment of the bleacher in increasing or diminishing the quantity of alkali used. But it is common, at most bleach-fields, to steep the linens in the chloride of lime or potash at an early stage of the process, or after the goods have undergone the fifth or sixth operation of bucking. By this means those parts of the flax which are most difficult to bleach are more easily acted upon the alkali; and, as before noticed, souring early in very dilute sulphuric acid, assists greatly in forwarding the whitening of the linens. Mr. Grimshaw, calico-printer, near Belfast, was the first who recommended early souring, which has since been very generally adopted.

The bleaching of Silk - Silk in its raw state, as spun by the worm, is either white or yellow of various shades, and is covered with a varnish, which gives it stiffness and a degree of elasticity. For the greater number of purposes to which silk is applied, it must be deprived of this native covering, which was long considered to be a sort of gum. The operation by which this coloring matter is removed is called scouring, cleansing, or boiling. A great many different processes have been proposed for freeing the silk fibres from all foreign impurities, and for giving it the utmost whiteness, lustre, and plinney; but none of the new plans has superseded, with any advantage, the one practised of old, which consists essentially in steeping the silk in a warm solution of soap; a circumstance placed beyond all doubt by the interesting experiments of M. Roard. The alkalis, or alkaline salts, act in a marked manner upon the varsnish of silk, and effect its complete solution; the prolonged agency of boiling water, alone answers the same purpose; but nothing agrees so well with the nature of silk, and preserves its brilliancy and suppleness so perfectly, as a rapid boil with soap-water. It would appear, however, that the Chinese do not employ this method, but something that is preferable. Probably the superior beauty of their white silk may be owing to the superiority of the raw material.

The most ancient method of scouring silk consists of three operations. For the first, or the ungumming, thirty per cent. of soap is first of all dissolved in clean river water by a boiling heat; then the temperature is lowered by the addition of a little cold water, by withdrawing the fire, or at least by damping it. The hanks of silk, suspended upon horizontal poles over the boiler, are now plunged into a soapy solution, kept at a heat somewhat under ebullition, which is an essential point; for if hotter, the soap would attack the substance of the silk, and not only dissolve a portion of it, but deprive the whole of its lustre. The portions of the hanks plunged in the bath get scoured by degrees; the varnish and the coloring matter come away, and the silk assumes its proper whiteness and pliancy. Whenever this point is attained, the hanks are turned round upon the poles, so that the portion formerly in the air may be also subjected to the bath. As soon as the whole is completely ungummed, they are taken out, wrung by the peg, and shaken out; after which, the next step, called the boil, is commenced. Into bags of coarse canvass, called pockets, about 25 lbs. or 35 lbs. of ungummed silk are enclosed, and put into a similar bath with the preseding, but with a smaller proportion of soap, which may therefore be raised to the boiling point without any danger of destroying the silk. The ebullition is to be kept up for an hour and a half, during which time the bags must be frequently stirred, lest those near the bottom should suffer an undue degree of heat. The silk experiences in these two operations a loss of about 25 per cent. of its weight.

The third and last scouring operation is tintended to give the silk a slight tinge, which renders the white more agreeable, and better adapted to its various uses in trade. In this way we distinguish the China white, which has a faint cast of red, the silver white, the azure white, and the thread white. To produce these different shades, we begn by preparing a soap-water so strong as to lather by agitation; we then add to it, for the China white, a little annotto, mixing it carefully in; and then passing the silk properly through it, till it has acquired the wished for tint. As to the other shades, we need only azure them more or less with a fine indigo, which has been previously washed several times in hot water, and reduced to powder in a mortar. It is then diffused through boiling water, allowed to settle for a few minutes, and the supernatant liquid, which contains only the finer particles, is added to the soap bath in such proportion as may be requisite. The silk, on being taken out of this bath, must be wrung well, and stretched upon perches to dry; after which it is introduced into the sulphuring chamber, if it is to be made use of in the white state. At Lyons, however, no soap is employed at the third operation: after the boil, the silk is washed, sulphured, and azured, by passing through very clear river water properly blued.

The silks intended for the manufacture of blonds an gauzes are not subjected to the ordinary scouring process, because it is essential, in these cases, for them to preserve their natural stiffness. We must therefore select the raw silk of China, or the whitest raw silks of other countries; steep them, rinse them in a bath of pure water, or in one containing a little soap; wring them, expose them to the vapor of sulphur, and then pass them through the azure water. Sometimes this process is repeated.

Before the memoir of M. Roard appeared, extremely vague ideas were entertained about the composition of the native varnish of silk. He has shown that this substance, so far from being of a gummy nature, as had been believed, may be rather compared to bees' wax, with a species of oil, and a coloring matter, which exists only in raw silks. It is contained in them to the amount from 23 to 24 per cent., and forms the portion of weight which is lost in the ungumming. It possesses, however, some of the properties of vegetable gums, though it differs essentially as to others. In a dry mass, it is friable and has a vitreous fracture; it is soluble in water, and affords a solution which lathers like soap; but when thrown upon burning coals, it does not soften like gum, but burns with the exhalation of a fetid odor. Its solution, when left exposed to the open air, at first of a golden yellow, becomes soon greenish, and ere long putrefies, as a solution of animal matter would do in similar circumstances. M. Roard assures us that the city of Lyons alone could furnish several thousand quintals of this substance per annum, were it applicable to any useful purpose.

The yellow varnish is of a resinous nature, altogether insoluble in water, very soluble in alcohol, and contains a little volatile oil, which gives it a rank smell. The color of this resin is easily dissipated, either by exposure to the sun or by the action of chlorine: it forms about one fifty-fifth of its weight.

Bees' wax exists also in all the sorts of silk, even in that of China; but the whiter the filaments, the less wax do they contain.

M. Rouard has observed that, if the silk be exposed to the soap baths for some time after it has been stripped of its foreign matters, it begins to lose body, and has its valuable qualities impaired. It becomes dull, stiff, and colored in consequnece of the solution more or less considerable of its substance; a solution which takes place in all liquids, and even in boiling water. It is for this reason that silks cannot be alumed with heat; and that they lose some of their lustre in being dyed brown, a color which requires a boiling hot bath. The best mode, therefore, of acoiding these inconveniences, is to boil the silks in the soap-bath no longer than is absolutely necessary for the scouring process, and to expose them in the various dyeing operations to as moderate temperature as may be requisite to communicate the color. When silks are to be dyed, much less soap should be used in the cleansing, and very little for the dark colors. According to M. Roard, raw silks, white or yellow, may be completely scoured in one hour, with 15 lbs. of water for one of silk, and a suitable proportion of soap. The soap and the silk should be put into the bath half an hour before its ebullition, and the latter should be turned about frequently. The dull silks, in which the varnish has already undergone some alteration, never acquire a fine white until they are exposed to sulphureous acid gas. Exposure to light has also a very good effect in whitening silks, and is had recouse to, it is acid, with advantage by the Chinese.

Carbonate of soda has been proposed to be used instead of soap in scouring silk, but it has never come into use. The Abbé Collomb, in 1785, scoured silk by eight hours' boiling in simple water, and he found the silks bleached in this way to be stronger than by soap, but they are not nearly so white. A patent has been taken out in England for bleaching them by steam, of which an account will be found under the article SILK.

It appears that the Chinese do not use soap in producing those fine white silks which are imported into Europe. Michen de Grubbens, who resided long at Canton, saw and practised himself the operation there, which be published in the memoirs of the Academy of Stockholm in 1803. It consists in preparing the silk with a species of white beans, smaller than the Turkey beans, with some wheat flour, common salt, and water. The proportions are 5 parts of beans, 5 of salt, 6 of flour, common salt, and water. The beans must be previously washed. It is difficult to discover what chemical action can occur between that decoction and the varnish of raw silk; possibly some acid may be developed, which may soften the gummy matter, and facilitate its separation.

Baumé contrived a process which does not appear to have received the sanction of experience, but which may put us in the right way. He macerates the yellow raw silk in a mixture of alcohol at 46° (sp. gr. 0837) and one thirty-second part of pure muriatic acid. At the end of forty-eight hours, it is as white as possile, and the more so, the better the quality of the silk. The loss which it suffers in this menstruum is only one fortieth; showing that nothing but the coloring matter is abstracted. The expense of this menstruum is the great obstacle to Baumé's process. The alcohol, however, might be in a very great measure recovered, by saturating the acid with chalk, and redistillation.

Bleaching of Wool. - Wool, like the preceding fibrous matter, is covered with a peculiar varnish, which impairs its qualities, and prevents it from being employed in the raw state for the purposes to which it is well adapted when it is scoured. The English give the name yolk, and the French suint, to that native coat: it is a fatty unctuous matter, of a strong smell, which apparently has its chief origin in the cutaneous perspiration of the sheep; but which, by the agency of external bodies, may have undergone some changes which modify its constitution. It results from the experiments of M. Vauguelin, that the yolk is composed of several substances; namely, 1, a soap with basis of potash, which constitutes the greater part of it; 2, of a notable quantity of acetate of potash; 3, of a small quantity of carbonate, and a trace of muriate, of potash; 4, of a little lime in an unknown state of combination; 5, of a species of sebaceous matter, and an animal substance to which the odor is due. There are several other accidental matters present on sheeps' wool.

The proportion of yolk is variable in different kinds of wool, but in general it is more abundant the finer the staple; the loss by scouring being 45 per cent. for the finest wools and 35 per cent. for the coarse.

The yolk, on account of its soapy nature, dissolves readily in water, with the exception of a little free fatty matter, which easily separates from the filaments, and remains floating in the liquor. It would thence appear sufficient to expose the wools to simple washing in a stream of water; yet experience shows that this method never answers so well as that usually adopted, which consists in steeping the wool for some time in simple warm water, or in warm water mixed with a fourth of stale urine. From 15 to 20 minutes of contact are sufficient in this case, if we heat the bath as warm as the hand can bear it, and stir it well with a rod. At the end of this time the wool may be taken out, set to drain, then placed in large baskets, in order to be completetly rinsed in a stream of water.

It is generally supposed that putrid urine acts on the wool by the ammonia which it contains, and that this serves to saponify the remainder of the fatty matter not combined with the potash. M. Vauquelin is not of this opinion, because he found that wool steeped in water, with sal ammoniac and quick lime, is not better scoured than an equal quantity of wool treated with mere water. He was hence led to conclude that the good effects of putrefied urine might be ascribed to anything else besides the ammonia, and probably to the urea. Fresh urine contains a free acid, which, by decomposing the potash soap of the yolk, counteracts the scouring operation.

If wools are better scoured in a small quantity of water than in a great stream, we can conceive that this circumstance must depend upon the nature of the yolk, which in a concentrated solution, acts like a saponaceous compound, and thus contributes to remove the free fatty partcles which adhere to the filaments. It should also be observed that too long a continuance of the wool in the yolk water, hurts its quality very much, by weakening its cohesion, causing the filaments to swell, and even to split. It is said then to have lost its nerve. Another circumstance in the scouring of wool, what should always be attended to, is never to work the filaments together to such a degree as to occasion their felting; but in agitating we must merely push them slowly round in the vessel, or press them gently under the feet. Were it at all felted, it would neither card nor spin well.

As the heat of boiling water is apt to decompose woollen fibres, we should be careful never to raise the temperature of the scouring bath to near this point; nor, in fact, to exceed 140°F. Some authors recommend the use of alkaline of soapy baths for scouring wool, but practical people do not deviate from the method above described.

When the washing is completed, all the wool which is to be sent white into marked, must be exposed to the action of sulphurous acid, either in a liquid or a gaseous state. In the latter ease, sulphur is burned in a close chamber, in which the wools are hung up or spread out; in the former, the wools are plunged into water, moderately impregnated with the acid. (See SULPHURING.) Exporusre on the grass may also contribute to the bleaching of wool. Some fraudulent dealers are accused of dipping woold in butter-milk, or chalk and water, in order to whiten them and increase their weight.

Wool is sometimes whitened in the fleece, and sometimes in the state of yarn; the latter affording the best means of operating. It has been observed that the wool cut from certain parts of the sheep, especially from the groins, never bleaches well.

After sulphuring, the wool has a harsh crispy feel, which may be removed by a weak soap bath. To this also the wool comber has recourse when he wishes to cleanse and whiten his wools to the utmost. He generally uses a soft of potash soap, and after the wool is well soaked in the warm soap bath, with gentle pressure he wrings it well with the help of a hook, fixed at the end of his washing tub, and hangs it up to dry.

Bleaching of rags, and paste for paper making. - After the rags are reduced to what is called half stuff, they should have the greater part of the floating water run off, leaving just enought to form a stir-about mass. Into this a clear solution of chloride of lime should be poured, of such a strenght as is suited to the color of the rags, which should have been previously sorted; and the engine is kept going so as to churn the rags with the bleaching agent. After an hour, the water may be returned upon the engine, and the washing of the paper resumed. From two to four pounds of good chloride of lime are reckoned sufficient to bleach one hundred weight of rags.

When the rags consist of dyed or printed cottons, after being well washed and reduced to half stuff, they should be put into a large cask or butt, supported horizontally by iron axles upon cradle bearinzs, so that it may be made to revolve like a barrechura. For each hundred weight of the colored rags, take a solutions containing from four to eight pounds of chloride of lime; add it to the liquid mixture in the butt along with half a pound of sulphuric acid for every pound of the chloride; and after inserting the bung, or rather the square valve, set the vessel in slow revolution backwards and forwards. In a short time the rags will be colorless. The rags and paper paste ought to be very well washed, to expel all the clorine, and perhaps a little muriatic acid might be used with advantage to dissolve out all the calcareous matter, a portion of which is apt to remain in the paper, and to operate injuriously upon both the pens and the ink. Some of the French paper manufacturers bleach the paste with chlorine gas. Paper prepared from such paste, well washed, is not apt to give a brown tint to maps, as that carelessly bleached with chloride of lime is known to do.