31.8.20

A Good Black Varnish for Iron-Work

Manufacturer and Builder 1, 1890

A Good Black Varnish for Iron-Work, says an exchange, is to take eight pounds of asphaltum and fuse it in an iron kettle, then add two gallons of boiled linseed oil, one pound of litharge, half a pound of sulphate of zinc (add these slowly or it will fume over) and boil them for about three hours. Then add one and a half pounds of gum amber, and boil for two hours longer, or until the mass will become quite thick when cool. After this it should be thinned with terpentine to the proper consistency.

30.8.20

The Linotype.

Manufacturer and Builder 1, 1890



The Linotype, with which our readers are already familiar, from the elaborate description that appeared in one of the recent impressions of the Manufacturer and Builder , has lately been made the subject of an examination by the Committee on Science and the Arts of the Franklin Institute, and with the result that the machine has the cordial commendation of this distinguished body of experts, and has been recommended as worthy of the highest recognition in its gift — to wit, the award of the Elliott Cresson Gold Medal, which is only rarely bestowed, and then upon inventions or discoveries of unusual merit. This acknowledgement must prove especially gratifying to the inventor and the company interested in the manufacture of the Linotype, since neither he nor they were aware that the machine was under investigation, until after the committee's representatives had personally visited the factory in Brooklyn and made the examination on which the report was based.

The report of the committee is of a most exhaustive character, covering eleven printed pages, and illustrated by five large folding plates of engravings exhibiting the development of the machine by successive steps of invention to its present highly perfected state. We desire in this reference to the subject, simply to present to our readers the essential matters contained in the report, and the conclusions reached, referring to our previous article for details of mechanical construction. The following is, accordingly, abstracted from the committee's report:

The Linotype is a machine involving many inventions. Its purpose is to produce lines of printing characters, instead of detached type for printing, and to do no rapidly, and thus supersede the usual work of compositors in printing. The machine involves a mechanism controlled by a keyboard, resembling the keyboard of a typewriter, having upon it every printing character required from a font of types. This keyboard controls the delivery and the placing of matrices so as to spell the several words; and, after the machine has automatically spaced the words apart so as to justify, the line of characters is cast, and the sides are dressed, no that a series of such lines may be assembled in columns to produce the desired printing forms.

The illustration shows the machine to consist of a series of upright, fiat, parallel tubes of brass, of such size that the matrices can slide down them freely, which tubes are arranged in a series in front of the operator, and above and back of the keyboard. The several fiat tubes are of graduated lengths, so that when the upper ends are at the same level, the line of the lower ends inclines upwardly towards Lhe right hand. Beneath the ends of these tubes is a trough, provided at the right or upper end with a tube, from which a blast of air is constantly forced. The matrices are held in position in the several tubes by a pawl, upon which they rest, and when wanted, are released by the retraction of the pawl by pressure on a key appropriate to the tube and matrix contained therein, so that to deliver any matrix into the inclined trough, an operator has only to depress the key bearing the mark of that character, and the blast of air drives the matrix downwardly into the line ready to form the mold. The setting of type proceeds regularly in this manner by playing upon the keyboard, and the spaces between the words are filled by slides, so that wherever a space is required, a double wedge is ineerted. The completed line of matrices passes from the trough between two plates, which are clamped slightly, so as to bring them into correct line.

They are then released, and the wedges are automatically forced by the machine between the matrices so as to press them apart and force the matrices at the beginning and end of the line into con. tact with stops, which limit the length of the line. The taper of the several wedges being the same, and all being moved at the same rate between the matrices, an equal spacing between the several words is insured. The clamps are now tightened upon the matrices and metal is pumped forcibly into the molds. Upon the edges of the matrices are formed characters, which are presented to the eye of the compositor, so that he can read each character in the matrices as fast as he sets them up, and should lie detect any error, he can remove the wrong matrix and replace it with a correct one before passing to the casting operation. After casting the strip, or line, of type in the manner described, it is discharged between scraping surfaces, which renders it fit for immediate use. Time matrices are now released, and carried to the distributer, where they are suspended from a bar having graduated strips formed upon it, which fit into notches formed in the matrix. These notches are of such form as to hold the matrix engaged until each one comes over its proper tube. The differences of form, while not easily appreciable, are such that no matrix can drop off the slide into the tube beneath it until it has reached the proper place.

Connected to the upper part of each of these tubes is a strip forming an electrode of an electric battery circuit, and a second strip forming the opposite electrode. These electrodes remain open during the normal working of the machine, but should any matrix be stuck or fouled in entering one of the tubes, or turn into the wrong position, it produces a contact with the other electrode, and, operating an electro-magnet by the current so controlled, stops the motive power of the machine.

The report then proceeds to describe a minute detail of the mechanical features of the machine, following the numerous patent specifications in chronological order, and concludes as follows:

The committee visited the factory in Brooklyn, and in. spected the operation of the machine and the plant for its preparation. There is shown in its manufacture a most unusual and extraordinary amount of ingenuity, not only in the machine itself, but in the appliances for producing it, and insuring accuracy in this several parts. The perfection of work accomplished by it, and the rapidity of its work, have been repeatedly reported in various publications. As a quick means for preparing forms for news, book and pamphlet printing, the committee believe these inventions deserving of the highest commendation. . . . In conclusion, for the rapidity and excellence of its work and for the economy resulting in the class of work to which it is applicable, the committee feel justified in recommending the award of the Elliot Cresson Medal to the inventor for the ingenuity displayed in this machine and system."

We may add to the abstract given above, the statement that the Linotype is now regularly installed in a number of newspaper establishments in the United States and abroad, doing there the work of compositors, and also that it is rapidly growing in favor for book work, as the large number of important books set up with it indicates.

The Linotype has in reality effected a profound revolution in the printing art.

29.8.20

Uusin tapa valmistaa erivärisiä villasekotuksia (melangeja).

Kutoma- ja paperiteollisuus 10, 1908

Tähän asti on erivärisiä villasekotuksia valmistettu siten, että tummaksi värjättyyn villaan on sekotettu joko aivan valkeaa tai vaaleaksi värjättyä villaa. Tällä seikalla on kuitenkin se epäkohtansa, että näin melerattu villa on vaaleaan osaansa nähden vähemmän valoa kestävää ja sekotettuna siihen valkeaa tämä tulee liian räikeänä esiin.

Äskettäin on väritehdas Leop. Cassella & Co tehnyt sen havainnon, että vaaleammaksi jäävä villa aivan hyvästi voidaan värjätä sopivilla metallisuoloilla. Näin saaduilla värjäyksillä kun on suuri kyky kestää valoa. Tällaisina suoloina suosittavat he kromi ja kuparisuoloja, jotka sidotaan villalle joko muuriais- tai oksalihapolla. Keksijäin mukaan saadaan esim. meleraukseen varsin sopiva vihertävältä vivahtava väri värjäämällä villa:
2 % kaliumibikromatia
2 % kuparisulfatia
3 % muuriaishappoa.

Villaa käsitellään tässä hauteessa 1½-2 tuntia keittäen ja on liemen tultava aivan kirkkaaksi Mikäli tiedossamme on, on samasta väriä aljettu käyttää Saksan sotamiesten kenttäpuvussa.

28.8.20

Löysän puuvillan värjäämisestä.

Kutoma- ja paperiteollisuus 10, 1908

Nykyaikaista kutomateollisuutta tuskin voi enään ajatellakaan ilman kudossyiden löysänä värjäämistä. Siksi suuren käytön on tämä menettelytapa siinä nykyään saavuttanut. Ja miten erimieliä siihen nähden muuten oltaneehin, tosiasiaksi jää, että sillä suuresti voittaa aikaa ja tuotantoa. Joka seikka tietenkin on suuresti riippuvainen siitä, millaisia laitteita eli kojeita kulloinkin on käytettävissä. Sillä koneteollisuus on keksimässä yhä uusia.

Jos tällä erää jätämme asian koneellisen puolen sikseen, palataksemme siihen joskus toisten, on meidän käytettäviin väreihin nähden sanottava, että kaikki ne värit ovat sopivia käytettäväksi, jotka helposti ottavat liuetakseen. Siinä tämän värjäystavan päävaatimuksia. Kun näin on, käy helposti käsittäminen, että kova eli kalkkisuoloja sisältävä vesi ei voi tulla kysymykseenkään, koska se vaikeasti liuottaa värejä ja sitäpaitsi voi ne kalkkisuolayhdistyksinä saostaa.

Tullaksemme nyt varsinaiseen aineeseemme löysään puuvillavärjäykseen, on n. s. substantivisten värien käyttöön nähden sanottava, että niitä mieluummin värjätään puisissa tai kuparisissa laitteissa. Vaan tummiin värisävyihin on rautainen sopiva. Mitä lisäkeaineisiin liemessä tulee, pitää niihin nähden paikkansa ne säännöt, jotka lankojen ja kankaiden värjäyksestä ovat tunnettuja. Ja jos vanhoja väriliemiä tahdotaan säilyttää, on niitä uudelleen käytettäessä pidettävä vaari siitä, ettei suoloja tule liemeen liiaksi. Päinvastaisessa tapauksessa voi seurauksena olla väriaineen saostuminen ja epätasainen värjäys. Paraiten tutkitaan tämä seikka areometrillä. 4° Bé väkevässä liemessä on suoloja tummiakin värejä varten enemmän kuin tarpeeksi.

Emäksisiä värejä käytettänee käytännöllisistä syistä löysää puuvillaa värjättäessä vähemmin. Mutta sitä suuremman käytön ovat n. s. rikkivärit saaneet. Kojeet, joissa näitä värejä värjätään eivät saa sisältää missään muodossa kuparia. Ei siis messinkiäkään. Mutta kyllä varsin hyvin nikkeliä.

Tavallisissa oloissa saa yhdessä tunnissa rikkiväreillä hyvän pesoa ja valoa kestävän värjäyksen. Liiallista suolan käyttöä on vältettävä. Vanhoista väriliemistä riittää 3° 5° Bé väkevä liemi vaaleita ja 6° - 8° Bé tummia värjäyksiä varten.

27.8.20

Seaside Painting.

Manufacturer and Builder 9, 1893

A paper was recently read on this subject by Paul F. Brazo, before members of the Master Painters' Association of New Jersey. The author said:

I will relate what I have observed, experienced, and practiced for the past thirteen years on the ocean front at Long Branch. In the first place we have to contend with a great amount of dampness and fogs, which always leave a residue of salt on the surface of the work to be painted or otherwise treated. So it follows that we must bo on the alert to know that the work is perfectly dry; especially new work. It was only after I had several jobs badly blistered and spoiled that I concluded to seek a remedy, and my remedy was this: To leave all piazza ceilings, floors, and clapboards under piazzas and porches until ten o'clock, or later, in the day, if possible to do so. I have followed this rule, and have had no trouble in that direction since.

As to the salt on the surface of the work — where it was practicable, and the work was not to be hurried, I had it washed thoroughly a day or so before applying the priming coat. I then primed with pure lead, used thinnings composed of onethird turpentine and twothirds raw oil, with onehalf pint of good japan to the gallon, in shade of color as near to the finishing color as possible. My object in keeping the priming the same shade as finishing is that it makes the work more solid, and as the priming coat has to stand at least three days or more before applying the finishing coat, and as it generally makes its own color, or, in other words, the priming darkens, it follows where we put on finishing. there is just enough difference to be perceptible and comfortable to work over without showing brush marks, etc.

I have also observed that a combination of pure lead and French zinc is the best, using good japan and raw oil only as a binder. For finishing coats, the zinc and lead should be in the proportion of 25 and 75 per cent. pure lead—no pulp lead — as we have all the moisture on the surface that is necessary. At all times I use the French zinc, for the reason that it does not contain sulphur to such an extent as our Americ a n zinc, consequently does not bleach my coloring matter so quickly.

I particularly avoid using others or other earth paints, except in priming coats, for I have observed that all buildings where ocher was used as a stainer, no matter what grade it was, or what lead was used in combination with it on the sea coast, were in all cases attacked with the painters' worst enemy — mildew; particularly when painters were foolish enough to use boiled oil as a means of conveyance. On the contrary, I have observed that lead, zinc, chrome yellow, and their kindred pigments, with raw oil and japan as a binder are not molested by mildew, and that they wear longer, hold their luster better, and instead of bleaching in spots and mildewing, will wear uniform; in fact, grow darker in course of time, and in all cases give your customers good satisfaction.

I have noticed that all, or nearly all, of those who come here from the cities or from towns away from the coast use boiled oil, and that all of their work goes wrong in the first six months, and makes a difficult job for the painter who follows them to do good work.

A word about shellac work in our damp air may do some fellow craftsman good. Do not do any shellacking in the early morning. If you must do it in damp weather, or in the early part of the day, have your men take a piece of cheese cloth, dampened with raw oil, and rub dry, and the work will not turn white, as I see some of the cottages at present which I have been called in to remedy; that is if you cannot varnish immediately after shellacking, or if a shellac finish only is required.

26.8.20

Lacquer.

Manufacturer and Builder ?, 1893

The ordinary lacquer of commerce is composed of spirits of wine and clear shellac in the proportion of 1 ounce of shellac to 1 pint of spirit. Heat should not be applied, but the ingredients placed in a glass-stoppered bottle and shaken from time to time until the shellac is thoroughly dissolved or combined with the spirit. Various tints may be given the lacquer by adding small quantities of aniline colors.

25.8.20

Brass Coloring.

Manufacturer and Builder 8, 1893

A fine black color, which can be varied to a light brown, can be produced on brass by treatment with an ammoniacal copper solution made by dissolving one part of copper nitrate in two parts of ammonia of specific gravity 0.96, while keeping the solution cool. The brass articles, which must be carefully cleaned, acquire a light tone on first being immersed, but on exposure for some hours become deep black. The treatment can be interrupted when the desired tint is reached. A luster can be put on the articles by rub. bing with a little wax or vaseline. The process can be varied and other color effects obtained by treatment of the article after the development of the black color with very dilute hydrochloric acid, which dissolves the coating gradually and thus modifies the tint. The composition of the brass also has an influence on the result, and the coloring produced recalls that seen on Japanese bronze, which has possibly been obtained by a similar method.

24.8.20

Color Blindness.

Manufacturer and Builder 8, 1893

In a recently-published report issued by the Marine Department of the British Board of Trade, some curious and valuable information is given with regard to the proportion of color blindness in the mercantile marine of that country. The number of candidates who presented themselves for examination for certificates as masters and mates during the previous year, was 4,688, of whom 31 were rejected because of their inability to distinguish colors. Of this number, 21 insisted that red was green, and others asserted that red was some other color than either red or green — usually drab. Candidates to the number of 201 mistook drab for green, 64 mistook drab for pink, and others asserted that it was white or yellow or red. As for pink, 106 persons said it was green, 32 that it was drab, 17 that it red, and 34 that it was something else. With regard to green, 32 averred that it was white, 42 that it was pink, 33 that it was drab, and 28 that it was red. It appears, however, as before stated, that only 31 were entirely disqualified, as their inability to distinguish colors was so great that it would probably lead to disaster on the high seas, while in the majority of instances the defect was a particular one, and consisted rather in the inability to distinguish one or two colors than in the inability to distinguish all colors, save black and white.

At the same time the figures show how common color blindness is. No exhaustive experiments have ever been carried out with the view of ascertaining the proportion of sufferers from the defect, but it has been asserted on good authority that one individual in thirty is partially, and one individual in fifty, is wholly unable to distinguish between colors. The defect is believed to be more common among men than among women, one writer on the subject holding that superior color perception on the part of the female has been transmitted and intensified. Another adds: "If the condition is an inherited one, then possibly evolutionists may be able to explain the female superiority in this respect by reference to farback ages when selection of their partners was, theoretically, a marked duty and privilege of the weaker sex." It may be remarked that savages of both sexes seem to be more favorably endowed than civilized man in regard to the color sense. Their fine perception of color is manifest in their war paint, their crowns of brilliant flowers, and still more brilliant birds' feathers, their brightly-stained skins and parti-colored dresses, all in marked contrast to the more civilized dwellers in the temperate zones.

Color blindness is an important question, not as bearing on navigation alone, but upon every kind of employment in which the security of life and property depends upon accuracy in distinguishing signals. Defective eyesight has been responsible for many serious accidents, and ability to distinguish at least the primary colors ought to be an indispensable condition for those intrusted with the direction of vessels and employed in the traffic on railways.

23.8.20

Celluloid Pens.

Manufacturer and Builder ?, 1893

It is stated that in France pens for writing are now being made from celluloid in the following manner: Thin sheets manufactured from celluloid, ebonite, vulcanite, etc., corresponding with the outlines of a pen, are stamped out, punched, and finally laid in a softened condition in a press that has been heated, by which means they receive the desired shape. After being cooled in a water bath, the pens thus obtained are split with a knife.

22.8.20

Rapid Blue Printing in Cloudy Weather.

Manufacturer and Builder ?, 1893

A correspondent of the Engineering News says that while experimenting with blue-printing processes with the object of getting bright blues and clear white lines, he found that after the usual washing a bath of quite dilute acid, such as hydrochloric, or, better, oxalic, would often greatly improve the clearness of the prints, a marked cause of dirty blues being a gradual altering of the solutions even when kept separate until just before using, though poor quality of the ammonia citrate of iron seemed to have much to do with the results.

During the experiments he also found that an addition of oxalic acid to the ordinary blue-print mixture materially lessened the time of necessary exposure. The solutions used were:
1. Ammoniacitrate of iron, 120 grains; water, 1 fluid ounce; to which is added a few drops of strong ammonia solution till the odor is quite perceptible.
2. Potassium ferricyanide ,105 grains water, 1 fluid ounce.
3. Saturated solution of oxalic acid. Equal quantities of (1) and (2) are taken (a); and after being mixed (3) is added as required and the mixture used at once.

Taking, say, in the proportion of 10 ounces of the mixture (a) and adding thereto (b) 1 ounce; (c) 2 ounces; or (d) 3 ounces of (3); the relative rapidity of the coated papers will be closely, in very dull light, as 1; 21: 5; 10, (d) paper being thus about 10 times as rapid printing as (a) in the light mentioned. For example, a print was made from a tracing on linen in 35 minutes on February 25, 11.30 A. M. , on (d) paper during a snow storm, the light being quite dull, while ordinary paper takes the greater part of a day in an equal light.

This great difference only holds good in dark, cloudy weather; as, if comparisons are made in direct sunlight, (d) paper is only three to four times as rapid as (a). An explanation of this probably is, that a weak light that will reduce to oxalic acid mixture (partly ferric oxalic) has but a faint starting or continuing action on the ferric citrate, while with a strong light both commence at once.

For all ordinary purposes it is better not to use a greater percentage than 20 per cent. (c) of the oxalic acid solution, as it is difficult to get the lines to wash white with higher percentage, even with thick black lines on the tracing or negative; and the more sensitive the paper the shorter time it will keep good even in the dark, and also the greater care required in its preparation and use.

21.8.20

Q. 4712. Grades of Lead Pencils.

Manufacturer and Builder 6, 1893

What materials are employed by the manufacturers of lead pencils to grade the hardness of the leads?
— C. D. A., Troy, N. Y.

Answer. It is commonly supposed that the different grades of hardness given to the ordinary lead pencils are produced by mixing the soft graphite, which gives the marking quality to the pencil, with varying quantities of clay, the softer grades being mixed with comparatively little, and the harder grades comparatively more, of the clay.

20.8.20

Luminous Paints.

Manufacturer and Builder 5, 1893

A yellowish-brown luminous paint is obtained from 48 parts varnish, 10 parts precipitated barium sulphate, 8 parts auripigment and 34 parts luminous calcium sulphide.

Luminous colors for artists' use prepared by using pure East India poppy oil in the same quantity instead of the varnish, and taking particular pains to grind the material as fine as possible.

For luminous oil-color paints equal quantities of pure linseed oil are used in place of the varnish. The linseed oil must be cold-pressed and thickened by heat.

19.8.20

Q. 4690. Permanent Ink.

Manufacturer and Builder 4, 1893

Is there any permanent ink that can be relied upon to last indefinitely when used on paper?
— J. McC., Toledo, O.

Answer. The so-called carbon inks, and the India ink used by draughtsmen, are practically permanent. That is to say, they will not fade or become obliterated by age, or by the action of dampness, or chemicals. The trouble is not to get an indelible ink, but a permanent recipient on which to use it. Paper, even the best, is a poor dependence, for even five hundred years; and even parchment will not last indefinitely, except under exceptionally favorable conditions, like those existing in the rock and masonry tombs of Egypt.

18.8.20

Converting Blue Prints into Black Prints.

Manufacturer and Builder ?, 1893

The Revué de Chimie Industrielle says that the prints should be first passed through water acidulated with nitric acid, and thence into -
Carbonate of soda ... 50 grammes.
Water ... 1 liter.

In this the picture is changed to an orange tone, when it is removed and placed in -
Gallic acid ... 50 grammes.
Water ... 1 liter.

Being subsequently washed in water acidulated with HCl.

17.8.20

Varnish for Grate Fronts, Etc.

Manufacturer and Builder 3, 1893

Varnish with enough ivory black in it to cover well. Do not mix more than you wish to use at one time, for when it stands long it does no do so well.

16.8.20

Commercial Phosphorescent Lights.

Manufacturer and Builder ?, 1893

We are pleased to see that the long-prophesied and much talked of "cold light" which is to revolutionize modern lighting, appears now to have been promoted from the rank of a laboratory apparatus to that of a lamp for commercial lighting. An enterprising firm in England is making a good beginning by introducing commercial lamps in which the light is produced by high-tension discharges in phosphorescent vacuum tubes. Although, as with most inventions of a radically new type, there are still very serious objections to it, yet these are being overcome, one by one, and it is not unlikely that this beginning will encourage others in the same field. The subject is of special interest just now, owing to the unsatisfactory state of the incandescentlamp question. As there are no fundamental patents to hinder the developing of such lamps, inventors need not fear being handicapped by some future legal decision.

Attention might here be called to the recent paper of Dr. Sumpner on diffusion of light, from which it appears that an effective illumination does not depend alone on the brightness of the lamps, but that if the light is diffused, a much smaller candle-power will produce practically the same illumination. Phosphorescent light, in its very nature, is a diffused light, and the actual candlepower of such lamps is therefore not the only feature to be considered.

To properly comprehend the cost of the diffused light from such lamps with that from incandescent lamps, an experiment should be made by lighting the same room, first with one kind and then with the other, noting the different effects, entirely independently of the candlepower of either of the lamps. From such an eminently practical test the relative costs could then be deduced; even the most practical man could not object to such a test.

- Elec. World.

15.8.20

New Metal Paint.

Manufacturer and Builder ?, 1893

A new kind of paint is announced, which, it is claimed, possesses in a peculiar degree the properties of preserving metals from rust and of being unaffected by either heat or cold. When applied to sheet iron, it is found that the coating is not affected by warm water or steam, nor is it at all influenced by the action of acid and alkaline liqids, ammonia gas, hydrochloric acid gas and sulphureted hydrogen gas. The principal ingredient of this paint is a silicate of iron, which is found in the neighborhood of natural deposits of iron ores, and also occurs in veins of deposits of granite, which have become decomposed by contact with the air. The deposit, which is employed in the form of a finely-ground powder, is found to be composed mainly of oxide of iron, with small proportions of silicic acid, phosphoric acid, alumina, lime, magnesia, etc. The silicate of iron, in a very finely-divided state, is mixed whit oxidized linseed oil and varnish, to form a paste, and when required in the form of a paint, it is thinned down with good linseed oil, to which, if deemed desirable, a dryer — such as litharge — is added, and at the sane time mineral colors for producing the required shade.

14.8.20

Dissolvent for Paint Skins.

Manufacturer and Builder 1, 1893

Two pounds of concentrated lye, 5 pounds unslaked lime to 15 gallons of water. Put in the old skins and all the dirty buckets; stir them up occasionally. When the skins are dissolved, pour off the lye water, and the paint in the bottom will answer fairly well for rough water-boarding, etc. Do not throw the water away, as it will do another time by adding more lye to it.

13.8.20

Kuosipukuja.

Kunnallislehti Satakuntalainen 16, 26.4.1924



Tämä viimeinen sievä malli näyttää yleensä, että täytyy mieli voida liikkua kapeassa kotelohameessa, asettaa sivulle plisseerattu kappale asentoon, mikä näkyy kuvasta. Siten eivät suorat viivat häiriydy ja puku sallii siihen pukeutuneen tällöin istuakin, mikä muuten olisi mahdotonta.

Mitä jumpersiin yieensä tulee, on liivi jumpers (kuva F) sievä ja pukeva varsinkin iäkkäämmille ja vantterammille naisille: liivi kiinalaiskuosista kangasta mandarinisinisellä tai lakanvärisellä pohjavärillä. Kiinalainen värikuosi on näet hyvässä arvossa eqyptiläisen ohella ja käytetään yhdessä mustan kanssa. Siten esim. "casaque" - hyvin pitkä puse[ro?] - loistavavärinen ja sen kanssa hyvin kapea musta hame mustine hihoilleen, muodostaa hyvinkin mukavan ja pukevan puvun. Tällainen näkyy kuvasta C. Se täytyy tunnustaa todellakin aistikkaaksi, mutta vaatii se mieluummin mustaa sakettia, yhtä pitkää kuin "casaque" taikka myös mustaa viittaa.

(Kod. Lehdestä.)

11.8.20

Aniline Colors.

Manufacturer and Builder ?, 1872

By Prof. C. F. Chandler.

It is well understood that coal is an element of our national wealth; and that we derive from it our power. The combustion of three hundred pounds of coal under a steam-boiler will produce a power equal to the mechanical force exerted by a man for a year. Another important application of bituminous coal is to the manufacture of illuminating gas. In this manufacture there are certain residual products which were at first were thrown away; and these I propose to treat of.

Coal-tar is produced at the rate of about ten gallons to the ton of coal. Thousands upon thousands of barrels of coal-tar were at first thrown away; but when the chemist turned his attention to this substance, he discovered so many products useful in the arts which could be made from it, that coal-tar now finds a ready market at $1.50 per barrel. When coal-tar is subjected to distillation, the liquid portion passes off, and there remains the heavy black pitch which is used for roofing and for pavements. The liquid portion, which comprises about one fourth of the original coal-tar, produces first a light fluid called naphtha, and then a heavy liquid which is called dead oil. The light liquid is a mixture of carbon and hydrogen, of which benzole is the type. It is C12H6; that is, taking into account the difference of weight, seventytwo Parts of carbon to six parts of hydrogen. Other substances are produced from this differing by two atoms of each, making C14H8, C16H10, C18H12, C20H14, etc.; but until recently, only the first two of these had any practical importance in the arts. They were used simply as fuel, and as antiseptics for preserving timber from decay. But lately one of them is claimed to be a specific for the small-pox.

After the volatile portions have been removed, there remains this dead oil, which is heavier than water. This was for a long time used as a fuel in glass-houses. It was then found that the carbolic acid it contains was a most powerful disinfectant and antiseptic. It was found that it would prevent the spread of the cattle disease; that cattle having the disease in its worst form might be placed with others with safety, if they were protected by this acid. It was found too that the durability of timber was increased four or five fold by its application.

The beautiful colors which have recently been obtained from refuse coal-tar are subdivided into three groups, the aniline colors, those derived from naphthaline, and the carbolic acid colors. I shall confine this article to the chemical phase of the subject.

Benzoic is a hydrocarbon. Bringing that in contact with nitric acid, an atom of nitrogen carries off an atom of hydrogen, and we have nitrobenzole, which is a very fragrant oil, an artificial oil of bitter abounds, used instead of that substance in the manufacture of soaps. When the nitrobenzole is made to give up its oxygen and take up hydrogen, it becomes aniline.

Nitrogen is a protean element which gives rise to a great variety of compounds. Ammonia is NH3, and these three atoms of hydrogen can be replaced by a great variety of substances. Aniline is a similar substance. It is ammonia, replacing one atom of hydrogen by phenyl, which is C12H5. There is no limit to the number of compounds that may be de i veloped on this type; and it opens one of the most important fields of chemical investigation at the present day. All the aniline colors are derived from N30H9, converted by the process of substitution into new compounds. The first investigation in tide direction, which however did not result in any practical product, was that of a German chemist, who found that by treating aniline with chloride of lime, he produced a violet or purple tint. Perkins, who was the first successful manufacturer of color from coal-tar, manufactured a substance to which lie gave the name of mauve. Then came the discovery of the roseaniline, which is produced from commercial aniline, pure aniline not answering the purpose. Subjecting commercial aniline to the action of nitric acid, and then to the action of nascent hydrogen, we obtain roseaniline, which is C40H19N3. The chloride, hydrochlorate, arseniate, acetate, nitrate, and other salts of aniline produce most beautiful tints. Hoffmann found that he could change the red tint of the roseaniline to various shades of violet, by simply boiling it with more aniline. This introduced more phenyl in the place of hydrogen. One atom made it purple, another more blue, and a third atom of phenyl made it the most beautiful blue that has ever been manufactured.

Replacing the hydrogen with ethyl C4H15, or with methyl C2H3, we obtain still further colors. In every case the beautiful rose red becomes more and more purple, until the substitution of the last atom of hydrogen converts it into a deep and perfect blue. On carrying the investigation further, it was found that by proper treatment the blue color could be converted into a green, by using ethyl and methyl. Subsequent treatment developed an entirely different base, having the form C40H17N3, with yellow tints; and further treatment produced a brown and finally a black; so that the most durable black for calico printing is now obtained from aniline.

From the coal-tar obtained from a ton of coal, three fourths of a pound of this beautiful color are produced. The coal, which is worth about $6, produces the gas, the coke, the ammoniacal water, largely used for agricultural purposes, the carbolic acid, used for the preservation of timber and as a disinfectant, and finally this beautiful color, which alone is worth nearly as much as the coal originally cost. The amount of this industry has become no enormous that at present five tons of this raw aniline oil are manufactured daily, on the continent alone, and ninety thousand pounds of iodine are used in effecting the substitution; and yet it is an industry which has started since 1860.

In regard to the carbolic acid colors, they are obtained by treating the dead oil with an alkali. This furnishes a number of coloring matters. Carbolic acid is C12H6O2; or it is the oxyd of benzole, which is C12H6. Treating carbolic acid with nitric acid, we produce C12H3 (NO4)3 O2. Picric acid is a substantive dye for silk and wool, uniting with them without any mordant. Treating picric acid with the cyanide of potassium, an acid is produced which gives beautiful garnet colors on silk and wool. By treating carbolic acid with soda and the oxyd of mercury it is converted into rosolic acid, which produces various shades of orange, and is used for coloring house paper. Treating this with ammonia, it produces a scarlet tint. The intimate connection existing between the rosolic acid and the aniline colors, is shown by the fact that by treating roseaniline with anhydrous acid, the same result is obtained. From this orange red of rosolic acid can be produced a deep blue color by the action of aniline.

There is also a series of naphthaline colors, but they are not found to be fast.

When coal-oil is distilled, and 25 or 30 per cent of volatile products are removed, the result is solid, and is called anthracene. Recently, from this there has been artificially produced the coloring matter of madder. The colors from aniline had proved brilliant and durable for silk and wool, but not for cotton fabrics. It is now a question whether the colors from anthracene will supply this want, whether they will be found to be permanent.

10.8.20

[383] Gold Bronze on Furniture.

Manufacturer and Builder ?, 1872

Our contemporary, the Cabinet Maker, published in Boston, denies what we stated on page 144 of this volume, that gilded lines on furniture may be produced by bronze powder, and he gives for this purpose the ordinary method as followed in gilding picture-frames and moldings, consisting of planing the wood, giving three or four coats of whiting and size, rubbing after each coat, etc., then the gilding clay and chrome-yellow, then the gilding coat, then, when dry, the oil-gold size, then gilding with gold-leaf, then size again. It is evident that he either did not understand the nature of the query, or that he is behind the age in the tricks of his own trade. Our inquirer specified, "I mean the gilded lines with which it is now the fashion to fill the hollows of the ornamental carvings." How Cab. Mak. will treat these fine hollow lines with planing down, then with four coats of whiting and size, gilding clay, chrome-yellow, etc., and at last the gold-leaf, and sizing afterward, we would like to see. For his information we will state that he can buy in the large paint stores, for $1, a small bottle of varnish, with one of bisulphide of tin, and printed instructions how to gild with them, all imported from England, and manufactured by H. Bessemer & Co., and that we ourselves have used them, and know that it is the common way in which ornamental imitation gold lines are applied to ordinary furniture. Of course gold-leaf may be used also, and is used on the expensive kinds of furniture, but in the case in question it could not possibly be applied in the way described in the Cabinet Maker. The gold-leaf has to be rubbed fine with honey, till it is reduced to a powder, then the honey washed out with water, dried, and introduced into the curved lines by means of a fine brush and varnish, in the same way as bronze-powder is treated.

9.8.20

A New Fire and WaterProof Paint.

Manufacturer and Builder 5, 1872

It is well known that soap is composed of oil, fat, etc., and a base, and that paint as it flows from the brush of the craftsman, consists of some finely powdered substance mixed with oil. This substance, whether white-lead or any metallic oxide used for coloring material, supplies the base, which combined with the oil used, eventually causes paints thus made to become soap; time performing the same process that is effected by heat in the soap-boiling establishment. The consequence is, that time paint, after this action has taken place, will wash off. Experience has moreover shown that atmospheric influences will rarely be resisted longer than a year, and if exposed to the sun's rays, blisters will form which chip and peel off. If oilpaint be applied to a fresh surface of wood, the oil frequently sinks in, leaving the pigment loosely adherent in the form of a friable powder; while if used on a metallic surface, as soon as the oil dries the crust formed will crack and peel away, and if a fresh coating be not applied the metal corrodes. The admixture of white-lead has been found not to answer the purpose, as it appears to yield in the course of time a part of the oxygen it contains, and so acts in the same way as the air would if it had free access to the surface of the metal.

A paint, however, has lately been introduced into the market by Messrs. S. L. Merchant & Co., of No. 76 South street, in this city, which is designed to entirely obviate all of the abovementioned difficulties. It contains silica in a peculiar form, extracted from a mineral of volcanic origin, which renders the surface covered by it indestructible and unchangeable, and in fact causes the paint to petrify. The nature of silica is the same as that of flint, and it will be readily seen that paint prepared with it will afford a covering perfectly water and fireproof, which will never crack, and always retain its luster, the silica itself having no chemical action whatever.

It is simple in its application, dries hard in from six to eight hours, according to time state of the weather, and incorporates itself with the iron, so that any kind of paint, of any color, can be laid on over it. It is strongly recommended for priming and painting all kinds of out and in-door iron and wood-work, such as iron lighthouses, railway bridges, girders, boilers, tanks, railings, iron masts, yards, spars, gasworks, etc., etc., also as a priming for teak wood in India, likewise for mining plant, telegraph posts, etc. This paint will be found admirably adapted for painting the frames, beams, ani plating of iron ships. It works tool, and does not take nearly so long in going down, and has little or no smell. It will stand repeated washing. It preserves iron, wood, etc., from rust and decay; neither heat, moisture, nor frost has any effect upon it It will be found to set quickly, and dry as hard as marble. It closely finds its way into time structure of iron and wood, and bites (so to say) into the very body of the material it covers, and consequently never peels off. It possesses great firmness, being ground with prepared drying oil by heavy steam power, and is as fine as artists' colors; the particles are thoroughly diffused and incorporated, which is not the case with powdered colors when mixed with oil unground, which are always more or less liable to flake off, blister, or wash away from the surface of iron or wood-work. Its covering quality or body is much greater than that of ordinary paints, and it combines durability with a highly-finished appearance. It is claimed to be the best paint, from its hard body ground, for coach and railway carriage builders, also for flatting purposes, that can be produced.

It possesses great durability, will not require renewal for many years, is applicable and effective in all parts of the world, under every change of climate, and is not affected by exposure to sea air or the hottest sun. It is invaluable for maritime purposes, as it has the property of resisting the action of salt water. On iron, and many other substances, one coat will often be found sufficient, and two coats will be found equal to three or four of ordinary paint, by which a great saving in color and labor will prove its economy.

We are assured by practical painters that the covering properties of time silicate paints are nearly double that of common paints; that, combined with its lasting qualities and brilliancy of color, render it the bestlooking and most economical of all paints. It is supplied in all colors, and is used in precisely the same way as ordinary paint.

8.8.20

Prince's Metallic Paint.

Manufacturer and Builder 4, 1872

This celebrated paint is manufactured from a peculiar species of iron-ore discovered in Carbon county, Penn., and when prepared into paint, is an indestructible iron coating. It prevents and arrests the corrosion of iron and tin, it is not affected by heat or moisture, and is therefore fire and water-proof. This paint has been long and favorably known in the paint trade, and is extensively used by iron manufacturers, railroad companies, roofers, and others, throughout the country, and is highly recommended by those who have tried its qualities. Those who desire a cheap and durable paint would do well to give it a trial. The card of Messrs. Prince & Bass, the manufacturers, will be found in another column of our paper.

7.8.20

Coloring Gold.

Manufacturer and Builder 1, 1872

Gold is colored by two processes, called the dry and wet color; but the materials used in both cases are the same. They are as follows : one part salt, one part alum, and two parts saltpetre; each material to be pounded separately in a mortar, taking care they are perfectly clean—this is the dry process. After being well pounded, they are put into an iron color-pot and slowly heated over a fire. The color must boil gradually, and must be stirred with an iron rod. It will then rise, and then it is ready for the reception of the articles to be colored, which must not be less than 18-carat. They are suspended in the color by 18-carat wire, and kept in motion till the liquid begins to sink; then they are taken out and dipped in aquafortis pickle. The color will rise again, and then another dip, and sometimes two, is necessary to give the proper color. The wet color process is a much inferior method, except for gold of lower standard, and then not below 15-carat, as the alloy would suffer so seriously from the coloring. The fact is, coloring is no more than taking from the surface the inferior metals, leaving a thin coating of pure gold.

—Ex.

3.8.20

Wood-Tar as a Source of Coloring Materials.

Manufacturer and Builder 11, 1874

Although no method for the utilization of wood-tar is likely to prove of as much practical importance, as the discoveries in coal-tar, on account of the comparatively limited quantity of wood-tar produced, experiments have recently been conducted with this in view. Attention was first directed, some years ago, by Reichenbach to a red crystalline precipitate, obtained by treating beechwood-tar with bichromate of potash and tartaric acid, or a solution of sesquisulphate of iron, and named by hint cedriret, which afforded an indigo blue solution with concentrated sulphuric acid, and a purple one with creosote. More exact recent investigations by Prof. Liebermatot have led to the production of several new compounds fromwood-tar, one of reddish-blue color being named cærulignon, on account of the blue solution it affords with sulphuric acid. Further experiments by C. Fischer led to a very simple process for printing a lively orange on silk or wool, by dissolving this substance in hot alcohol, and precipitating it again with water, then thickening the paste with gum water of the proper consistency, and printing, drying, and steaming the fabrics. In steaming, the slight color of the printed portions disappears, and after washing out the thickening, a lively orange may bo developed on them, by treating the goods in a bath of bichromate of potash, or of sesquichlorid of iron. They may then be washed and finished. Attempts to print with it on cotton have not thus far proved successful. Experiments on a large scale are of course necessary to determine the practical value of the method.

2.8.20

Light.

Manufacturer and Builder 1, 1874

One of the strangest incidents in scientific research is that must important discoveries pass by unnoticed, the accounts of them remain dormant for years in memoirs published either privately or by scientific societies, until a long time afterward the same discoveries are brought out by others as a novelty, and then are fortunate enough to attract public attention for the simple reason that in the meantime the scientific world has advanced far enough to realize the portance of the discovery, while before that time the original first discoverer wan too far in advance of his time to see his labors appreciated. These remarks apply directly to one of our most eminent philosophical investigators, Dr. John W. Draper, who thirty years ago published a work entitled the "Forces which Produce the Organization of Plants." This work was illustrated by engravings made after daguerreotype plates, some of which not only represented the different lines of the diffraction spectrum, (quite recently introduced in spectroscopy,) but also possessed for a scale the wave lengths as the proper indices for designating the different, Frauenhosser lines, and a which now have supereeded the scale which Bunsen and Kirchhoff brought out some twelve, years ago when they first published an account of their spectroscopic researches.

Dr. J. W. Draper discovered also, thirty years ago, groups of lines outside the limits of the line A in the dark red or rather brown extreme end of the spectrum. His son, Dr. Henry Draper, has recently succeeded in making photographs of all the spectral lines, even including those. Thus far it had been accepted, that the red end of the spectrum possessed no actinic power, and that therefore it could not be photographed; but Dr. John W. Draper has recently proved that this error is caused by the fact that the blue end of the spectrum acts chiefly on the bromid and iodid of silver, almost exclusively used by photographers; that the yellow portion, for instance, acts on carbonic acid and the red on outer substances, and that therefore the whole length of the spectrum possesses chemical powers, only different in different regions for different chemical preperations. This view has been verified by Dr. Henry Draper by photographing even the lines mentioned beyond A. He publishes also in the last number of Silliman's American Journal some beautiful photographs of many groups of lines, proving the advantage and fidelity of photography over handiwork, as his plates show details not found in the carefully drawn maps of Angstrom, Kirchhoff, Moscato, and others.

1.8.20

New way of Coloring Metals.

Manufacturer and Builder 1, 1874

Metals may be colored quickly and cheaply by forming on their surface a routing of a thin film of a sulphid. So for instance brass articles may be thus in live minutes coated with any color varying from gold to copper red, then to carmine, dark red, and from light anilin blue to a blue white, like sulphite of lead, and at last a reddish white, according to the thickness of the coat, which depends on the length of time the metal remains in the solution used. The colors possess the most beautiful lustre, and if the articles to be colored have been previously thoroughly cleaned by means of acids and alkalies, they adhere so firmly that they may be operated upon by the polishing steel. To prepare the solution dissolve 1 1/3 ounces of hyposulphite of soda in 1 pound of water, and add 1½ ounces of acetate of lead dissolved in 1/3 pound of water. When this clear solution is heated to 190° to 210° Fahr., it decomposes slowly and precipitates sulphite of lead in brown flocks. If metal it now present, a part of the sulphite of lead is deposited thereon, and, according to the thickness of the deposited sulphite of lead, the above-mentioned beautiful lustre colors are produced. To produce an even coloring, the articles must be evenly heated. Iron treated with this solution takes a steelblue color; zinc, a brown color; in the case of copper objects, the first gold color does not appear; lead and zinc are entirely indifferent. If instead of the acetate of lead an equal weight of sulphuric acid is added to the hyposulphite of soda, and the recess carried on as before, the brass is covered with a very beautiful red, which is followed by a green, (which is not in the first-mentioned scale of colors,) and changes finally to a splendid brown with green and red iris-glitter. This last is a very durable coating, and may find special attention in manufactures. Very beautiful marbleized designs can be produeed by using a lead solution thickened with gum tragacanth, on brass which has been heated to 210° Fahr. and is afterward treated by the usual solution of sulphid of lead. The solution may be used several times.