On the Colouring of Metal Wares.

The Chemical Gazette 332, 15.8.1856

By A. O. Mathey.

In Switzerland, the galvano-chromic process has been for some time employed in colouring different parts of watches, and this has induced the author to institute a series of experiments upon this mode of colouring metals, the foundation of which consists in covering a metallic surface with an extremely thin coat of oxide, which then produces certain colours like those produced in the tempering of steel.

The galvanic apparatus employed by the author is a small permanent battery of two pairs; the electrodes and conducting wires are of iron or platinum. The oxides which the author has hitherto made use of as colouring agents are peroxide of lead and peroxide of iron.


Preparation of the Lead Solution.

425 to 450 grms. of caustic potash are dissolved in a litre of distilled water, about 125 grms, of oxide of lead (massicot is the best) are added, and the mixture is boiled for ten minutes in a flask with a narrow neck, so that there may be as little access of air as possible. After cooling, the solution is decanted from the oxide of lead remaining undissolved, and diluted with distilled water until it shows 24° to 25°. B., this density being the most proper to furnish fine colours. It is kept in a well-closed bottle, so that no foreign matters may have access to it. As the solution is used, carbonate of potash is gradually formed in it. It is then boiled with caustic lime, and left to settle, and the clear fluid is again employed. From time to time it must be boiled with oxide of lead. When this solution is employed for colouring objects which exhibit rough spots, they do not acquire a uniform colour. The author considers the probable cause of this to be, that the fluid does not conduct the electricity so well as the metal; and this defect can easily be got rid of by increasing the conducting power of the fluid by the addition of an acid. For this purpose bitartrate of potash is often added; but this, according to the author, is the least fitted for the purpose, and may be much better replaced by oxalic acid, acetic acid, &c. It is best however to add no acid at all, as its addition greatly injures the solidity of the colour, and the object may also be obtained without it. For this purpose massicot is better than litharge, as it dissolves more readily in potash. It may be prepared, when this is necessary, by heating minium in an unglazed earthen pot to a dull red heat, and constantly stirring it with an iron rod until a sample of the mass exhibits a citron-yellow colour on cooling. Too strong a heat must be avoided, as this would fuse the oxide.


Preparation of the Iron Solution.

Although this solution presents difficulties in its preparation and employment, it may still frequently be made use of, and is even indispensable in some cases, as it furnishes tints which cannot be obtained with solution of lead. Sulphate of iron, which possesses a pale green colour and has not begun to oxidize, is dissolved in warm distilled water; the solution is boiled to drive off all the air, and drawn off into a well-closed bottle. When it is to be used, the necessary quantity of it is poured out of the bottle, and mixed with ammonia free of air until the precipitate produced is again dissolved, which however does not take place completely unless an acid or an ammoniacal salt be added at the same time. The solution, thus prepared, cannot be employed for more than an hour, because peroxide of iron is thrown down from it by the action of the oxygen of the air. The colours obtained by means of this solution are much less changeable than those furnished by the lead solution. They are brighter, and as solid as the blue which is produced on steel by heating it.


Preparation of the Objects to be coloured.

The galvanic colouring is employed as much as possible for metallic surfaces which are not liable to oxidation, as the object must be attached to the positive pole; and when its surface consists of an oxidizable metal, it frequently loses its brightness. For the peroxide of lead separated from the lead solution, a golden, or gilt, or platinum surface fur nishes the best recipient. On platinum it produces a beautiful blue, but on gold a green, owing to the colour of the metal shining through. On German silver and the other white metals, the green colour only appears after they have become blue. The colouring of silver does not take place in the same way as in the other metals, because it soon undergoes an oxidation, which renders its surface dull and prevents the appearance of the colour. The alloys which contain silver, even only in small quantity, do not colour well in consequence, and change rapidly, on which account silver must be carefully avoided in this process.

The goodness of the result depends especially upon the proper cleaning and preparation of the object. The better this is polished, the brighter will be the colour; a surface polished with a steel burnisher becomes more beautiful than one polished only with oxide of iron. Before colouring, each piece must be carefully cleaned, and especially freed from all fatty matter; for this purpose it is dipped into a solution of potash (an alcoholic solution is the best), and washed afterwards in water. For large articles chalk may also be employed. After cleaning, the objects must not be touched with the fingers, nor even with a cloth.


Mode of performing the Operation.

If we suppose that watch-hands are to be coloured, six pairs of them are put upon a steel rake, the teeth of which have the proper form and elasticity for fixing the hands with their prongs. The rake is put in connexion with the positive pole of the battery, and then immersed in the fluid. It must be covered by the latter to a depth of about 25 millims.; if it be immersed to a greater depth, the colours produced cannot so well be observed, and the desired tint is not so easily obtained. When all is thus arranged, the negative electrode is moved about in the surface of the fluid with only its point immersed. In the course of five to six seconds the watch-hands are seen to change; the first order of colours are allowed to pass, and when they become gray the second order begins. The gray disappears to give place to a yellow, which them also disappears, and is replaced by red. This moment requires every attention not to allow the desired tint to pass away; and in this respect it must be observed that the colours do not appear so deep in the fluid as they really are. When the hands appear red in the fluid, they are violet in reality. When they are to be red, they must be taken out when they appear orange in the fluid. If the tips of the hands acquire the desired colour sooner than the heads, the tips are lifted out of the fluid, whilst the portions which are not yet sufficiently coloured remain immersed; and the current is then allowed to act interruptedly, that is to say, the tip of the negative electrode is immersed repeatedly for a moment in the fluid until the desired colour is produced throughout. The duration of the operation varies from 10 to 40 seconds. It is advisable to treat a large number of watch-hands at once, as they then turn out more uniform in colour.

If the current be too strong, hydrogen and oxygen gases are evolved at the electrodes. The object then acquires a grayish appearance, and the iron electrode becomes covered with spongy lead. Under these circumstances the current must be weakened, and the operation commenced afresh after the object has been again polished. A brass plate of a certain size, when exposed to the action of the current, remains passive, and acquires no colour whatever. If this be the case, a small portion of the plate must first be immersed, and in proportion as it changes colour it must be further immersed. If the object be large, it infallibly acquires several colours, because the portions most distant from the point of connexion with the conducting wire are coloured most rapidly. This becomes of more importance the less the conducting power of the fluid. In order to do away with this inconvenience, the object must be united in several places with the positive pole, and the negative electrode must be allowed to run out in several wires suitably arranged. A fresh bath always produces several tints upon the same plate, and the bath improves by use. The hands placed upon the rake are therefore allowed to remain some minutes in the fresh bath, and then coloured in an old one. If the colour do not turn out well, the object is cleaned in strong vinegar, and then coloured again. In this way the object may be coloured two or three times without a second polishing, when it consists of gold of at least 14 carats. When a gilt object has been submitted to the colouring process five or six times, the gilding is entirely removed, so that it must be again gilt and polished. If a coloured object be brought in contact with the negative pole in the lead solution, its colour disappears, the peroxide of lead being dissolved. This method of removing the colour is preferable to the use of vinegar.


Production of various Colours on the same Object.

When an object, such as a bouquet of flowers for a brooch or hair-pin, is to be furnished with several colours, it must first, if it be not made of gold, be strongly electro-gilt, and deadened according to circumstances. Those portions which are to retain the colour of gold are then coated by means of a hair pencil with black varnish (epargne noire liquide), and the object is connected with the positive pole, and put into the lead-bath. When all the flowers have become pale red, those which are to retain this colour are also covered with varnish; the object is again immersed in the bath, and the other flowers allowed to become violet. Those which are to retain this tint may then be coated with the varnish, and the remainder may be allowed to become blue. When the latter are coated in the same way, another immersion will render the leaves green. The green may also be shaded, as at first a dark green appears, which becomes lighter, and finally passes to yellow. The varnish is removed by treatment with cold oil of turpentine, and the object is cleaned first with soap and water and a soft brush, and afterwards with warm water and a cloth. These various colours, which resemble the natural colours of flowers, and are deposited upon a ground of dead gold or silver, have a splendid effect, and in brilliancy and lustre leave the paintings on enamel far behind them; but they unfortunately do not possess the permanency of the latter. Single silver flowers with gilt stamina produce a pretty effect in such a bouquet.


Causes of the Change in the Galvanic Colours, and the means of preventing it.

Dry air produces no alteration whatever in the colours produced by peroxide of lead; but this is not the case with moist air, especially when it contains traces of sulphurous acid or sulphuretted hydrogen. On this account the colours of watch-hands are changed by the exhalations from the body, if the case of the watch is not perfectly air-tight. The author frequently observed, that of two pairs of hands which had been coloured under similar circumstances, the one had entirely changed its colour in eight days, whilst the other was completely unaltered after the lapse of a year. He long tried in vain to discover the cause of this, but is now convinced that the rapid change of colour was to be attributed to the presence of a trace of potash, under the influence of which oxide of lead was reproduced, and this combined with the potash. This last cause of the destruction of the colour may be easily guarded against by washing the object when coloured with boiling water, so that all potash is removed, wiping it, and drying it on a hot iron plate. With regard to the alteration of colour produced by the action of moist air and air charged with foreign matters, Becquerel has recommended the application of a protective varnish to the coloured objects. This varnish must have as little reducing action as possible, so as not to decompose the peroxide of lead. For this purpose Becquerel recommends the following varnish: —
½ a litre of linseed oil,
4 to 8 grms, of prepared litharge, and
2 grms, of sulphate of zinc are put into a glazed pot, and the mixture is heated moderately for some hours. The clear varnish is then decanted from the undissolved portion, and mixed, when it is too thick, with oil of turpentine, which must be previously boiled with oxide of lead to remove all traces of acid. The object is verythinly coated with this varnish by means of a hair pencil, dried by a gentle heat, and then coated a second time. By the application of this varnish, the colours, as Becquerel remarks, lose something of their lustre, and also appear partly of a different tint, but they gain in durability. According to the author's experiments, Becquerel's varnish is inapplicable, and every varnish applied over the red colours causes them to appear yellow. If the varnish be removed, the red colour appears again unchanged. The action of the varnish therefore does not depend upon a change of the peroxide of lead, but upon the alteration of the thickness of the stratum laid upon the metallic surface upon which the colour depends.

- Polyt. Centralblatt, 1856, p. 612.


On the Essential Oil contained in the Alcohol of Madder.

The Chemical Gazette 329, 1.7.1856

By F. Jeanjean.

For several years an alcohol has been obtained in the South of France in considerable quantities, by the fermentation of the saccharine matters contained in the root of the madder. The alcohol thus obtained always possesses a very disagreeable and characteristic odour, and the author has examined it to ascertain the nature of the foreign bodies contained in it.

The products obtained by him formed a liquid of less density than water, and aſter some time deposited crystalline lamellae. When distilled, it furnished liquid products up to 446°F., but afterwards a solid white matter was deposited in the neck of the retort. If the distillation be arrested at this point, the belly of the retort becomes filled with crystals presenting the appearance of the fronds of ferns.

From the indications of the thermometer immersed in the boiling liquid, the author suspected the presence of propionic and butyric alcohols in the first products of the distillation; the stoppage of the thermometer at 266°F. indicated the probable presence of amylic alcohol, and the products boiling at this temperature being in larger quantity than the preceding, he was enabled to analyse them, when he found them to agree in composition with amylic alcohol.

The solid matter passing at 446°F., when pressed between paper, washed in a large quantity of water, and purified by repeated crystallization from aether, forms a white powder, of a peppery odour, which however resembles that of ordinary camphor. Its analysis gave—

corresponding with C20 H18 O2, the formula of Bornean camphor.

This substance possesses a hot burning taste, and when sublimed forms small hexagonal prisms. It gives rise to the gyratory movements of camphor when thrown upon water; it is but slightly soluble in water, but very soluble in ordinary acetic acid, and in alcohol and aether, from which it is thrown down by water. Distilled over chloride of zinc or anhydrous phosphoric acid, it gives origin to a hydrocarbon, the odour of which resembles at once those of the essential oils of citron and bergamotte. Lastly, it is converted into ordinary camphor by the action of boiling nitric acid, as was observed by M. Pelouze to be the case with the camphor obtained from Dryobalanops camphora.

The crystals which are deposited naturally in the crude material possessing all the properties of those obtained by distillation, the author concluded that their formation was due to the hydration of a pre-existent hydrocarbon. To isolate this, he took the liquid which passed above 284° F. in the first distallation, digeted it over potash and chloride of calcium, and distilled it several times to free it from the camphor which it had carried over; it formed a liquid boiling at 320°F., with an odour like that of the essence of madder. Its analysis gave-
C 88.23
H 11.81
and the density of its vapour being 4.85, its formula is C20 H16, cor responding with 4 vols. of vapour. This hydrocarbon therefore corresponds with that of Bornean camphor, and like it will be isomerous with turpentine.

The quantity of the hydrocarbon was insufficient for the determination of its behaviour towards polarized light. The camphor deviated the plane of polarization to the left. A solution of 20 grms. of camphor in 100 cub. centims. of alcohol giving a deviation of 12 degrees, the author concludes from Biot's formula that the rota tory power of this camphor for a length of 100 millims. is

- Comptes Rendus, May 5, 1856, p. 857.

On the Silvering and Gilding of Glass.

The Chemical Gazette 327, 1.6.1856

By J. Liebig.

Silvering Glass.

At the request of M. von Steinheil, the author has made some experiments to discover a process for silvering glass in the cold, especially with a view to the production of faultless optical mirrors. The silvering fluid, which perfectly fulfils the desired end, is an ammoniacal solution of nitrate of silver with an addition of caustic potash or soda, which, when mixed with a solution of sugar of milk in water at ordinary temperatures, deposits the silver on the surface of the glass in the form of a mirror.

To prepare the fluid, 10 grms. of fused nitrate of silver are dissolved in 200 cub. centims. of water, and a sufficient amount of liquid ammonia is added to produce a clear solution. This is gradually diluted with 450 cub. centims. of a solution of potash of spec. grav. 1.05, or with the same volume of a solution of soda of 1.035. On the addition of this, a blackish-brown precipitate is usually produced, which must be at once dissolved by a fresh addition of liquid ammonia. The mixture is diluted with so much water as to bring it to 1450 cub. centims. A dilute solution of nitrate of silver is then dropped in until the production of a strong gray precipitate (not turbidity), when the mixture is brought to 1500 cub. centims. by the addition of water. Each cubic centimetre thus contains a little more than 6.66 milligrms. of nitrate of silver, or 4.18 milligrms. of silver. To produce a clean mirror, the fluid should contain no free ammonia, but this must be completely saturated with oxide of silver. For this purpose some of the solution of silver may be kept back and added at the end; and in this case 1 cub. centim. of the solution contains rather less than 4.18 milligrms. of silver.

The solution of potash or soda must be free from chlorides; pure carbonate of soda or potash must be dissolved in water, and rendered caustic by hydrate of lime previously freed from all chloride by washing with distilled water. The solution is not filtered, but left to stand until it becomes perfectly clear.

Immediately before the application of this fluid, it is mixed with one-tenth to one-eighth of its volume of solution of sugar of milk, containing 1 part in 10 parts of water.

In silvering small concave or convex mirrors, a stick or brass hook is attached to the back of the glass by a resinous cement, so as to enable the glass to be suspended horizontally. It is suspended over a suitable glass or porcelain saucer, with the surface to be silvered about half an inch from the bottom of the vessel, and the fluid previously mixed with the solution of sugar of milk is poured in until the whole surface of the glass is immersed.

For the production of flat mirrors the author recommends vessels of gutta percha, cut out of a flat piece so as to have a margin of about an inch all round the glass. This is turned up after the gutta percha has been softened in hot water, and the corners are made water-tight by the application of a hot spatula or knife. The glass is supported, at a distance of half an inch from the bottom of the vessel, by means of small cones of gutta percha at the corners, and the space between the surface of the glass and the bottom is then filled with the silvering fluid. The author admits that these arrangements are very imperfect, and that many improvements might be introduced, but the glass should always be suspended at the surface of the fluid. The reduction of the silver takes place instantly upon the mixture of the alkaline solution of silver with the sugar of milk; the mixture immediately acquires a dark colour. In a few minutes the glass plate appears black; in a quarter of an hour it becomes bright, and the reduction is complete when the fluid between the edge of the glass and the wall of the vessel is covered with a white specular coat of silver. Of course the whole of the silver in the solution is preci pitated, and only a very small portion of it goes to form the mirror. The quantity of silver attached to a surface of 226 square centims. was 49 milligrms. The silvering of a mirror of 1 metre square would consequently take 2.210 grms. of silver. The quantity of fluid required to silver a glass of 226 square centims. was 280 cub. centims, containing 1170 milligrms. of silver, so that 1170–49 = 1121 milligrms. of silver are thrown down in the fluid and on the walls of the vessel; this must be collected, and again converted into nitrate of silver, and some loss is unavoidable.

When silvered, the glass plate is taken out of the fluid, washed with warm distilled water, and dried in a warm place. Care must be taken, in removing and washing the plate, not to injure the silver coat with the fingers, as otherwise the water penetrates by capillary attraction through the injured spot, and separates the coat of silver from the glass. When dried, the silver adheres so strongly to the glass that it can hardly be rubbed off with the finger. It forms a very beautiful, somewhat opalescent mirror, which may be converted into a perfect silver mirror by careful polishing with fine rouge and velvet. A good deal depends on the cleaning of the glass in the production of perfect mirrors.

The distance between the bottom of the vessel and the surface of the glass must be exactly equal throughout, as otherwise the thickness of the coat of silver will be unequal, and the places where it is thinnest will appear darker than the rest. The smallest bubble of air also will cause a small vacancy in the coating, and the author has found it advantageous to moisten the surface of the glass in the first place with alcohol, as this displaces the adherent stratum of air more readily than water.

When placed at the bottom of the vessel the glass plate is just as completely coated, but the whole of the silver in the solution is precipitated upon it in the form of a gray powder, which adheres so strongly that it can only be got rid of by mechanical means, which endanger the mirror itself. The cost is also greatly increased.

Before putting it into a frame, the dry mirror is warmed a little, and coated with a thin colourless varnish. For this purpose a solution of dammara resin in alcohol is very good.


Gilding of Glass.

Glass can only be permanently and brilliantly gilt with the assistance of heat. Gilding effected in the cold is of beautiful colour and lustre, but does not adhere, and detaches itself from the glass by washing with water.

The gilding fluid is prepared by dissolving pure gold in nitro muriatic acid, adding 292 milligrms. of chloride of sodium to the solution for every gramme of gold, evaporating to dryness, and heating the residue until all free acid is driven off. The double salt is then dissolved in water, and water is added until each 100 cub. centims, of fluid contains exactly 1 grm. of gold. 50 cub. centims. of this solution are mixed with 20 cub. centims. of a solution of soda of spec. grav. 1.035, and 300 cub. centims. of water in a glass flask, and boiled until it is reduced to 250 cub. centims.; and another 50 cub. centims. of the solution, mixed with 20 cub. centims. of the same solution of soda and 230 cub. centims. of water, are kept for an hour in boiling water. The two fluids are then mixed together, and must be employed in gilding whilst fresh.

To gild the inside of a glass vessel, a tenth part of its volume of a mixture of 2 parts of alcohol and 1 part of aether is poured into it, and it is then filled up with the hot gold solution. The vessel is then set in water, the temperature of which must not rise above 176°F. In from ten to fifteen minutes its inner surface is covered with a brilliant golden film, and the vessel is removed from the water when its walls are opake, or exhibit a deep green colour by transmitted light.

The alkaline solution of gold is of course always reduced by the alcohol, but the glass only acquires its brilliant golden coat when the fluid is of such a nature that the adhesion of the gold to the glass may be somewhat stronger than that to the water; in the former case the gold is precipitated only on the glass, in the latter only in the fluid. It is very difficult to hit this point exactly, and the smallest error in the mixture renders success impossible. The author adds, that he has obtained the most beautiful gilding by this means, whilst in other cases he has failed entirely, without being able to discover the cause, so that he does not think this method will be of general application. The mixture will only act whilst fresh, when it has a very slight yellowish tinge; by standing it becomes colourless. Alcohol reduces the gold from the colourless fluid with difficulty.

— Liebig's Annalen, April 1856, p. 132.


On Basaltic Glass.

The Chemical Gazette 325, 1.5.1856

By C. Stickel.

The author recommends the employment of basalt in the manufacture of glass. The applicability of basalt to this purpose has long been known in the glass-houses, but the author gives some determinate proportions by which glasses of certain properties may be obtained: —

1. Powdered basalt ... 10 drms.
Powdered white glass ... 10
Soda ... 25
Ashes ... 5
A very dark, brittle, ugly glass.

2. Basalt ... 10 drms. 0 grs.
Minium ... 5 0
Potashes ... 4 0
White arsenic ... 0 5

3. Basalt ... 10 drms. 0 grs.
Quicklime ... 1 12
Potashes ... 2 48
Boracic acid ... 0 10
A nearly black, ugly, and very heavy glass, adapted for the decoration of monuments, stoves, &c.

Glass No. 1 ... 5 drms. 0 grs.
Peroxide of manganese ... 0 12
After strong fusion it forms fine, dark brownish-red, hard, glassy fragments, like Delft or Wedgwood's ware. It is adapted for plates, syrup-vessels, &c.

Basalt ... 5 drms. 0 grs.
Broken glass ... 10 0
Soda ... 10 0
Ashes ... 5 0
Peroxide of manganese ... 0 5
A beautiful light bottle-green glass, which is readily drawn into threads when fused. This was the most successful of all the experiments.

- Archiv der Pharm., lxxxv. p. 19.

On some Constituents of Madder, and of the Products obtained from it, especially on the Pectine Bodies contained in it.

The Chemical Gazette 325, 1.5.1856

By Paul Schützenberger.

The author has instituted various experiments with madder, with the view of coming to some conclusion as to the pectine bodies contained in it. Madder from Avignon was extracted with four times its weight of water by maceration for ten minutes at 59°F. The extract furnished a moderate flocculent precipitate with alcohol, and on standing deposited a gelatinous mass, although in no great abundance; this had taken up the colouring matter. The precipitate produced by alcohol is, according to the author, pectate of potash, and the extract of madder contains no pectine. Under the name of “pectic acid” the author includes pectosic acid, pectic acid, and parapectic acid (which however is soluble in water); and under the name of “pectine,” the pectine, parapectine, and metapectine of Fremy, as he leaves it undecided which of these particular matters is present in each case. This appears from the fact that the extract gives a flocculent precipitate with muriatic acid, and the fluid filtered from this is no longer precipitated by alcohol. The gelatinous mass formed when the extract is left to stand is pectic acid, the separation of which is probably induced by another organic acid which is formed in the extract. Alsatian madder, treated in the same way, gave the same results, but it contained much more pectic acid than the Avignon madder.

When madder is boiled for a few minutes with water containing muriatic acid, the extract mixed with alcohol, the precipitate thus produced dissolved in hot water, and this process repeated until the separation of the colouring matter, a colourless gelatinous body is obtained, which behaves like pectine. As however no pectine was found in the madder itself, the author concludes that the latter contains pectose, and that pectine is formed from this body by the action of the muriatic acid. Pectose was thus found in Alsatian and Avignon madder, and in madder flowers, but not in garancine. The author has determined the amount of pectose in the madder from the weight of the pectine, dried at 212°F., obtained by boiling madder for five minutes with water containing muriatic acid (50 cub. centims. muriatic acid to 1 litre of water), which he supposes to have the same composition as pectose; in this way he has found in Avignon madder 23, in Alsatian madder 2:13, and in madder flowers 1 to 1:05 per cent of pectose. The smaller quantity of pectose in the madder flowers is accounted for by the fact that in their preparation a portion of the pectose is converted into pectine by the action of the acidulated water, and is removed in this form by washing.

The author also tried whether the madder contained any pectic acid besides the small quantity which is present in combination with potash. For this purpose he treated the madder extracted by acidulated water with solution of soda of 5°. The alkaline extract gave an abundant, flocculent, gelatinous precipitate with muriatic acid; this took up all the colouring matter. When the muriatic acid was allowed to mix very slowly with the fluid by pouring it carefully upon the bottom of the vessel, the whole fluid set into a gelatinous mass, in consequence of the gradual separation of the pectic acid; this is just like the jelly formed in the water in which certain samples of madder have been macerated. The pectic acid precipitated by muriatic acid was freed from the colouring matter by extraction with wood-spirit; but it was then coloured brownish by a humus-like body. To get rid of this, the pectic acid was dissolved in weak ammonia at a gentle heat, the solution was filtered, and the pectic acid then thrown down again by muriatic acid, when it was tolerably pure. Madder, therefore, as well as madder flowers, contains, be. sides pectose, pectic acid, which is contained in it in small proportion as pectosic acid.

If powdered madder be treated with solution of soda of 5° at 194°F., and washed until the water runs away colourless and no longer contains pectic acid, the residue is still of a strong violet-red colour. If this residue be treated with water containing muriatic acid, assisted by heat, and then again with solution of soda, the latter again extracts a large quantity of colouring matter and pectic acid, by which means the residue is entirely freed from colouring matter, and acquires the appearance of sawdust. This result is explained by the author as owing to the presence of a certain quantity of pectate of lime in the madder. This, and not, as has been supposed, the woody fibre, retains a portion of the colouring matter, so that it is not extracted by alkali; and it is not until the pectate of lime is decomposed by muriatic acid, that the colouring matter can be completely extracted with the pectic acid.

The author endeavoured to determine the amount of pectic acid in madder. For this purpose the madder was treated first with solution of soda, then with water containing muriatic acid, and afterwards again with solution of soda. The pectic acid was precipitated from the two alkaline extracts by muriatic acid, purified by the above-described treatment with wood-spirit and ammonia, and then dried at 212°F. Avignon madder, dried at 212°, treated in this manner, furnished, on the average of six very concordant experiments, 9.5 per cent. of pectic acid. If we deduct from this the 23 per cent. of pectose found in this description of madder, which is also converted into pectic acid by this process, it appears that Avignon madder contains 7.2 per cent of pectic acid, of which according to the author, about 2 per cent, are combined with lime. In the same way the author found that after the deduction of the pectose, Alsatian madder contained 6.4 per cent. of pectic acid, of which about 1 per cent, is combined with lime. In madder flowers he found on the average 10.5 per cent. of pectic acid. The amount of this acid combined with potash in the madder, which is the cause of the aqueous extract of madder becoming slimy or gelatinous by standing, is not more than 0.2 per cent. according to the author.

After the discovery of these large quantities of pectine bodies in madder, which have hitherto been regarded more or less as wood fibre, the author proceeded to determine the amount of the latter substance in madder. With this view he dried and weighed the residue of the treatment with solution of soda and muriatic acid just described, and deducted from the weight thus obtained, the amount of ashes left on the combustion of the residue; the remainder was considered to be pure woody fibre. In this way he found that Avignon madder, dried at 212°F, contained 19 to 19.5 per cent. of woody fibre, whereas, according to previous analyses, in which it is probable pectose and pectic acid were taken for woody fibre, the amount of this body was supposed to be 33 to 35 per cent. Alsatian madder contained 23, and madder flowers 30 per cent. of woody fibre.

In garancine, dried at 212°F., subjected to the same treatment, the author found 16.5 per cent of pectic acid (for the most part free, but partly combined with lime) and 48 per cent of woody fibre, which was less changed than is generally supposed. If we suppose that madder furnishes 40 per cent of its weight of garan cine, and that it contains 20 per cent. of woody fibre, the amount of the latter contained in the garancine should be 50 per cent. The number 48 obtained consequently indicates that the woody fibre undergoes no considerable loss of weight in the preparation of garancine. A similar calculation, supposing the garancine to be prepared from Avignon madder, which appears to be the case, shows that it should contain 18 per cent. of pectic acid, if no portion of this be destroyed in the preparation of garancine. The product occurring in commerce under the name of alizarine also contains pectic acid partly free and partly combined with lime, but its amount does not exceed 5 per cent. The woody fibre obtained from this was black, and had undergone a far greater change than that of garancine.

When 10 grms. of Avignon madder were boiled with water, 18 cub. centims. of carbonic acid were expelled; and by subsequently heating it with diluted muriatic acid, 66 cub. centims. were driven off. According to the author, this carbonic acid is combined with lime in the madder; and he supposes that the carbonic acid expelled by boiling with water is contained in it in the form of bicarbonate. The 66 cub. centims. of carbonic acid represent 0.27 grm., or 2.7 per cent. of the weight of madder, of carbonate of lime. In the ashes of the same madder the author found 5.7 per cent of carbonate of lime, from which it is to be supposed that a quantity of lime corresponding with 3 per cent. of carbonate is combined with organic acids, and especially with pectic acid. The whole of the lime in garancine and madder-lake, and nearly the whole in commercial alizarine, which is ſound in their ashes, is also combined with organic acids. It is remarkable that both garancine and madder-lake, although prepared by the treatment of madder with concentrated sulphuric acid, still contain pectic acid and pectate of lime.

According to the author, the woody fibre and free pectic acid cannot hold back the colouring matter of the madder. Pectate of lime however appears to do this energetically. If pectate of lime be artificially produced by double decomposition, by means of an alkaline solution containing colouring matter, the latter passes into the gelatinous precipitate, and cannot be extracted therefrom either by alkali or wood-spirit. The solubility of the colouring matter of madder in cold water, according to the author, is to be ascribed to the presence of pectate of potash. According to the author, madder also contains the nitrogenous ferment to which Fremy has given the name of pectose, both in the soluble and in the insoluble state; in the latter however in the largest amount. The analyses of ashes given by the author are as follows. All the substances were dried at 212°F.: —

10 grms. of Avignon madder gave 1.363 grm. of ashes, of which
0.300 grm. was soluble in water, consisting of chloride of potassium and a very little carbonate of potash, and
1.063 grm. insoluble in water, in which were found
0.29 grm. silica,
0.572 grm. carbonate of lime,
0.193 grm. phosphate of lime (precipitated by ammonia from the solution in muriatic acid).

10 grms, of madder flowers gave 1.263 grm. of ashes, of which
0.077 grm. was soluble in water. This portion consisted of
0.068 grm. sulphate of lime, and
0.009 grm. chloride of potassium;
1.185 grm. insoluble in water, containing
0.328 grm. silica,
0.624 grm. carbonate of lime,
0.170 grm. phosphate of lime.

10 grms. of garancine gave 1775 grm. of ashes, of which
0.106 grm. was soluble, and consisted of CaO, SO3, and
1.669 grm, insoluble, containing
1.02 grm. silica,
0.448 grm. carbonate of lime, and
0.19 grm. phosphate of lime.

10 grms. of commercial alizarine gave 1.18 grm, of ashes, of which
0.003 grm. was soluble, and
1.177 grm. insoluble. The latter contained
0.814 grm. silica,
0.256 grm. carbonate of lime, and
1.103 grm. phosphate of lime.

10 grms. of madder-lake gave 1.20 grm, of ashes, of which
0.195 grm. was soluble, consisting of CaO, SO3. The insoluble portion contained
0.450 grm. silica, and
0.550 grm. carbonate of lime with traces of phosphate.

- Polytechn. Centralblatt, 1856, p. 292.


On some new Colouring Matters.

The Chemical Gazette 323, 1.4.1856

Proceedings of Societies. Royal Society.
Feb. 21, 1856.
(The Lord Wrottesley, President, in the Chair.)
By Arthur H. Church and William H. Perkin.

Nascent hydrogen, actin upon an alcoholic solution of dinitrobenzole or of nitraniline, produces a crimson coloration, due to the formation of a new substance, to which we have given the name nitrosophenyline.

This new body presents some remarkable properties. It fuses below 100° C.; is uncrystallizable, and not volatile without decomposition; it dissolves in alcohol with an orange-red tint, and an alcoholic solution containing only 2 per cent, although perfectly transparent to transmitted light, presents a flame-coloured luminous opacity in reflected light. Nitrosophenyline dissolves in hydrochloric acid, producing an intense crimson colour, which is changed to a yellowish-brown by alkalies and is restored by acids.

The analysis of nitrosophenyline has led us to the formula
*Suluissa olevat alkuperäisessä tekstissä ilman sulkuja päällekkäin. // In the original text, characters in brackets are written one below another without brackets.which may be written thus C12(H6NO2)N *, and so may be viewed as aniline, in which l equiv. of hydrogen is replaced by 1 equiv. of binoxide of nitrogen: the following equation sufficiently explains the formation of nitrosophenyline:– C12H42NO4+8H=C12H6N2O2+6HO.

We have produced from all the dinitro-compounds we have yet experimented upon, colouring matters similar to nitrosophenyline: the following is a list of such dinitro-compounds: —
1. Dinitrobenzole ... C12H42NO4.
2. Dimitrotoluole ... C14H62NO4.
3. Dimitroxylole ... C16H82NO4.
4. Dinitroxylole ... C18H102NO4.
5. Dimitrocymole ... C20H122NO4.
6. Dinitronaphthaline ... C20H62NO4.

We have examined minutely the colouring substance produced in the case of dinitronaphthaline. It proves to be perfectly analogous in composition with nitrosophenyline; in properties also it is similar; and from its alcoholic solution it may be obtained in crystals, having a lustre somewhat similar to that of murexide: its formula, as deduced from our analysis, is
*Suluissa olevat alkuperäisessä tekstissä ilman sulkuja päällekkäin. // In the original text, characters in brackets are written one below another without brackets.which we may arrange thus C20(H8NO2)N, and so view it as naphthylamine in which l equiv. of hydrogen has been replaced by 1 equiv. of binoxide of nitrogen. This substance we term nitrosomaphthy line. It may likewise be obtained by the action of nitrous acid on naphthylamine, or of nitrite of potassium upon the hydrochlorate of naphthylamine: the following equations represent the three processes for its formation:
1. C20H62NO+8H=C20H8N2O2+6HO.
2. C20H9N+NO3=C20H8N2O2+HO.
3. C20H10N,Cl+KNO4=C20H8N2O2+2HO+KCl.

On Antimonial Vermilion.

The Chemical Gazette 322, 15.3.1856

By E. Mathieu-Plessy.

The author has invented a process which furnishes antimonial vermilion of a beautiful colour, and which is sufficiently simple to be employed in its preparation on the large scale.

Hyposulphite of soda is best prepared by the action of sulphur upon sulphite of soda; it is not usually allowed to crystallize. The sulphite of soda must be in the neutral state to avoid the action of the sulphurous acid upon the hyposulphite. The sulphite of soda is most simply and cheaply prepared in the following manner, recommended by Camille Köchlin. In the upper part of a vessel, the bottom of which is broken out, a sieve containing large crystals of carbonate of soda is fixed. Into the lower part of the vessel projects a furnace-pipe bent at right angles, which is attached to a small clay furnace. Into this furnace sulphur is thrown by little and little, and burns into sulphurous acid, which passes through the tube into the vessel, and there acts upon the carbonate of soda. The combustion of the sulphur may be regulated as occasion requires through the door of the ſurnace; the draught is quite sufficient, and in the course of three or four days the crystals of carbonate of soda are acted upon to a considerable depth. The very friable sulphite of soda may be readily separated from the unaltered nucleus if any remains, and the latter may then be put back into the sieve. The sulphite of soda is dissolved in water so as to produce a solution of 25° B., and this is saturated whilst hot with crystallized carbonate of soda. When effervescence no longer occurs on the addition of this salt (which is the best criterion, as litmus-paper gives no satisfactory indications), or rather when the dilute sulphite furnishes a slight effervescence of carbonic acid on the addition of muriatic acid, flowers of sulphur are added, and the mixture is heated in an earthen vessel for three hours on the water-bath, stirring, and replacing the water that eva porates. When the fluid is cool, it is filtered and diluted until it shows 25° B.

Perchloride of antimony is prepared by heating powdered black sulphuret of antimony with commercial muriatic acid. When the evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen begins to diminish at a gentle heat, the mixture is boiled for a few minutes. On cooling, the clear liquid is decanted. To avoid inconvenience from the sulphuretted hydrogen gas evolved during the solution of the sulphuret of antimony, it may either be passed into a solution of soda, or allowed to pass through a tube drawn out to a point at the extremity, close to which the flame of a spirit-lamp is placed; by this the sulphuretted hydrogen is burnt, even when it is mixed with much aqueous vapour. The solution of chloride of antimony obtained is diluted with water to 25° B.

When the solutions of hyposulphite of soda and chloride of antimony are thus prepared, the antimonial vermilion is prepared in the following manner:–4 litres of solution of chloride of antimony and 6 litres of water are poured into a stoneware basin, and after these 10 litres of the solution of hyposulphite of soda. The precipitate which is produced by the water is rapidly dissolved by the hypo-sulphite of soda in the cold. The basin is now placed in a water bath, which is heated to boiling; in this the temperature of the mixture gradually rises. Towards 86°F, the precipitate begins to form; it is at first orange-yellow, but gradually becomes darker. The temperature is allowed to rise to 131°F., when the basin is removed from the water-bath, and the precipitate is allowed to settle, which takes place rapidly. The fluid is separated from the precipitate by decantation; the precipitate is washed first with water containing one-fifteenth of muriatic acid, and afterwards with common water, then collected on a filter and dried. In the moist state the antimonial vermilion has a shining red colour, but in drying it loses a little of its lustre. It was also produced in the cold, but the process described is more certain and furnishes a finer colour.

The author has analysed the antimonial vermilion thus prepared, and at the same time examined the amount of water in the ordina orange-red sulphuret of antimony (precipitated by sulphuretted hydrogen). 0.668 grm. of the latter lost 0.038 grm. in weight when heated to 892°F.; 0.808 grm. of antimonial vermilion showed a loss of 0.009 grm. when heated to the same temperature. The latter might be attributed entirely to hygroscopic water, and the antimonial vermilion may therefore contain no chemically-combined water. The loss of weight which the orange-red sulphuret of antimony undergoes shows, on the contrary, that this contains water chemi cally combined, and this loss of weight gives it the composition SbS3+HO. The further analysis of the antimonial vermilion was effected by treating a weighed quantity of it with nitromuriatic acid containing an excess of nitric acid. A portion of sulphur remained undissolved, which, after tartaric acid had been mixed with the fluid, and the latter had been diluted with water, was separated, dried, and weighed. The fluid contained the remainder of the sulphur in the form of sulphuric acid, which was determined by precipitation with chloride of barium. The antimony was merely determined from the loss. The result of the analysis was, that the antimonial vermilion consists of 1.1 per cent of water, 267 per cent. of sulphur, and 72.2 per cent. of antimony. As the water is to be regarded as non-essential, it appears that the compound consists entirely of sulphur and antimony.

—Polytechn. Centralbl., 1855, p. 1451

On Artificial Ultramarine.

The Chemical Gazette 321, 1.3.1856

By C. Stölzel.

The method of producing ultramarine artificially has, since, its discovery, been repeatedly the subject of investigation; both scientifically and technically; and the production of artificial ultramarine can now no longer be regarded as a secret. Nevertheless the scientific questions involved in the process have never been sufficiently answered. Hitherto the influence of one or the other body in the formation has been alone discussed, and the whole theory of the formation has never been established by accurate chemical formulæ. This is explained by the various processes which go on at the same time, by the easy decomposability of the ultramarine when dissolved up for analysis, and by our insufficient acquaintance with the compounds of sulphur, and of the polythionates with the alkalies.

*Kaiserslautern in Rhenish Bavaria.By various investigations which I have had occasion to make in the different stages of the ultramarine manufacture, I have been repeatedly led to the question of the cause of the blue colour. By the kindness of the manufactory of this place*, I have obtained specimens not only of the finished colours, but also of the intermediate products of red and green ultramarine. I have from this been led to make accurate analyses of the different kinds of ultramarine, and to try the action of various reagents on them.


I. Analyses of Blue and Green Ultramarine.


a. Qualitctive Determination.

I found in green and blue ultramarine, prepared with sulphate of soda, besides silica, alumina, soda, and sulphur, which were the chief constituents, no inconsiderable quantities of iron, lime, and chlorine, with traces of magnesia, potash, and phosphoric acid. It is still a matter of dispute whether the iron is essential. It comes from the materials used in the preparation, especially from the alumina and charcoal (often coal); and in almost all the analyses of ultramarine, natural or artificial, it has been found to be a never-failing constituent. All the ultramarines I have investigated contained iron, though sometimes in very small quantities. Some processes require the direct addition of copperas in the manufacture, and Elsner showed that with Gmelin's process the desired colour could only be obtained when ferruginous materials were employed. Brunner used, with the exception of wood-charcoal, materials which were free from iron; and he obtained a preparation equal to that prepared with ferruginous materials. Certain manufacturers not only put no iron in, but take care that the alumina is free from iron; and it is rather a forced assumption that a small quantity of iron, which may be accidentally present, should be essential to a good colour. With the investigation of this question I am at present engaged.

With a view to obtain more beautiful tints, or greater resistance to acids, or a greater fineness for printing and painting, many manufacturers make special additions, either before or after the firing, besides such which must be regarded as adulterations, and which must by no means be neglected in the analysis. Instead of coal or charcoal, resin is sometimes added to the mixture, and may even occasionally be detected in the prepared colour.

In a specimen of ultramarine which I examined I found traces of fatty matter, which appeared to have had nitre mixed with it.


b. Quantitative Analysis.

1. Blue Ultramarine.

The determination of the individual constituents was made in several portions. The first portion was used for the determination of the silica, sulphuric acid, alumina, oxide of iron, lime, and soda. Its solution in hydrochloric acid was attended with teh development of sulphuretted hydrogen, and the separation of sulphur and silica. After separating the latter, the analysis of the other constituents was made in the usual manner.

In a second portion the iron was determined. As its quantity is very small in comparison wit hthat of the alumina, the usual modes of separation cannot be employed. The quantity of iron in the mixed precipitates of iron and alumina was therefore determined by means of permanganate of potash.

A third portion was used to determine the sulphur, which is not in the form of sulphuric acid. A portion was dreched with hot aqua regia in a capacious vessel, quickly corked, and digested till the sulphuretted hydrogen liberated was fully oxidized, and the sulphur separated had disappeared, and the separated silica had become quite gelatinous. The silica was separated, and the sulphuric acid precipitated as sulphate of baryta.

The chlorine was determined in a fourth portion by the usual methods.

The composition of blue ultramarine from this manufactory was as follows:

Al2O3 ... 31.18 p. c.
Fe ... 0.50
CaO ... 0.44
Na ... 11.10
SiO3 ... 38.11
SO3 ... 3.54
S ... 4.52
Cl ... 0.91
MgO, Kao, PO3 ... traces
O ... 9.70

(Fe2O3 ... 0.71)
(NaO ... 14.96)
O ... 9.70

Assuming that the iron and sodium were contained in the ultramarine as such, there is a deficiency of 10 per cent.; and assuming them to be contained as oxides, there is a deficiency of 8 per cent. I made therefore special search for other substances which might have escaped detection, such as resin, fat, carbonic acid. But none of these were present. An escape of sulphuretted hydrogen in estimating the sulphur might cause an error, but many analyses of the same substance gave me constant results.

It is scarcely to be doubted that the deficit is made up by the oxygen, which may be variously combined with the sodium, iron, or sulphur; but the analysis gives no clue to the mode in which this union takes place.

Green Ultramarine.

In the same manner an analysis was made of a green ultramarine to which a prize was awarded at the Munich Industrial Exhibition. In the first firing of the ultramarine, a product more or less green is obtained, and this is only converted into blue by another firing with sulphur. If the firing be effected in pots, the interior is of a particularly beautiful green (at times also red), and these pieces can then be picked out and worked up as a green. This would find many an application if the conditions for its production were more under our command. While the various analyses of blue ultramarine differ materially, the analyses of green which I have made agree essentially with those of Elsner.

Al2O3 ... 30.11 p. c.
Fe ... 0.49
CaO ... 0.45
Na ... 19.09
SiO3 ... 37.46
SO3 ... 0.76
S ... 6.08
Cl ... 0.37
MgO, Kao, PO3 ... traces
O ... 5.19

(Fe2O3 ... 0.7 p.c.)
(NaO ... 25.73 p.c.)

Al2O3 ... 30.00
Fe ... 0.90
Na ... 25.50 NaO
SiO3 ... 39.90
SO3 ... 0.40
S ... 4.60

It would hence appear that the green ultramarine is a determinate chemical compound, while in the blue, many constituents, such as silica and alumina, vary; so that the chemical compound which causes the colour is mixed with an excess of one or the other of these constituents.

It will be seen, on comparing the analyses of green and of blue ultramarine, that in the change from green to blue, while the other constituents remain the same, the absolute quantity of sulphur and sodium decreases; at the same time the relative quantity of sulphur to sodium is increased, and there is an increase in the sulphuric acid and oxygen. An increase in this last body is essential for blue ultramarine, and all technical processes require a certain free access of air.

If the firing of ultramarine be made in pots of porous clay, the ocntents are never equally coloured. Two, and sometimes three and four stages, are to be distinguished, and the intermediate stages are distinctly marked. These stages, though objectionable in practice, are important for a theory of the process. Sometimes in the interior there is a red core, easily changed by air and water; then a green mass, which passes through a bluish-green to a beautiful blue; and when the heat has been too strong, this is covered by a white layer. That the addition of oxygen plays an important part in the formation of blue is seen by the fact, that when the pot is emptied the green often changes suddenly into blue. The ultramarine mass has become a complete pyrophorus by the sulphide of sodium contained in it, and burns on coming into the air with the formation of sulphurous acid. In the so-called “fine firing,” which is done to convert the raw product into the commercial mass of the finest shade, the oxygen of the air is allowed to act, for the raw ultramarine mixed with sulphur is heated, and the latter burnt off at as low a temperature as possible under a slow access of air.

From a consideration of the above analysis, it is clear that part of the oxygen must be in combination with sulphur, but not as sulphuric acid. Even assuming that the whole of the sodium present is in the form of soda, which is by no means the case, there is still a deficiency of 3 per cent, which must be oxygen, and there is nothing but the sulphur with which it can be combined. When sulphide of sodium is acted upon by air, or when sulphur is heated with a sulphate, as is the case in the formation of ultramarine, some lower oxygen compound of sulphur than sulphuric acid must be formed. The presence of any such compounds has however been hitherto entirely ignored.


II. Action of various Reagens on Ultramarine.

As these experiments were made with ultramarine from this manufactory, it is probable that that prepared by other methods may exhibit slight deviations.

1. When ultramarine was heated to redness in a platinum crucible over a Berzelius lamp, it became lighter coloured; and when the platinum crucible, enclosed in a clay one, was heated in a charcoal fire, it became quite white. The residue, heated with hydrochloric acid, evolved no sulphuretted hydrogen, but much sulphurous acid. When ultramarine was heated in a platinum tray, in a combustion-tube closed at one end, a small deposit of sulphur was formed at first in the colder part, and afterwards a few drops of sulphuric acid were condensed there. Hence the fireproof silica exercises a decomposing action at a high temperature, and hence ultramarine cannot well be used in many processes of the porcelain manufactory.

Green ultramarine, treated similarly, passed into a dark blue colour with a tinge of green, which was so constant that it was not affected by many hours' violent firing.

2. Blue ultramarine, heated in oxygen, was changed into white. When heated with saltpetre, the colour is at first heightened; but with an increase of the saltpetre the mass is completely decolorized. This heightening of the colour is no real addition to its value as a colour, for when the mass was washed out a residue remained equal in quality and quantity to that originally employed. No colour is so deceitful in external appearance as ultramarine, and the shade of ultramarine gives no clue to its real value. By fine levigation the shade is brought down several numbers. The practical way to esti mate its value is to mix it with 8 or 10 times its weight of fine China clay, and fix, from the shade produced, its real value.

By fusing ultramarine with chlorate of potash at a low temperature, no change is produced; at a higher temperature the mass is changed into a beautiful rose colour.

When green ultramarine was acted on by these reagents, the result was much the same as with the blue.

3. When blue ultramarine was heated in a current of dry sulphurous acid, the colour vanished gradually, and became ultimately white.

Hydrogen passed over ultramarine gently heated, acted more nº. The colour became gradually paler, and sulphur and sulphuretted hydrogen were evolved in quantity. At a stronger heat the mass was changed into a gray colour, which, treated with acid, evolved sulphuretted hydrogen, and heated in the oxidizing flame of the blowpipe, passed though a beautiful green to a blue.

Green ultramarine afforded, when similarly heated, ultimate products of the same appearance, though the transition was somewhat different.

4. Strong acids attack ultramarine most energetically, and this is a great hindrance to its extended use. Potash- and soda-ley have no action even if boiled; but when fused with potash or soda, blue ultramarine passes through various stages of green or red to a red. These intermediary stages are however very evanescent. By gently heating ultramarine with small pieces of potassium, some beautiful vermilion- and purple-red colours were produced, which were also evanescent.

The results obtained may be thus expressed: —

1. Blue ultramarine, heated with exclusion of air, showed a variable degree of resistance to fire. At a high temperature blue ultramarine lost its colour, and left a mass which evolved sulphurous acid on treatment with hydrochloric acid; blue ultramarine, obtained by heating green ultramarine, remained unchanged, and evolved sulphuretted hydrogen when treated with hydrochloric acid.

2. Oxidizing and reducing agents destroyed the colours of both ultramarines at a high temperature; solid potash and soda at a lower temperature, and strong acids and chlorine in the cold.

3. Hydrogen, when passed over blue ultramarine heated, liberated sulphuretted hydrogen, but not with green. Both left an argillaceous gray mass, which heated in the oxidizing flame of the blow-pipe, passed through a green to a blue colour.

4. Solid potash and soda, and more perceptibly potassium and sodium, changed both ultramarines, when gently heated, partially into red ultramarine.

5. Green ultramarine, when not acted upon by strong reagents, had always a tendency to pass at a high temperature into blue.

These investigations I am still continuing.

— Liebig's Annalen, January 1856.


Improved Colorimeter.

The Chemical Gazette 321, 1.3.1856

By J. W. Slater.

Chemists who use the ordinary fube-colorimeter in analytical operations often find some difficulty in comparing two coloured solutions. Even though the tubes may be exactly of the same calibre, yet the eye is annoyed by the refraction of light in passing through a body with curvilinear surface. The following simple arrangement, which displays the liquids between two plane surfaces, will, I think, give perfect satisfaction. From a stout glass tube, about 1% inch in diameter, a number of portions or hoops are cut about two-thirds of an inch in width. All these are carefully ground smooth at one edge, and then cemented down upon a strip of clear plate glass. When the cement is perfectly hard, the upper edges of the glass rings are ground upon apolishing wheel so that they form a series of cells exactly equal in depth. All that is requisite, in using this colorimeter, is to fill the cells with the respective solutions to be compared, and place the apparatus upon a sheet of white paper, or, covering the whole with another slip of plate glass, equal in size to the one upon which the rings are cemented, to hold up the entire apparatus to the light. The upper plate fitting closely upon the ground edges of the rings, prevents the solutions from escaping. In this manner shades of colour may be distinguished, which, if en: closed in tubes, might be confounded even by the most practised observer.

- Northern Analytical College, Sheffield, Dec. 24, 1855.


A Brown Ink for marking Linen.

The Chemical Gazette 320, 15.2.1856

The solution for writing consists of ½ an ounce of acetate of manganese in 1½ oz. of water; the linen is prepared by saturation with a solution of 1 drm. of prussiate of potash, stiffened with 1½ drm. of gum-arabic, drying, and ironing.

- Würzb. Wochen schrift, 1855, No. 10.


On a new Gold Varnish which does not lose its Colour by exposure to Air and Light.

The Chemical Gazette 318, 15.1.1856

A very beautiful and permanent gold varnish may be prepared in the following manner: - 2 ozs. of the best French garancine are digested in a glass vessel with 6 ozs. of alcohol of spec. grav, 0.833, for twelve hours, pressed, and filtered. A solution of clear orange-coloured shell-lac in similar alcohol is also prepared, filtered, and evaporated until the lac has the consistence of a clear syrup; it is then coloured with the tincture of garancine. Objects coated with this have a colour which only differs from that of gold by a slight brownish tinge. The colour may be more closely assimilated to that of gold by the addition of a little tincture of saffron.

— Archiv der Pharm., cxxxiv. p. 78.


On Rinmann's Green.

The Chemical Gazette 336, 15.10.1856

By Prof. R. Wagner.

Under the name of Rinmann's green (cobalt-green) is known a colour obtained in the latter part of the last century by Rinmann, a Swede, by the calcination of a mixture of oxide of zinc and prot oxide of cobalt. The high price of the materials may be the principal reason why this colour has not come into general use. But since zinc-white has become a regular and cheap article of commerce, and protoxide of cobalt has also been brought into commerce at a low price and in a tolerably pure state, the conditions for the manufacture of cobalt-green have become more favourable than formerly, and the author has made experiments upon its preparation, of which the following are the results.

In the first place it is necessary to prepare a protoxide of cobalt as free as possible from foreign metals. For this purpose oxide of cobalt, such as is furnished by the Saxon blue manufactories, is employed; this is dissolved in 3 parts of concentrated muriatic acid, the solution is evaporated in dryness, the residue dissolved in 6 parts of water, and sulphuretted hydrogen gas is passed through the fluid as long as a precipitate is formed. The fluid fileted from the precipitated metallic sulphurets is again evaporated to dryness, and the residue is dissolved in so much water that the solution shall weigh 10 parts. A litre of the solution does not contain much less than 100 grms. of protoxide of cobalt, and 100 cub. centims, therefore contain 10 grms. The fluid is drawn off for use.

If this solution be precipitated with carbonate of soda, and the hydrated protocarbnate of cobalt produced be mixed whilst still moist after washing with oxide of zinc, a reddish-violet paste is obtained, which, when dried and long calcined, forms a green mass, the colour of which is intense in proportion to the quantity of solution of cobalt employed. Cobalt-green may be regarded as a mixture of zincate of protoxide of cobalt (corresponding to the aluminate of protoxide of cobalt in cobalt-ultramarine, or Thenard's blue) with oxide of zinc. From well-calcined cobalt-green ammonia first of all extracts oxide of zinc, and afterwards the cobalt compound dissolves. Glass fluxes, as might be expected, are coloured blue by cobalt-green. If the cobalt solution be employed in such quantity that there may be more than 1 equiv. of protoxide of cobalt to l equiv. of oxide of zinc, a dingy green or even black mass is obtained after calcination; this is probably a mixture of the compound ZnO, CoO with an excess of protoxide of cobalt. The most agree able greens are obtained when 1 to 1½ part of protoxide of cobalt is employed with 9 to 10 parts of oxide of zinc. The tints however never equal those of a bright copper-green, nor even those of the green ultramarine.

The Belgian chemist Louyet has ascertained that an addition of phosphoric or arsenic acid in the preparation of cobalt-ultramarine increases the beauty of the colour. If the addition of acids favours the combination of protoxide of cobalt with alumina, the presence of these acids must also have a favourable influence on the production of cobalt-green. If the above-mentioned solution of cobalt be precipitated by phosphate of soda or arseniate of potash, the phosphate or arseniate of protoxide of cobalt thus obtained possesses the property of communicating the green colour to oxide of zinc, even at a lower temperature than ordinary protoxide of cobalt. The protoxide of cobalt is also broken up and rendered more productive by these two acids, and the green colour is rendered purer and more brilliant. Alkaline arsenites behave like the arsenites and phosphates. If the mixed mass is obtained, to which the arsenious acid, which is partially volatilized, has given a loose spongy consistence, in consequence of which it is easily triturated.

Experiments with silicic and boracc acids and oxide of antimony did not give favourable results.

- Kunst- und Gewerbeblatt für Bayern, 1856, p. 83.


Note on the Oils employed in the Manufacture of Turkey-red.

The Chemical Gazette 332, 15.8.1856

By J. Pelouze.

All the fixed oils are not equally proper for the preparation of the dyes known under the names of Turkey-red and Adrianople-red. Those generally used are olive oils, distinguished by the name of emulsive oils (huiles tournantes), from the property which they possess of producing a milky emulsion with a weak alkaline solution. To distinguish them, the manufacturers let fall 1 or 2 drops of the oil into a test-glass partly filled with a solution of caustic soda marking 1½ to 2 degrees, and judge of the value of the oil by the greater or less opacity of the drops of oil. The oils proper for the manufacture of Turkey-red being expensive, it has been endeavoured to replace them by cheaper oils, mixed with yolk of egg, treated with nitric acid, &c., but without success, as the manufacture of Turkey-red still consumes great quantities of natural emulsive oils.

* Chem. Gas, No. 301, p. 161.The author formerly showed* that if crushed oleaginous seeds were left to themselves, the neutral fatty bodies contained in them were chaged into acids, and announced that these partially acidified oils would then shortly be applied in the manufacture of Turkey-red. He has ascertained that the oils used for that purpose were mixtures of neutral and acid fatty bodies; and by treating them with alcohol, found that they yielded portions of oleic and margaric acids varying from 5 to 15 per cent. The acids may also be extracted from the oils by heating them for a few minutes with an alkali. Ordinary olive oil contains no fatty acids, or only an insignificant quantity of them.

The author's observations on the spontaneous saponification of fatty bodies easily explain the difference in the composition of these oils. The pure oils are obtained by the simple division and immediate pressule of the olives, whilst the treatment of the cakes and other residues, and the fermentation of the olives, cause the acidification of the oil, and render it emulsive (tournante).

For some years M.M. Boniface of Rouen have prepared an artificial oil of this kind; and the author, on examining it, found it to contain considerable portions of oleic and margaric acids, but the process by which it is prepared is not known. However, it appears that the only difference between the two categories of commercial oils—those fitted for dyeing are mixed with fatty acids, whilst the others are free from them. M. Chevreul, also, more than twenty years ago, extracted two oily matters from Turkey-red stuffs; one of these was neutral to litmus, whilst the other reddened it, and was composed of oleic and margaric acids.

The author states that olive-oil has been almost exclusively employed in dyeing Turkey-red, because olives give rise to the reaction which produces the fatty acids more readily than the oleaginous seeds, and that it will be easy to substitute for it cheaper oils, such as poppy-oil, oil of sesame, colza-oil, palm-oil, &c. It will be sufficient to crush the seeds or kernels, and leave them for a short time before extracting the oil. A still more simple means consists in adding to the oils a few hundredths of their weight of the oleic and margaric acids furnished by the manufacturers of stearine candles. This last method has succeeded with M. Steiner of Manchester, and M. Pelouze also communicates a letter from MM. Henry of Barle-Duc, containing some useful information on the substitution of artificially acidified oils for those which are naturally acid, and exhibited to the Academy of Sciences specimens of cotton-dyed Turkey-red with both the natural and artificial oils, and between which there was no perceptible difference.

He adds, that it is very probable that the treatment of certain oils, especially colza-oil, with a little sulphuric acid, would give rise to mixtures of neutral oils and fatty acids, which when well washed would be fit for the manufacture of Turkey-red.

MM. Henry state that the quantity of oleic acid required to give the necessary properties to the oil varies according to the nature of the latter from 5 to 15 per cent, and they have even produced the effect with 2 per cent. The oils require to be purified to a certain extent. The cotton-dyed (10 kilogrms. of thread) gave a good tint, proportioned to the madder employed; the oil used was 3 kilogrms. of purified colza-oil with 60 grms. of oleic acid, or only 2 per cent. They are convinced that it will succeed on the large scale.

— Comptes Rendus, June 23, 1856, p. 1196.

On the Decoloration of Silk and Wool dyed Yellow with Picric Acid.

The Chemical Gazette 331, 1.8.1856

By C. Pugh.

According to Pugh, silk, wool, &c., dyed with picric acid, do not change their colour by immersion in a hot solution of protochloride of tin or iron, although these are both very energetic reductive agents. But if, after washing, they are immersed in an alkaline solution, a red colour is produced in consequence of the formation of haematin-nitric acid; but this colour dissolves, and the stuff remains almost white. Perhaps by using certain mordants this would furnish a means of fixing red patterns upon yellow grounds.

—Journ. für Prakt. Chem., lxv. p. 368.

Theoretical and Practical Investigation on the Fixation of Colours in Dyeing. (Part II.)

The Chemical Gazette 327, 1.6.1856

By Frederick Kuhlmann.

* Page 192.The author having found, as stated in the first part of this paper*, that pyroxyline, when deprived of a portion of its nitrous elements by spontaneous decomposition, acquired a capability of taking dyes quite opposite to that possessed by pyroxyline, commenced a fresh series of experiments with cotton stuffs, which before receiving the mordant had been in contact for a longer or shorter time either with nitric acid of various degrees of concentration, or with variable mixtures of nitric and sulphuric acids. The results were very remarkable. With Brazil wood, acetate of alumina gave violet-red tints upon non-azotized cotton; immersion for twenty minutes in nitric acid of 34°, followed by washing with a large quantity of water, and immersion in a weak solution of carbonate of soda before the application of the mordant, gave a far deeper and less violet-red colour than that taken by the cotton which was not prepared with acid. The result was confirmed by several successive trials. A ve sensible effect was produced, even by the immersion of the cotton for half an hour, in the same acid diluted with double its volume of water; and in this case the tenacity of the cotton was not perceptibly altered.

In the following comparative experiments -
No. 1 was cotton without any acid preparation;
No. 2, cotton kept for five minutes in a mixture of 2 vols. of nitric acid of 34° and 1 vol. of sulphuric acid of 66°;
No. 3, cotton kept for two minutes in a mixture of 1 vol. of nitric acid and 1 vol. of sulphuric acid;
No. 4, cotton kept for twenty minutes in a mixture of 1 vol. of nitric acid and 2 vols. of sulphuric acid;
No. 5, cotton kept for twenty minutes in a mixture of 1 vol. of nitric acid, 2 vols. of sulphuric acid, and ½ vol. of water.

After the acid baths, the stuffs were washed with a large quantity of water, passed into a bath of carbonate of soda, washed again, and finally passed into a mordant of acetate of alumina. The dyeing was effected with a decoction of Brazil wood.

No. 1 took a pale violet-red colour;
No. 2, a less violet-red tint, but still rather pale;
No. 3, a deeper and brighter colour;
No. 4, a much deeper poppy-red colour, very like that obtained with the decomposed pyroxyline;
No. 5, a deep red colour of extraordinary richness. Under the same circumstances, but with a stronger dye-bath, a splendid red colour was produced of such depth that it appeared brown. The same results were obtained in several repetitions of the experiments.

From this it evidently follows that a mixture of sulphuric and nitric acids furnishes colours most approaching scarlet, and that the best results are obtained with a bath consisting of 1 vol. of nitric acid of 34°, 2 vols. of sulphuric acid of 66°, and ½ vol. of water.

The author also made some comparative trials of dyeing with cochineal and orchil upon cotton. The mordant was acetate of alumina. Immersion of the cotton for twenty minutes in a bath of pure nitric acid, or a mixture of 2 vols. of nitric acid and 1 vol. of sulphuric acid, gave with cochineal a pale red tint, very like that produced without an acid bath. The same immersion in a bath of 1 vol. of nitric and 1 vol. of sulphuric acid gave a much deeper colour. A mixture of 1 vol. of nitric and 2 vols. of sulphuric acid gave a colour of at least double the intensity of the preceding.

With the last acid mixture also a pretty strong colour was obtained upon cotton with orchil.

With garancine a bath of nitric acid alone gave a yellower but not a deeper tint than upon cotton which had not been azotized. 2 vols. of nitric and 1 vol. of sulphuric acid gave a similar tint, but deeper than the preceding. Equal volumes of the acids gave a very fine brownish-red colour, like the Adrianople-red before avirage. 1 vol. of nitric and 2 vols. of sulphuric acid gave the same intensity of colour, but a shade more approaching orange. Lastly, twenty minutes' contact of the cotton with a mixture of 1 vol. of nitric acid, 2 vols. of sulphuric acid, and ½ vol. of water, gave a very bright red colour, of much greater intensity than the preceding.

All these experiments were repeated with wool, silk, feathers, and hair, previously submitted to the same treatment as the cotton, with remarkable results as regards the intensity and richness of the colours. Even with nitric acid diluted with 5 times its volume of water the effects are very distinct.

As in treatment with concentrated acids the threads or tissues, especially those of cotton or linen, are considerably altered, so that the preceding results cannot be generally applied in dyeing, the author attempted the fixation upon these tissues of different azotized matters produced by the action of concentrated nitric acid upon certain organic bodies. Picric acid, which does not attach itself to cotton with a mordant of alumina, gives very strong tints when the cotton has been nitrated. In this case the acid acts as a colouring matter, but it acts also as a mordant, especially in producing, compound colours, either by using baths of picric acid after the application of the ordinary mordants, or by mixing the acid in variable quantities with the colour in the dye-bath. The colours thus produced are very bright, but they are more applicable to dyeing upon wool and silk, as upon cotton the picric acid reacts in time upon the colouring matter, usually causing it to become yellow.

The author considers that from these experiments it follows, that the chemical composition of the bodies to be dyed has the greatest influence upon the fixation of colour, that dyeing is a true chemical combination, and that the effects due to capillarity, and the peculiar structure of the material are but secondary. These theoretical points will be treated in the third part of his memoir.

— Comptes Rendus, April 21, 1856, p. 711.

Theoretical and Practical Investigation on the Fixation of Colours in Dyeing. (Part I.)

The Chemical Gazette 15.5.1856

By F. Kuhlmann.

It was generally supposed by those chemists who first occupied them selves with the complicated phaenomena of the art of dyeing, that azotized materials possess the greatest aptitude for the reception of dyes. In support of this, they instanced the greater ease with which silk and wool were dyed in comparison with cotton and linen. In the red dyeing of Adrianople, it was considered that the employment of baths of sheep's dung must give a sort of animalization to the cotton, and baths of cow-dung might be considered by dyers as producing a similar result. These notions, as regards cow-dung, have been abandoned by chemists, especially as several saline substances, particularly silicate of soda, have been substituted for it as a means of fixing the mordants.

M. Chevreul has shown that the more or less easy fixation of colours upon tissues depends sometimes upon the nature of the latter, and sometimes upon that of the colouring matter itself. The author has tried whether cotton modified by combination with the elements of nitric acid, or by transformation into pyroxyline, would acquire a peculiar disposition for absorbing colouring matters. He carefully prepared a quantity of pyroxyline with cotton and linen tissues, and also with cotton-wool, operating by Meynier's process with a mixture of monohydrated nitric acid and concentrated sulphuric acid. The pyroxyline was washed several times with a large quantity of water, soaked for some time in a solution of crystallized carbonate of soda, and washed again. The pyroxylized tissues were prepared for dyeing by the following treatment: - They were soaked for twenty-four hours in cold water, pressed and rinsed, then soaked in boiling water, and after a fresh washing they were half-dried and calendered for printing.

Various mordants were printed simultaneously upon pyroxylized linen and cotton tissues, and upon portions of the same in their natural state, the latter having been completely freed from foreign matters by boiling for three hours in a weak solution of carbonate of soda, then washed and treated with a bath slightly acidulated with sulphuric acid, and after being washed again and half-dried, calendered to prepare them for printing.

The azotized and non-azotized tissues were printed at the same time with the following mordants: —
Pyrolignite of iron of 7° Baumé.
Thickened with starch.

2 parts of pyrolignite of iron of 10°.
1 part of pyrolignite of alumina of 8°.
Thickened with starch.

Pyrolignite of alumina of 8°.
Thickened with soluble starch.

Pyrolignite of iron of 1°.
Thickened with soluble starch.

Pyrolignite of iron of ½°.
Thickened with soluble starch.

Decoction of catechu with acetic acid.
A little nitrate of copper.

After impression, the tissues were suspended for six days in the cold, and one day in the hot oxidizing chamber. They were freed from gum in a bath of cow-dung and chalk of 158°F. for ten minutes, well cleaned, treated a second time in the same bath at the same temperature, cleaned and rinsed. The dyeing was effected with garancine in a bath of river-water slightly acidulated, commencing with a temperature of 95° F., and rising gradually in three hours to 185° F.; lastly, the tissues were pressed, rinsed, and dried. The dyed samples were halved, and one-half of each bleached with chloride of lime.

These operations proved the following facts: — All the azotized tissues remained excessively pale compared with the non-azotized ones, notwithstanding the superabundance of the colouring matter. The azotized tissue, although it rejects the mordants, appears to possess the power of combining, without their aid, with a portion of the colouring matter of madder, to judge from the yellowish tint which remains even after the treatment with chloride of lime.

To ascertain whether these results were due to exceptional causes, especially to a portion of acid which might have escaped the washings, the author repeated his experiments, soaking the azotized tissues for twenty-four hours in a weak tepid bath of crystallized carbonate of soda, rinsing them, and washing them repeatedly. They were then calendered, moistened, and printed after drying. After immersion in the mordants, they were suspended in the fixing chamber for eight days. They were freed from gum, and dried in the same way as in the preceding experiment, when exactly the same results were obtained.

Other pieces of cotton, and one of linen, were heated with a hot-bath of pyrolignite of iron, and then passed into a bath of nut-galls. The azotized tissues acquired a very pale tint compared with those in their natural state.

Dyeing with prussian blue was then tried upon cotton-wool. As in the black-dyeing with gall-nuts, the pyroxylized cotton only acquired a very pale tint compared with that in the natural state. The same results were obtained in a series of experiments with cotton wool, in which Brazil-wood was substituted for garancine.

M. Béchamp's recent experiments having shown the possibility of reducing pyroxylized cotton to its original state, the author wished to ascertain whether in this case it also regained its capacity for dyeing; he found that pyroxyline, treated by Béchamp's process, recovered its property of receiving colours.

The author had retained a considerable quantity of pyroxylized cotton tissues. These were rolled up tightly, and kept in a wide mouthed bottle closed with a cork. In about two months he observed that the bottle was filled with nitrous vapours, and that the cork, which was corroded by nitric acid, had been raised to give passage to the reddish vapours. The author was unable to ascertain the cause of this spontaneous decomposition, for some pyroxylized cotton which had been dyed and preserved for the same period had undergone no alteration. He washed the decomposed pyroxyline, but its texture was greatly changed, and tore with a slight touch, and its inflammability was considerably diminished.

The results of its analysis, as confirmed by M. Wurtz, were as follows:-
The substance was dried in vacuo at 212° and 230°F.
C 31.25
H 4.08
N 7.88

The analyses of gun-cotton give—

Demonte and Menard. Béchamp.
28.5 28.5 27.9
3.5 3.5 3.5
11.6 10.5 11.1

The comparison of these results shows that pyroxylized cotton after this spontaneous decomposition contains two-thirds less nitric acid than unaltered gun-cotton.

This partially denitrified pyroxyline was dyed with garancine and Brasil wood after mordanting with acetate of alumina, when the author was astonished to find, not only that it no longer rejected the colouring matter like pyroxylized cotton, but that it furnished infinitely stronger and brighter colours than non-azotized cotton treated in the same way. Thus with Brazil wood and a mordant of acetate of alumina a tint approaching scarlet was obtained, and this induced the author at once to attempt the production of a nitrated cotton with the same power of fixing colours possessed by that which he had obtained by accident. After ascertaining unmistakeably that the nitrous elements retained in this were in chemical combination with the cellulose, he soon perceived that these elements had not entered into such a stable state of combination, in the presence of salts of protoxide of iron, as that in which they exist in pyroxyline.

Decomposed pyroxyline and ordinary pyroxyline were exposed to a gentle heat in a bath of protosulphate of iron. In a very short time the altered pyroxyline acquired a chamois-yellow colour, whilst the pyroxyline took up much less oxide of iron than ordinary cotton under the same circumstances. The same differences of colour were reproduced when the oxide of iron was converted into prussian blue by a slightly acidulated bath of ferrocyanide of potassium. Thus pyroxyline, by losing a portion of its nitrous elements, not only loses its resistance to the absorption of mordants and colours, but actually becomes far more capable of becoming charged with these bodies than non-azotized cotton.

— Comptes Rendus, April 14, 1856, p. 673.

Försök, at af de flesta Lafarter, (Lichenes) bereda Färgstofter, som sätta höga och vackra färgor på Ylle och Silke

Kongl. Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar
Jan. Febr. Mart.

Åttonde och sidsta Afdelningen,
innehållande Försöken med Piplavarne (Lich. fruticulosi Linn.), Kliblasvarne (Lich. gelatinosi), Fotlafvarne, (Heliopod. Achar.) Saint tillägg af flera, hörande till de förra Afdelningarne, och några nya, med åtskilliga rättelser.

Joh. P. Westring,
M. D. Kongl. Lif-Medicus.

Redan äro 12 är förslutne sedan jag började detta mödosama arbete. Blotta insamlingen af dessa växter har medtagid mycken tid, gjort gjort kostnad och besvär; ty de våra icke alla i en Provins: hvarföre jag, i flera är om sommartiden gjort långa resor genom flera af Rikets provinser, och äfven låtit håmta några från flera aflågsnare orter. Det mörker som omgaf deras kännedom och åtskillnad från hvarandra, och den villervalla genom olika namn hos Botanisterna, samt de många nya Species, som jag påfunnit, hvilka säkrast blif vit utmärkte och åtskiljde genom fibrer Masfors Comparation, tillika med Analysen, m. m. hafva sanfält orsakadt bryderi och tidspillan. Färgakonsten, såsom en ännu mycket ofullkomnad Wetenskapsgren, är ock vidlöftig, och fordrar tid och granlagenhet, samt omgjorda försök och flerfaldiga förändringar, hvartill behöfves mycken rudimateria, för att kunna komma till visshet om resultaterna. Oagtadt uppoffrandet af mina hvilostunder åt detta arbete, ser jag mig nu, efter 12 års förlopp, dock icke hafva hunnit det mål, som jag i början trodde vara nårmare: det nemligen, att mera enskilt kunna afhandla detta ämne, för att fåtta det i full gång till praktisk nytta. Jag har dock till en del vunnit något af min ånskan då jag redan sett, att Laf färgor blifvit använde i stort vid Fabrikerna härstädes: och att många fattige kunnat hafva förtjenst af dessa lafvars samlande och försälgning. Mycket återstår ännu att forska hårutinnan, som jag önskar så öfverlemna åt den, som har mera tid och lågligare tillfälle dertill än jag. Jag har gjort en början och en haflig öfverfart öfver de flesta: dock så fullständig, efter min tanke, att det kan göras efter i stort. Deras antal, som blifvit undersökte öfverstiger 150 olika slag: och jag tror, att de öfriga icke låna mödan, dels för deras knappa tillgång, dels ock för deras klena växt och ringa hatt. Hade jag velat skrifva en utförlig afhandling öfver alla dessa och hvar och en i synnerhet, så hade hvarken K. Wetenskaps-Acaderniens handlingar kunnat upptaga dem, ej eller min tid varit tillräckelig för alla de försök, som dertill fordras. Jag har imellertid icke underlåtit att utmörka dem, som förtjena både arbete och vidare forskning. Det är en generel anvisning gifven, som kan mycket minska det första brydsamma arbetet. Min tid behöfver jag för en Wetenskap, som är mig vigtigare, och som mera berättigar sig min arbetsbog. Utaf allt hvad jag erfarit härutienan, kan jag nu göra den säkra slutsats, att vi kunna draga mycken nytta och vina af dessa hittils så illa kände och äfven så illa begagnade växter. Det som nu blir angelågit, för att befordra nyttan till full verksamhet, är, att tillaga färgstofter af dessa. Dess förinnan är icke att förmoda någon särdeles vinst af dem; ty det vanliga sättet att färga medelst Lafvens kokning med godset, orsakar både öfverflödigt arbete och kostnad, då så mycket åtgår af dessa Lafvar: och ändamålet med en vacker färg vinnes sällan, om icke lafven förut dårtill är beredd.

Efter de Metoder, som jag nyttjat, till en del uppgifna i min första afhandling har jag funnit dessa växter liksom många andra kunna i afseende på färg ämnet i allmänhet delas 2:ne Classer. 1:mo Substantiva färgor, sjelfständiga, gedigna eller naturela, som icke behöfva någon särdeles beredning, emedan de äro verkeliga af naturen utarbetade färgstofter, och hafva sitt färgämne redan utveckladt och fullkomnadt. Dessa upplåtas till en del i kallt vatten och behöfva ingen annan grad värma, än den vanliga sommar värmen, för att fästa sig på silke och ylle. Sådane äro L. Chlorinus, Cinereus, Hæmatoma, Ventosus, Corallinus, Westringii, Saxatilis, Conspersus, Barbatus, Plicatus, Vulpinus, m fl. Andra åter fordra mera vårma, kokning och längre beredning, såsom L. Subcarneus, Dillenii, Farinaceus, Jubatus, Furfuraceus, Pulmonarius, Corrugatus, Cocciferus, Digitatus, Uncialis, Aduncus m. fl. Dessa behöfva icke något betningsåmne; ty de fästa sig sjelfva. Det enda och tjenligaste har jag funnit vara koksalt och saltpetter, hvaraf i synnerhet silkes färgorna så mycken glants, och blifva äfven mycket fasta. Med andra tillsatser af kalk eller salter blifva dessas färgor ofta försämrade.

2:do Till andra Klassen föras alla de öfriga, som fordra särskilt beredning, och som sålunda icke hafva sitt färgämne uti sig utveckladt. De kunna kallas Adjectiva Artificiela eller arbetade färgor. Efter deras olika natur fordra de ock ett olika tillagningssätt: såsom Umbilicaterna, hvilka alla gifva räda färgor, undantagande en enda L. Erosus, då de hållas i täppta käril, antingen med gammal Urin och litet osläkt kalk; eller som snyggare är, med 1/10 osläkt kalk mot lafvens vigt, och Salmiak 1/20, som utveckla färgen innom mycket kortare tid, och dymedelst beredas till tjenliga färgmassor eller färgstofter. Dessa färgstofters beredning gifver god anledning för Fabrikers upprättande, hvilka troligen aldrig skulle sakna tillräckelig rudimateria hos oss. a) Man har uppgifvit, att det var L. Saxatilis, som här bereddes till röd färg; men efter många förändrade försök är jag tämeligen förvissad derom, att denna icke gifver röd; men väl en hög Orange färg.Då 200 månniskor i Leith i Skottland sysselsättas och södas endast genom färgberedning af en enda Laf, neml. L. Tartareus a), som säljes ovisliga som rudimateria från Bohus skären, så skulle det tyckas vara ett ämne af vigt, att sätta i sin rätta gång. Utaf de 150 laf-Species, som jag undersökt, kan jag minst räkna 50; som förtjena att användas till färg-beredning; ty tillgången på dessa är ganska ömnig: och sålunda tyckes det, som en mycket lönande Fabriks-imättning för dessa skulle kunna påräknas. Af så mycket större skål, som vi hafva dessa växter öfverallt ömnigt nog växande, och i synnerhet då flera af andra Laf afdelningar kunna på lika sätt till lika väkra färgstofter beredas, hvilka med Umbilicaterna kunna blandas och beredas till rödfärg, såsom L. Scruposus, Impressus och Lacteus. Man gör det inkast, att dessa snart utödas? Med det förfaller mot den upplysning färom, som erfarenheten gifver oss, neml. att de vanligast åter tillväxa innom 3 till 4 år, såsom i Bohus Skären derifrån årligen flora Poster blifvit samlade af flera hundrade Skeppund. Dessa växter tyckas hafva en Polyp natur, då nästan alla delar af växten innehålla sitt frö; så att om en bit af blad eller skorpa fästes, så utväxer den omsider till en hel och full växt. De likna de små Insekterna, (Acari) som dö bort, af torrka och åter upplifvas, då de vattnas. b) Recherches chimiques: & microscopiques fur une nouvelle classe de plantes polypiers, les Conserves, les Bisses, les Tremelles &c. par Girod Chantraus. Paris 1802. Herr Girod Chantraus b) försök med Gryptogamisterna hafva visat, att en del ibland dem hafva Animalisk natur: och dessa tyckas i det nårmaste komma derintil. Sålunda skulle dessa också troligen med ringa möda kunna kultiveras, och på det sättet våra kala berg och backar göras fruktbärande på förträffeliga färgstofter. Försök borde anställas, att utså söndergnuggade växter vid första kommande snö, på berg och stenar, då de troligen skulle fästas. Sådane forskningar kunde väl höra till Botaniska området, och skulle visserligen öka värdet af denne nyttiga vetenskapen.

De sköna färgstofter, som uti dertill inrättade Fabriker tillverkades, skulle blifva en begårlig vara för inlåndsk och utlåndsk handel, och endast på det sättet borde dessa ämnen försäljas. Endast genom några dagars ljum maceration i vatten skulle de Substantiva färglafvarne så utseende af färg. Det biträde, som Chemien ännu ej kan gifva, vore, att göra dessa färgor så fasta, at luften icke kunde föråndra dem. Den tillväxt, som denna vetenskap fått i sednare tider, gör denna väntan derifrån lika så möjelig, som den nu är önskelig. Om det är våtets (hydrogens) eller Syrets (oxigens) Chemiska åverkan genom värmets biträde, som gör färgorna obeständiga, torde ännu icke vara alldeles afgjort, ehuru det sednare skulle snarast tros. En fullkomligare Chemisk undersökning torde väl en gång upplösa denna gåtan, och äfven uppfinna hjelp och medel deremot.

Emellertid hafva våra Skönfärgare, eller de som sysselsätta sig med att färga silke och tyger däraf, mycket att hämta af dessa Laffärgor. De skila hår finna ett rikt förråd af otroligt många färg-nuancer, som icke eljes så lått kunna vinnas.

För Ylle-Fabriker lofva de icke så mycket ännu, hvartill dock en mera öfvad konst omsider torde kunna förhjelpa dem. De färgor, som de gifva åt Silke, hafva den egenskapen, att vara mycket gläntsande, och en del blifva lika så fasta, som de Chinesiska.

Jag bör nu ock sluteligen göra besked för de Metoder som jag nyttjat, för att rättfärdiga mina uppgifter vid andras granskning. Som mitt ämne ifrån början endast varit att forska efter hvarje Lafs färghalt, hvilket arbetes vidlöstighet endast mätes till en del af Lafvarnes myckenhet; så har jag 1:0 dertill användt täppta käril, vanliga glasflaskor, hvilka för renligheten och odelbarheten varit de säkraste. På det sättet har jag snart kunnat upptäcka, hvilka lafvar varit Sjelfständiga färgstofter (Substantiva) då till ex. 3 till 4 quintin torrkad och söndermalen laf blifvit lagd i en sådan flaska, hvarpå blifvit håldt 3 till 4 jungfrur kallt strömvatten, fritt från salt- och jordblandningar, och flaskan med gods af ylle, silke och linne ibland, lagdt deruti, blifvit satt på varmt ställe. Innom korrtare eller längre tid har jag då funnit hvad jag haft att vänta af den lafven, såsom sjelfständigt färgstoft.

2. Dertill har jag sedan förfökt huruvida koksalt och saltpetter mera fullkomnade och fästade färgen. Skårskilta fatser hafva dertill blifvit tagna af Laf i sina flaskor, vanligen med 1/13 af dessa salter hvardera mot Lafvens vigt. Jag har funnit dessa båda salter de men lämpeliga ock öfverenskommande med Lafvarnes natur att fästa färgämnet, utan att förändra det ifrån det rätta naturliga. På silket hafva ock dessa begge salter en fördeles stark betningskraft.

3. Då färg icke kunnat erhållas efter någondera af dessa tvänne metoder, har jag ökat andra metoden med lika tillsats af lutsalt (renadt Alkali vegetab. fix.) neml. 1/13, lika vigt med de förra. Hårigenom har jag ofta funnit antingen att färgämnet blifvit fullare, eller ock till utseendet mycket föråndradt. Det för jag dock anmärka, att de färgor, som häraf uppkomma, sällan blifva så fasta, som efter de tvänne föregående metoderna. Wissa lafvar hafva ett harts ämne (resina) som då upplöses, och som tyckes förhöra Syrets kraft att Carbonifera färgstoftet, hvarigenom färgen blir olika, något föråndrad och lösare.

4. Också har jag funnit, att osläkt kalk i stället för lutsalt, efter lika proportion, ofta utarbetar med de tvänne salterna ett fullare och ömnigare färgånme; men som ej eller gör färgen särdeles fast.

5. Koppar-vitriol har den egenskapen, att göra men alla färgor mera fasta; men merendels med mera mörkhet. Jag har derföre nyttjat den till lika vigt, som de ofvannämnde salter, då jag derefter erhållit egna vackra färgor, till en del ägta eller mycket fasta. De fleste, som draga i gult eller gulbrunt, så häraf vackra åt grönt dragande färgor.

6. Då, efter de 5 uppråknade metoderna; ingen färg kunnat utvecklas utur lafvarne, har jag funnit osläkt kalk och Salmiak, till 1/10 af den förra, och 1/20 af den sednare, hafva den förmågan, att efter längre eller kortare tid, väl täppt käril, utdraga ett ömnigt färgämne. En sådan sats måste då förvaras på ett varmt ställe, af 20 eller 30 gr. värma, 8 till 14 dagar, då på det sättet, de flesta sköna gredelina, violetta, röda och flera färgor uppkomma. Om denna massa längre tid förvaras, blir färgen mera full och stark. Den kan sedan inkokas, eller på varmt ställe sättas i utdunstning till torrhet, som alltid är förmånligare; då deraf uppkomma de vackra Adjectiva eller arbetade färgstofterna. Endast denna korrta uppgift kan vara tillräckelig Clav, till Fabriks inrättning häraf. Jag har utmärkt denna min 6:te metod med namn af nya metoden, dels för abbreviation, dels ock efter som jag upptåkt den till förbättring på den besvärliga och flinkande metod, som Allmogen och äfven Fabrikerna vanligen nyttja. Jag fannt sedermera att Herr Helliot på sin tid redan uppgif vit något dylikt, som den tiden var mig alldeles obekandt; hvarföre detta icke egenteligen kan anses som en ny uppgift.

7. Både en del Substantiva och Adjectiva färg lafvar kunna genom kokning gagnas såsom färgstoft. Ibland de förra, såsom t. ex. L. Corallinus, Saxatilis, Conspersus, äro dock någre, som gifva mindre hög färg genom kokning, såsom L. Cinereus, Westringii, Corrugatus, m. fl. än genom mindre grad värma. Detta läres af öfning, och är af mig merendels utmärkt för hvar och en af Lafvarne.

Adjectiva eller arbetade färgstofter af Lafvarne kunna genom olika tilläggningar under starkare grad af värma föråndras och så olika utseend.e, Detta sker med olika betnings ämne eller tillsatsa af andra färgor. Detta sker af sjelfva färgekonsten.

Efter dessa 7 metoder har jag anstält försök med de flesta Lafvar, hvarom mina afhandlingar vittna, och jag har icke funnit någon nytta af alla andra. Sålunda har jag förgäfves sökt både genom gåsning och rötning att vinna några färgor af dem. Jag har i flera veckor och äfven månader anstält försök med åtskilliga af dem, som eljes icke gifvit någon färg, såsom L. Paschalis, Ciliaris, m. fl. men förgäfves. Färgämnet är antingen primitift, redan utarbetadt hos några, såsom i de Sjelfständiga, eller ock upplöses det hinderliga i kådämnet (Gummi) af Salterna, som ock emotstå, defss förändrande eller Carboniserand af värma. Huru vida kalk och Salmiak desoxigenera vissa lafvar, eller hindra oxigen att Carbonisera dem, tillhör Chemien att vidare undersöka. Det tyckes ännu vara en gåta i Chemien att förklara Färgornas uppkomst. Att gaserna utgöra en beståndsdel i färgämnet, tyckes vara säkert. Sålunda tro Chemisterna att Oxigen gas grundlägger röda färgen. Syror upphöja och förvandla gredelina och violetta färgen till rådhet: då deremot Alkalierna, som minska Oxigens verkan, draga dens i blått. Hydrogen gas tros grundlägga blå färgen, liksom Azot, den gula och gröna: också synes huru som Alkalierna drifva laf färgen alltid mera åt gult; och denna färg, liktom grunden till denna luft, är ock den mått allmänna i Naturen. Den Physiska förklaring, som Newton gaf på sin tid, tyckes icke vara fullkomligt upplysande. Partiklarnes figur ger oss ej redigt begrepp om saken. Ett besynnerligt som jag förut anfört, med en färglaf, L. Hirsutus, tyckes vittna härom. Då denna laf sättes efter 6:te eller nya Metoden, och lemnas i en täppt flacka några veckors tid, förlorar den alldeles sin färg, och spadet eller infusion blir nästan vattenagtig. Men om flaskan öppnas, återfår den innom en och annan minut sin vackra röda färg. Det är sålunda svårt att begripa huru färg - partiklarne här i en sådan haft kunna förändras till skapnad. Om jag på en torrkad och söndermalen L. Cocciferus håller rent strömvatten för infusion deraf, strax ingen färg; men tillblandar jag något lutsalt, så uppkommer strax innom ögonblicket en hög och full violett färg. Färgornas uppkomst är sålunda ännu mörk, och lära ännu mångfaldiga försök fordras, för att så reda härpå. Jag erkänner heldre min ovisshet hätom, än jag vill med gissningar missleda andra ifrån rätta forskningen. Erfarenheten blir emellertid bästa Läro-mästaren till dess man hunnit samla Materialer, tillräckcliga för en Systematisk byggnad. De färgor, som nu efter de 7 uppgifna Metoderna erhållas, kunna på flerfalldiga fått förändras och åkas igenom flerahanda tilläggningar och betningssätt. Också kunna en del af dessa tjena till grundämne för andra färgstofter, såsom t. ex. L. Saxatilis och Conspersus för gul och brun bresilja. Om gods färgadt brandgult af L. Conspersus efter 1:a eller 2:a metoden doppas i kall blå kyp, hvartill hålles litet Tenn Composition, efter Herr Bankrupts uppgift att färga blått, så uppkommer en vacker grått färg, nästan Saxiskt grön, som är ägta. Jag har ock funnit, att man icke behöfver göra sig besvär och kostnad med Tenn komposition, för att vinna röda färgor af de violetta ifrån arbetade färgor af Umbilikaterna och L. Tartareus, ty det samma vinnes lika så lått, om man doppar det färgade godset i väl utspädt skedvatten: man för då samma röda färgor nästan så vackra som af Consionellen. Med de röda färgstofter, som fås af Lafvarne, kan ock den dyrbara Consionellen mycket sparas, som redan är uppgifvit af dem, som hafva skrifvit om Oselljen och Persiv. Men hvad som vigtigare tyckes vara, är, att tvänne våra Lafvar kunna användas till scharlakans färg, och göra oss en besparing kanske minst till ¼ af den dyrbara Consionellen. Mina många häröfver omgjorde försök gifva mig den bästa anledning härtil: och hvad jag erfarit, skall på sitt ställe anföras. Imellertid sändes äfven prof på dylika färgor. Dessutom äro de färgor, som L. Cinereus gifver, (denna Laf, som växer så allmänt hos oss, och i vätt väder lätt kan samlas från berg och stenar) både ägta och så sköna, att denna Laf förtjenar all uppmärksamhet: och vore önskeligt, att kunna förstå konsten huru den skulle kunna cultiveras.

Efter antagna ordningen följa nu Klibb-Lafvarne (Collemata Achar.) (L. gelatinosi Linn.) på hvilka jag har förgäfves användt min möda, ty ingen af den ger någon dugelig färg. De innehålla ämne till ett volatilt salt, hvaraf de snart sättas i gåsning med elak stank. De tyckas komma nära intill Tremellæ, som Herr Girod Chantraus funnit till en del hafva Animalisk natur. Om dessas frörednings Organer äro sådane, liksom hos de andra Lafvarne, förtjenar särskilt undersökning.

Fotlafvarne (Helopodium Achar.) gifva ej eller någon särdeles färg; men deremot äro åtskillige af Piplafvarne (Cladonia Achar.) L. Fruticulosi Linn. brukbara färgstofter, hvarom hårhos följande färgprofver kunna vittna. Och för att nu så fluta detta arbete, har jag ock hårtill bifogat åtskilliga af de i andra Klasserna, som förut blifvit förbigångne, eller sedermera af mig uppfundna. Under det jag ock med samma sätt tillfälle att rätta åtskillige mistag på namn, hvarigenom man tillskrifvit vissa lafvar sådans färgor, som de icke kunna gifva. Sålunda har man redan af ålder trott, att L. Parellus gaf röd färg. Linné skref, att denna gaf röd färg, och alla hafva skrifvit så efter Linné. Jag samlade sjelf L. Parellus i Halland år 1795 och anstålde dermed åtskillige försök; men kunde aldrig så någon särdeles färg deraf, mina icke någon röd. Herr Lasteyrie i Paris skickade mig omsider den Laf som samlas i Auvergne till röd färg, och jag som deraf, at den var en blandning af flera crustacei, såsom L. Scruposus, Tartareus, och till det mena Lacteus. Sålunda har mistag på namn gifvit anledning till denna fallska uppgiften. Det samma torde gälla om L. Roccella, hvilken jag sätt af H. H. Prof. Thunberg och Swartz, men aldrig deraf kunnat så någon rödfärg. Troligen har L. Tartareus gjort gagnet under namn af L. Roccella? Det samma tror jag mig ock med visshet kunna pästå om L. Saxatilis. c) Sålunda har H. Hermtstädt i dess Grundrifs der Färbe-kunst, tryckt i Berlin 1802 uppgifvit, att följande lafvar gifva röd färg, neml. L. Saxatilis, Calcareus, Candelaris, Cocciferus, Parietinus, Juniperinus, Parellus och Roccella: af hvilka ingen åndä ger röd färg. Det vore derföre önskeligt, att våra Örtkånnare hädanefter något mera vinlade sig om örternas undersökning till natur och nytta, än blotta Botaniska beskrifningar: då vi genom den enas efterskrifning ifrån den andra icke skulle påbördas så många urätta uppgifter c).

Jag öfverlemnar nu mina Lafvar åt skickligare händer än mina, till deras förådling, och är tillfredsståld af det nöje, hvarrned de belönat min möda. En framtid må dömma, huruvida jag varit berättigad till denna vinsten. Då deras nytta blir erkänd, blir ock mitt ändamål fullkomnadt. De som utom känsla för saken, eller innom korrtare synkrets dömt mitt arbete föga annorlunda än allmogens, torde ock då öfverröstas af klarsyntare domare!


Klibblafvar, L. gelatinosi Linn. (Collemata Acharii).

Dessa lofva ingen nytta åt Färgerierna. De äro ock hos oss mera sällsynta; ty de trifvas helst på kalkagtiga ställen. Utaf de allmännare har jag anstält flerehanda försök; men förgäfves. De försökte åro: L. Saturninus, Discolor, Flaccidus, Lacerus, Nigrescens, Scotinus, Myriococcus, Furvus och Marginalis: Se Dr. Acharii Method Lichenum. Utaf dessa, till det mesta samlade på Öland sistl. sommar, har jag haft godt förråd till alla behöfliga försök. De hafva den egenskapen att snart gå öfver till gåsning, och gifva då ifrån sig en obehaglig lukt.

Piplafvar, L. fruticulosi Linn. (Cladoniæ Achar.) Fotlafvar, (Heliopodia Achar.) och Busklafvar, (Stereocaula Achar.)

De flesta af dessa växa ömnigt nog hos oss i skogar, på berg och ljunghedar, och en del af dem kunna invändas till nytta.

Följande äro af mig med flera omgjorda förfök undersökte:


HUOM.! Cladonia uncialis = Okatorvijäkälä1. L. UNCIALIS. Linn. Cladonia Uncialis Achar.

Tagglaf. Denna är mycket allmän hos oss, och kan samlas till mängd. Den innehåller ett brunt färgånme, som är vackert, och blir ganska fast.

1. Uti vatten, förvarad på varmt ställe i 7 dagar, får Ylle, som lägges deruti, efter ett dygn, en vacker Carmelit. Om den kokas, sedan den flådt så långe i maceration, blir färgen troligen starkare. Silke feck deraf en vacker Noisette.

2. Med koksalt och saltpetter, 1/13 af hvardera mot Lafvens vigt, den vanliga proportion, som jag iagttagit med alla, sedan lafven stådt i varm maceration några dagar, blef godset vackert, då Ylle feck högre Carmelit, som är ägta, och Silket en gråagtig Noisette.

3. Då lika mycket lutsalt (Alk. veg. fix.) tillsattes dessa salterna, efter lika tid och förhållande, blef Yllet mysk färgadt, och Silket af en ljusare noisette, med mycken glants.

4. I stället för lutsalt, togs osläkt kalk, då Yllet blef ljusare, men Silket fullare.

5. Till en dylik blandning tillsattes 1/13 blå vitriol, då Yllet feck en brunaktig Oliv färg, och Silket en vacker grå grön färg.

6. Efter nya metoden, med 1/10 osläkt kalk, och 1/20 salmiak emot Larvens vigt, sedan det sätt stå på varmt ställe i 7 dagar, blef Yllet vackert Carmelit färgadt, och Silket en full feuille morte.

7. Med vatten och Koppar vitriol, feck hvarken Ylle eller Silke någon fördeles färg.

8. Ej eller med K. f. och S. b. samt blå vitriol.

9. Men med K. f. och S. b., blå Vitriol och lutsalt, feck Yllet en skön mineral grön färg; men Silket endast en ljus noisette.

10. Då blå vitriol tillsattes en blandning efter n. m., blef Yllet vackert grönt; men Silket liktom föregående.


2. L. ADUNCUS. Achar.

Denna växer och nog allmänt hos oss, ömsom med den föregående, acta tyckes, äfven efter sitt färgförhållande, vara skilld från

Tugglafven. Denna har jag trott vara L. Uncialis Linnei, liksom den föregående L. Subulatus; men våra Botanisker hafva ändratt detta: och det kan vara det samma, blott vi kunna draga nytta deraf. Också tyckes denna vara färghaltigare än den föregående.

1. Med vatten ensamt, efter en veckas maceration på varmt ställe, får Ullgarn en vacker Carmelit, och Silket högre noisette än den förra.

2. Med K. f. ad, S. b. ingen särdeles färg; men med osläkt kalk och salmiak, en hög Carmelit, och silket en ljusare dylik färg.

3. Med K. f. och S. b., osläkt kalk och blå vitriol, får yllet en skön Olive färg, samt silket en feuille morte.

4. Om den hålles längre i maceration, får ylle godset en mörkare skön Olive; men silket blir ljusare nästan än det förra.


HUOM.! Cladonia subulata = Sormitorvijäkälä3. L. SUBULATUS Achar. Sw. Syl-laf.

Wäxer icke så ömnigt, som de förra. Den är ock föga olika med de förra till sitt färg förhållande.

1. Med vatten lika med de föregående.

2. Efter n. m. också tämmeligen lika.

3. Med K. f. och S. b. samt osläkt kalk, något svagare.

4. Om koppar vitriol tillägges föregående fås en skön Olive grön färg på ylle, som är alldeles ägta; men svag noisette på silke.


HUOM.! Cladonia rangiformis = Meritorvijäkälä4. L. PUNGENS. Ach. Sw. Shik-laf.

Figuren derpå har Dillenius gifvit, Tab. 16. f. 28. Jag har funnit den med tuberculis terminalibus fuscis. Den är icke sällsynt hos oss: växer ömnigt nog på kala backar, och nedan för berg: den är ock mycket färghaltig; hvarföre den är vårdig at råknas bland färg-stofter.

1. Med vatten, efter några dagars maceration, får Ylle gods en gulagtig Carmelit, och Silket en vacker noisette.

2. Efter andra metoden, med K. f. och S. b. får Ylle en paille gul färg, och Silket lika.

3. Efter tredje metoden, med K. f. och S. b. samt lutsalt, en fullare paille, både på Ylle och Silke.

4. Genom fjerde metoden erhålles en stark och hög vax gul färg, innom några timmar.

5. Om den blandas med L. Conspersus efter 4:de metoden, får Yllet en ljus Orange, och Silket en hög dylik, nästan Aurora färg, mycket vacker och gläntsande.

6. Om försöket anställes efter 5:te metoden, får Yllet en skön Olivegrön, och Silket en gläntsande blek feuille morte.

7. Efter N. M. får Yllet en hög mörk gul färg, och Silket en mörkare noisete.

8. Med vatten samt blå eller Koppar-Vitriol, samt litet Björkbark, efter H. Dambourneys sätt, får Ylle gods en ljus gräsgrön och Silket cn grågrön färg.

9. På lika sätt med K. f. och S. b. Koppar-Vitriol samt Björkbark, får Yllet en vacker ljus olivegrön färg, och Silket en skön ljus Carmelit. Alla dessa färgor med vitriol och Björkbark blifva ägta.

10. Efter 3:dje metoden, och B. bark, fa. blå Vitriol, får Ylle en ljus gråsgrön samt Silket en mark gläntsande noisette färg.

11. Efter 4:de metoden, med B. bark och blå Vitr., en vacker gräsgrön färg: och Silket en ljus noisette.

12. Med N. M. och tillägg af B. bark fann blå Vitr. erhålles en mycket vacker gråa färg; men Silket får en dålig noisette.


HUOM.! Cladonia furgata = Haaratorvijäkälä5. L. FURCATUS. Achar. Sw. Gaffel-laf. Dillen. tab. 16. fig. 27.

Denna har jag icke funnit växa så ömnigt. Den är ock icke så färghaltig, som den föregående. Finnes på backar och i skogar.

1. Med vatten ensamt ger den Yllet i början en gul färg, som omsider blir Carmelit, samt Silket en skön Carmelit.

2. Efter 2:dra metoden ingen särdeles färg; men efter 3:dje metoden får både Ylle och Silke en paille gul färg.

3. Med N. M. får Yllet en mörk paille, samt Silket en ljus Carmelit.

4. Med vatten och blå Vitr. en ljus grönagtig färg på Yllet, på Silke nästan ingen.

5. Efter längre macerat blir denna vackrare.

6. Efter N. M. med blå Vitr. en vacker mörk saft-grön färg; men Silket föga eller ingen.

7. Efter 4:de metoden ingen färg; men med tillägg af blå Vitriol fås en skön Olive grön färg på Ylle och en grågrön på Silke.


6. L. SPINOSUS. Achar. Sw. Törn-Laf. Dillen. hist. musc. tab. 16. f. 25.

Växer icke särdeles ömnigt hos oss. Denna has det besynnerliga, att den tyckes vara färg haltigare för Silket, än alla de föregående. För Ylle tyckes den ej vara lönande.

1. Med vatten ensamt, en mörk paille både på Ylle och Silke. Efter längre maceration får Ylle en gulagtig Carmelit, och Silket en skön ljus dylik.

2. Efter 2:dra metoden, får Ylle en vacker paille, ock Silket en skön gläntsande noisete.

3. Efter 3:dje metoden, både Ylle och Silke vacker paille.

4. Efter 6:te eller N. M. får både Ylle och Silke en stark Nankins färg.

5. Med vatten och blå Vitriol får Ylle en vacker grön färg och Silket en grå grön.

6. Efter 2:dra metoden och med blå Vitriol nästan lika, dock något starkare.

7. Efter 3:dje metoden med blå Vitriol yllet en skön och klar grön färg, samt silket en ljus grönagtig färg.

8. Efter N. M. med blå Vitr. blef yllet mycket vackert af en skön och klar grön fårg, samt silket vackert ljus grönt.

9. Efter 4:de metoden feck godset ingen fördeles färg.


HUOM.! Sphaerophorus globosus = Isokorallijäkälä7. L GLOBIFERUS. LINNÉ. Sphærophorus globiferus Achar. Sw. Klump-laf.

Växer ömnigt i skogarna på vissa ställen. Den är till sitt färgförhållande olika med alla de föregående. Den gifver vackra färgor, och förtjenar att samlas till œconomisk nytta.

1. Med vatten, efter första metoden, en egen Carmelit åt couleur de chair, på ylle; men på silket mycket svag.

2. Efter 2:dra metoden något ljusare, och ännu svagare på silket.

3. Efter 3:dje metoden, en vacker Ventre de Biche på ylle; men silket föga färgadt.

4. Efter 4:de metoden nästan den färg, som kallas sable du Levant; på silke noisette.

5. Efter N. M. en vacker ventre de Biche clair, på ylle; och lika på silke; men ljusare.

6. Med vatten och ensamt blå Vitr. en vacker grågrön, Ecume de mer, på ylle; men föga på silke.

7. Efter 2:dra metoden med blå Vitriol tillika, nästan lika, som föregående, dock något mörkare.

8. Efter 3:dje metoden och med blå Vitriol, en vacker Olive, eller Noisette foncé: på silke en mörk Carmelit.

9. Efter N. M. ock med blå Vitriol en vacker grön färg på ylle: och föga på silke.


HUOM.! Sphaerophorus fragilis = Pikkukorallijäkälä8. L. FRAGILIS. LINNÉ. Sphærophorus sterilis Achar. Sw. Skör-laf.

Växer ömnigt i skog och på backar hos oss. I färghalt kommer den nåra i likhet med den förra, och kan väl förblandas med den samma. Den är icke fattig på färg.

1. Med vatten ensamt, en ljus Hind färg, Biche clair, på ylle; men icke fördeles någon på silke.

2. Efter 2:dra metoden nästan lika.

3. Efter 3:dje metoden en vacker Ventre de Biche: och nästan lika på silke.

4. Efter 4:de metoden en mörk tobaks färg på ylle: på silke något ljusare, mycket vacker.

5. Efter N. M. en ljus Ventre de Biche på ylle: ljusare på silke.

6. Med vatten och blå Vitr. ensamt cn ljusgrön färg: på silke mycket ljus.

7. Efter 2:dra metoden med blå Vitriol en vacker mörkgrön färg, alldeles ägta: på silket ljus, åt grå grönt.

8. Efter 3:dje metoden med blå Vitriol en mörkare grön färg på ylle: och på silke en ljus Carmelit.

9. Efter N. M., och med hlå Vitriol en ljus saftgrön på ylle; men på silket nästan ingen.


HUOM.! Cladonia rangiferina = Harmaaporonjäkälä9. L. RANGIFERINUS. LINNÉ Cladonia Rangiferina Achar. Swe. Rehn-laf.

Växer ömnigt i våra skogar och på berg, och i synnerhet i Lappmarken, derest den utgör Renarnes föda. Den nyttjas af Läkare för Lungsigtige, i hållet för Islandslaf, såsom, ett godt och milds födämne.

Den innehåller också ett gult färgämne: och kan därföre räknas ibland färgväxter.

1. Med vatten ensamt macererad 7 dagar, ger den en stark vaxgul färg åt ylle: åt silke en mörk paille.

2. Efter 2:dra metoden får ylle en full paille, och silket lika.

3. Efter 3:dje metoden blir färgen något ljusare.

4. Efter 4:de metoden erhålles, efter några timmars maceration, en vacker ljusgul färg, både på ylle och silke.

5. Efter N, M. uppkommer ingen särdeles färg.

6. Efter 4:de metoden och blå Vitr. vinner yllet en vacker ljus Olive färg, och silket en grågtig.

7. Med vatten och blå Vitriol ensamt färgas yllet ljusgrönt, och silket grågrönt.

8. Efter 2:dra meth. med bl. Vitr. nästan lika.

9. Efter 3:dje metoden med blå Vitriol får ylle en grön Olive, och silket en dylik något ljusare.

10. Efter N. M. med blå Vitriol feck yllet en vacker grön färg, och silket en ljusare grånagtig.

(Fortsättning nästa Quartal.)