Aniline Dyes for Family Use.

The Manufacturer and Builder [date unknown]

The purple of Tyre, esteemed for its beauty and. rarity, for a long time considered the ensign of royalty, hoe been surpassed by the splendor of aniline, which, thanks to the labor of some ardent followers of science, can now be produced with equal beauty in all the tints of the rainbow.

The use of aniline in print-works is already quite common, and the art of using the same not considered a secret any longer. Still, there are a number of minor points in its use worthy of consideration by those who wish to use those dyes but occasionally, and not profeseinnally. This has of late years become somewhat the fashion. Ribbons and dresses are often dyed, to cover up, like charity, a multitude of sins, eepecially that of age; and the extensive introduction of the so-called "family dyes" testifies to the number of trials et renovation of ribbons without the aid of the professional dye-house.

For the flake of beauty the practice is not to be recommended, since no One ean be expected to do any thing perfect the first time and the occasional dyeing of a ribbon or a dress does not impart that practice which is necessary to unfailing success in the art. With the best "family dyes" or prepared dyes people will often spoil tho article to which they are applied, for want of experience; yet, thanks to human nature, they will try again, and it is for those of great perseverance that the following recipes are written. They are the same as practiced in print-houses on a large scale, and will be found reliable.

Ordinarily, dye-houses confine themselves to dyeing silk and wool but for the sake of completeness we shall mention the mode of applying the aniline to cotton as well, and shall have reference to the pure, solid crystals of aniline, while the concentrated solution of the same in alcohol may be prepared and held ready, it is found desirable, to keep them in the shape in which family dyes are presented in the market.

Aniline red (fuchsine) on wool.

Place des fuchsine crystals in a etcne jar and pour upon each part of the same one hundred parts of boiling water, stirring continually until all is dissolved;set aside to cool, and filter through paper, muslin, or flannel. For one hundred pounds of woolen goods, (flannel, yarns, et.C.,) five ounces of fuchsine will give a fair middle shade. For use, a quantity of water, which would more than cover the goods to be dyed, is heated to 165-170° Fahrenheit, mot as much of the dissolved dye added as will produce the desired shade. The goods should then be pieced in the bath, stirred well to prevent streaks, and removed in half an hour, when they will be found completely dyed. They should then be freed from water in an ordinary clothes- wringer. On a large scale this is done in a centrifugal machine.

The same bath may be used continually for a whole day by adding more of the fuchsinesolution, but it should not be kept over night.

Fuchsine on Cotton.

For every ten pounds of goods make a decoction of one pound of sumach in sufficient water, in which the goods are left for two hours, being turned a few times. They are then well wrung and dyed is s tepid fuchsine bath, like woolens, while the time for dyeing may be reduced to a quarter of an hour.

Fuchsine on Cotton, Brilliant.

A much brighter shade may be produced on cotten in the following manner: For every five pounds of cotton goods, dissolve half an ounce of soap in hot water, let the solution cool down to about 90° Fahrenhei, and then add two and a half ounces of olive-oil. This mixture, well stirred, should be put into tepid water, in which the goods should remain for five minutes, being turned four or six times, when they should be removed and wrung out.

Next, for every five pounds of goods a bath of one quarter of a pound should be prepared, in which the goods are turned five or six, times, when they should be removed and an ounce of tin crystals added to the same. The goods should then be returned, turned over it few times, wrung out and finished in a tepid water-bath. in which a sufficient quentity of the fuchsine is dissolved to give the desired shade.

Violet Aniline Purple

In a covered har, through the cover of which a stick passes for the purpose of stirring, one pound of the aniline is dissolved, two and one half gallons of alcohol of 9.5 per cent, the jar being placed in a pot with boiling water, and its contents continually stirred. This should boil for ten minutes, when it should be removed from the water-bath, and another two and one half gallons of alcohol added. This solution, after cooling, should be filtered like the fuchsine. If left to stand over night, it has to be filtered again to prevent crocking or rubbing off of the color from the goods. One half to three fourths of an ounce of violet will give a good middle shade to ten pounds of wool, which should be dyed as follows: For every hundred pounds of goods add to the water-bath, brought to the boiling point, two pounds of oxalic acid and one-third of the dissolved dye necessary to give the desired shade.

After boiling a minute, stirring well, put in your goods, keep on the boiling-point for ten or fifteen minutes, stirring well, then take them out, add to the bath ono and one half to three pounds of sulphuric acid and the rest of the concentrated violet solution, and dye again for half an hone keeping un the boiling-point. After washing in cold water, the goods should be wrung. The bath should taste slightly sour. The more sulphuric sold loss been used, the more bluish the shade will become. Should it have become too blue, cold water should be added to the bath, to bring down to 93° Fahrenheit, when a hide fuchsine may be added and the shade dyed more reddish.

Hoffman's violet may alas be used for shading off in place of facilities, but then the bath has to be kept at the boiling point. Should a very roddieh shade of purple be desired, the bluish purple should be dyed first very light and the goods afterward brought into a now hoiling-bath a fuelssine, where can be shaded off to any clogree. The more reddish the tint desired, the lighter the purple has to be dyed in the first place, while a long boiling in the fuchsine bath is necessary to produce an even shade.

If the time is shortened too much, tho goods will appear streaky.

At leasy one half of the violet bath should be renewed every day.

Violet on Cotton.

Prepare the goods for fuchsine and turn them over it few times in a tepid solution of 2¼ outsets of crystallized perchloride of tin for every ten pounds of the goods. Remove the latter, use as much violet solution as the shade requires, dye for a quarter of an hour, wring well, dry. Washing in a solution of alum and starch will render the color more solid.

Blue Violet on Cotton

Place the goals in a bath, prepared with one pound of nitrate of iron and four ounces tin crystals for every twenty pounds of goods. Afton a few minutes, remove them to another bath of prussiate of potash ten ounces; turn them around a few times, and remove them to another bath of tepid water, from which again they are removed after to few turns, when the following mixture is added to the same:
One pound of olive-oil, two ounces of sulphuric acid are stirred togeter, two and one half ounces alcohol added, then some hot water, and the whole well and evenly mixed. After a few more turns of the goods, they should be wrung and dyed for fifteen minutes in a tepid bath of reddish violet and one half pound of alum.

Hoffman's Violet or Purple

A solution is made as of other violets. Goods are dyed as with fuchsine, except that the use of acids is completely dispensed with, while the boiling-point of the bath must be kept up.


May also be dyed lost by adding to the bath, for every 100 pounds of good. one third of the solution of violet, eight pounds of alum, three pounde argols, one and a half pounds crystallized perchloride of tin, two thirds of a pound of sulphuric acid, when tho process is conducted as in the above mode of dyeing violet, the remaining two thirds of the latter being added subsequently.

Aniline Blue.

Aniline blue is dissolved and used for dyeing like the violet. But they both must not be too sour, and should be prepared fresh every day.

If blue is dyed, as in the second recipe for violet, three fourths of a pound of crystallized perchloride of tin should only be used.

Aniline Blue on Cotton.

For pure blue, prepare the goods for fuchsine and dye like violets. For a greenish end dark blue, dye in a bath of prussiate of potash and sulphuric acid, as mentioned in the recipe for blue violet on cotton. For very dark blue, place the goods subsequently into a tepid bath containing 4 ounces of perchloride of tin for every twenty pounds of goods.

Scarlet Aniline on Wool.

For every forty pounds of good, dissolve five pounds of white vitriol at 180° Fahrenheit; place the goods in this bath for ten minutes, then add the color, prepared by boiling for a few minutes one pound of scarlet in three gallons of water, stirring the game continually. This solution has to be filtered before being added to the bath. The goods remain in the letter for fifteen minutes, when they have become browned, and must be belled for another half hour in the same bath, after the addition of sal ammoniac. The more of this is added the redder the shade will grow.

Iodine Green on Wool.

Of this beautiful aniline green, one pound is boiled for five minutes in three gallons of alcohol, the strength of which is reduced to sixty per cent by water. This solution is poured into a bath containing some acetic acid and acetate of soda, and the goods dyed in the same at 100° Fahrenheit, until an even shade it obtained, when a solution of Castile soap will heighten the brilliancy of the color.

Iodine Green on Cotton.

The cotton loss to be taken through a bath of boiling water, next through one of Castile soap, and next dyed in a lukewarm bath containing tannin, the color being shaded off with picric acid or fustic.

Aniline Yellow.

Dissolve by boiling in water. For dyeing silk, add to the bath acetic or sulphuric acid in small quantity, and dye at 170° Fahrenheit. For wool, dye the same way, but add oxalic or sulphuric acid. If aniline yellow is shaded off with fuchsine, every shade from orange to scarlet may be obtained.

Picric Acid.

This acid yields a canary color different from the golden yellow of the aniline yellow, which, by the way, is not made from aniline, but from naphthaline. For green and drab colors on wool and silk, picric acid is of greatest value, as it dyes an even shade, not obtainable with other dyes; it affords facilities for nice shading off, and makes a brilliant color.

For green, take the goods through a bath soured with sulphuric acid and slum, to which subsequently picric acid and indigo extract are added.

For drab colors on wool, the bath is to be soured with Glauber's salts and sulphuric ecid, the alum being omitted, the picric acid being added, together with the indigo, orchill, or cudbear.

For family dyes, thew mordants should always be added in the right proportion to the solution of the aniline to render its use simple. Perfection in this manner can at least only be approached, never realixed.

- Pharmaceutist.

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