The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: E, F, G (väriin liittyvät sanat)

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.

a heavy hard black wood, obtained from the Diospyrus ebenus, much used by turners,a and for inlaying work by cabinet makers. Green ebony is used as a dyewood, and comes principally from the West Indies.

a thin opaque or partially transparent coating of glass of various colours on a metallic surface; a porcelaineous surface is thus given to the interior of iron cooking utensils. The white glass for pottery is also called enamel. The process of painting with coloured glass, and with different mineral colours on gold and copper, is termed enamelling. The basis of all kinds of enamel is a pure glass, which is rendered wither transparent or opaque, by the admixture of metallic oxides. White enamel is made by melting the oxide of tin with glass.

a method of painting in heated or burnt wax. The term is also now very generally applied to all kinds of painting, where the colours are laid on or fixed by heat, so as to be rendered permanent and brilliant.

Faiance, fayance,
delft-ware; china or pottery embellished with painted designs.

(Spanish), a cake of yellow wax.

the colour of a faded leaf.

a sub-nitrate of bismuth; oxidised carbonate of lead in the form of scales or plates; when levigated, it is called body white.

a vegetable extract from the United States, in the form of a light brown or greenish yellow powder, which contains much colouring amtter and tannin, and takes the place of quercitron bark. It gives a fine olive yellow colour to cloth.

meat baked in a dish with a cover of paste; a kind of wrought satin made in Florence; a lake colour extracted from the shreds of scarlet cloth.

a commercial classification of indigo, the best quality of dye from Nos. 7 to 9.

a pigment said to be prepared by burning vine branches, grape stones, and the refuse lees of the wine manufacture, &c., used for copper-plate printing.

a variety of oolite clay, containing about 25 per cent. of alumina, which removes stains of grease from cloth. About 6000 tons a year are used in this country.

a kind of spirit varnish, or ooil, used for articles of room furniture. It is often sold under the name of French-polish. Bees' wax is sometimes used.

a well.-known hard strong yellow dye-wood. The old fustic of commerce is obtained from the Maclura tinctoria, a tree of South America. The wood is admirably adapted for the felloes of carriage and cart wheels. The young fustic of commerce is procured from Rhus cotinus. Our supplies of the former come from Cuba, Tampico, Puerto Cabello, and the Spanish Main.

a yellowish brown fetid resin obtained in Persia from Opoidia galbanifera, and used medicinally.

a small piece of silver with characters on one side, used as a coin in Cambodia, and worth about 4d. sterling; the bitter fluid secreted by the liver; ox-gall is used for scouring cloth; and, then refined, by artists to fix chalk and pencil drawings before tinting them. See Gals.

a peculiar acid obtained from nut-galls, divi divi, and other vegetable substances, rich in tannin. It is used in photography and as a test to detect iron: and is well known as an ingredient of black dye and ink.

Galls, Nut-galls,
spherical concretions and excrescences formed upon the leaves and leaf stalks of several species of oak and tamarisk in the South of Europe. They are made by the puncture of the female gall fly. There are blue or black, green and white galls; the last are of little value. Those from Aleppo are the best. In India, myrobalons and the fruit of different species of Terminalia, are called galls. The imports of galls have been increasing lately, and about 1300 bags of 1 or 2 cwt. are imported in some years.

an extract prepared at Singapore from the Uncaria gambir and used as a dye and tanning substance. It is misnamed in trade circles Terra Japonica. The imports in the last few years have averaged 6000 tons per annum.

a yellow resin used as a pigment, and in medicine as a purgative; obtained in the East from species Hebradendron and Stalagmites; our supplies come chiefly from Siam.

Garance, Garanoine,
powdered madder root; an extract made from it.

a thin transparent textile fabric, woven of thread and silk, and sometimes of thread only; it is made either plain or figured.

one who colours gauze fabrics.

the process of laying thin gold over any surface.

a pure description of size for the use of gilders.

a green sand of Rhenish Westphalia.

a powder or liquid applied to the surface of pottery-ware, which vitrifies by heat.

gold beaten into a thin film, varying in thickness according to the use for which it is to be applied. It is largely employed in gilding frames, cornices, projecting leters, shop fronts &c., and is sold in books containing about twenty-five leaves.

a valuable mineral used for black-lead pencils, melting-pots, and as a polish for iron stoves: also as a lubricator for fine machinery. It is better known as plumbago.

baize, &c., for covering tables.

a wood obtained from the Jacaranda ovalifolia, a native of the West Indies, and used both as a hard turning wood and as a dye-stuff: about 600 or 700 tons are imported annually. See Ebony.

Green paints,
oil-colours, of which the chief varieties are emerald, mineral, green copperas, mountain sap, and Brunswick greens.

a silicious stone found in the Blackdown HIlls, Devon, used as a whetstone for scythes, &c.

Green vitriol,
crystallized suplhate of iron used in making ink, Prussian blue, and sulphuric acid; als oemployed in dyeing.

Gum arabic,
a general trade name for several descriptions of clear soluble gums. The best, or true white gum, is yielded by Acacia verek of Guillemin, the red gum arabic by A. Adansonii: A. vera also yields gum arabic and a part of the senegal gum. Our imports of gum arabic are about 3000 tons a year.

see Lac.

a well-known mineral, softer than limestone, which when calcined and powdered, forms plaster of Paris. In the crushed state it is used as a manure in North america. The large blocks are wrought into alabaster ornaments.

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one who paints letters on the fascia, over the window of a shop, &c.

indigo broken very small, which is only bought by consumers, and not held by dealers.

a name in the cotton manufacturing districts for unbleached and undyed cottons.

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