The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: C (väriin liittyvät sanat)

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.

a name given to the red colouring matter obtained from the fruit of some species of Cacti and Opuntia.

Cadmium Yellow,
the commercial name for the sulphide of cadmium, and artist's paint, the finest and most permanent of all the yellow pigments in use.

a heneral term for any plain white cloth made from cotton, but which receives peculiar distinctive names as it improves in quality and strength, and according to the purposes for which it is used. In the United States the term is restricted by popular usage to prints. Dyed calicoes are used for book-binding. There are sper calicoes, shirting calicoes, unbleached calicoes, &c.

Calico and Silk Printer,
a workman who imprints coloured figures on silks and cottons, by cylindrical machinery, but the term is usually applied to the master-manufacturers or owners of print-works.

the process of impressing figured patterns upon cotton by coloured substances.

Canadian Yellow-root,
the Hydrastis Canadensis, which furnishes a valuable bitter and useful yellow dye.

Carbolic acid,
a tar creasote, which possesses extraordinary antiseptic properties, and has been used to preserve bodies for dissection, and the skins of animals intended to be stuffed. A valuable dye-stuff is also made from it, called carboazotic acid, which gives magnificent straw-coloured yellows on silk and woollen fabrics.

a commercial name for wood charcoal; the soot and smoke of lamps, gas, and other substances of vegetable origin, is carbon almost pure. Carbon has many uses; it forms the base of a durable ink; of crayons; of the filtering substances, such as charcoal, bone, and ivory black. It is a valuable fertilizer, and deodorizer, and one of the best fuels for reducing metals.

the Spanish name for verdigris.

a beautiful lake pigment, a fine bright crimson inclining to scarlet, formed by a combination of cochineal, alumina, and oxide of tin. In consequence of being more transparent than other colours, it is chiefly used for miniature painting, artificial-flower tinting, and water-colour drawing.

a name for the Lana dye, a permanent and beautiful bluish-black colour, obtained in British Guiana fro mthe juice of the fruit of the Genipa Americana.

a beautiful pigment used for staining glass and painting porcelain; a mixture of oxide of tin and gold.

an inspissated extract frm the wood, &c., of several Indian trees, chiefly the Areca palm and the Acasia catechu, used in medicine and as an astringent, and by dyers as a source of tannic acid. See Cutch and Gambier.

a blue Roman pigment, a silicate of copper.

a name given to white-lead paint, a preparation from thin plates of lead exposed to the hot vaporous exhalations of vinegar or other acid.

the carbonate of lime, a white calcareous deposit occurring with flint nodules. Chalf forms the basis of whiting, crayons, and some white colours. In agriculture, chalk is perhaps the most extensively employed of the limestone species, being added in many instances to the soil to alter the constituents and to fertilize land. In medicina it is used in the form of prepared chalk and compound chalk powder, as an astringent and ant-acid.

a drawing sketched and filled in with black and coloured crayons.

the burnt carbonate of chalk from which heat has driven off the carbonic acid.

Charbon (French),
coal, charcoal, bitumen.

Charcoal, animal,
a form of carbon obtained by burning bone or the chippings of hides, leather, &c., which is used for filtering or decolorizing vegerable solutions.

Charcoal, vegetable,
charred or burnt wood, which is largely used for fuel on the Continent, and is also valued for making glass, steel, and as a deodorizer when powdered: cylinder charcoal obtained by distilling non-resinous woods is used in the manufacture of gunpowder. See Carbon.

a red dye-stuff obtained in India from the root of Hedyotis umbellata, and used by dyers for the same purposes as madder.

a commercial name for bleaching

(Italian), cochineal. See Kermes.

decomposed felspar of the granite, a fine potter's clay largely used in ceramic manufactures, being first artificially cleaned and prepared in Cornwall.

China Ink,
a black pigment made from oil and lampblack thickened with gelatine or isinglass, and scented with musk or camphor. It is ordinarily known as Indian ink, and many cheap and poor imitations of it are made.

Chrome, Chromite, Chromium,
an important mineral. The green oxide furnishes a valuable colour for oil-painting, enamel, and porcelain. Chrome iron ore forms the basis of many of the coloured preparations of chrome used in dyeing, and for the production of chromate of potash.

the chromate of lead, a rich pigment of various shades from deep orange to the palest canary-yellow.

a chemical preparation in the form of an orange red coloured powder, much used by bleachers and calico printers.

a newly invented colouring matter obtained from aloes, which is also called polychromate.

a mineral, the oxides of which are used for colouring glass and porcelain blue.

Cobalt Bloom,
the red arseniate of cobalt; a beautiful mineral found with the ores of cobatl, and used in the manufacture of smalt.

Cochenilla Wood,
the heart of a tree shipped from St. Domingo, furnisging a handsome furniture wood.

the dried carcases of the female Coccus cacti, an insect which feeds on several species of Opuntia. Cochineal is a brilliant scarlet colour, and also furnishes the beautiful carmine pigment. In 1855, 1375 tons of cochineal were imported into the United Kingdom.

Color, colour,
a dye or pigment; a flag or standard. The colours of a ship or regiment are the national ensign or some special distinguishing flag. See Ensign.

a box with cakes of water-colours.

stained glass for windows, Bohemian or fancy glass arcicles.

one wo manufactures what are termed pink saucers, used by ladies for rouging purposes, and to give a flesh tint to silk stockings when washing them. See Pink Saucer.

an apparatus patented by M. Bourra, and shown at the Great Exhibition 1851, for removing colours from fabrics.

a vender of paints, &c. who is usually styled an oil-and-colour man.

one who prepares and compounds colours.

a non-commissioned military officer, who supports the ensign-bearer of a regiment.

an important and useful varnish much used in the arts and manufactures.

a popular name for the beautiful, green crystals forming sulphate of iron, also called green vitriol.

nostrums and preparations for improving the hair and beautifying the skin, many of which are at best of doubtful utility.

a red twill made in Russia.

Cowsoon, Coosong,
a kind of nankeen dyed black; an article of trade in the Philippine and Sunda islands.

a light wood obtained in Guiana from the Carapa Guianensis which takes a high polish, and is used for masts and spars, floorings, partitions, and doors of houses. There are two varieties, the red and the white. It may be cut from 40 to 60 feet in length, with a square of 14 to 16 inches. The bark is used for tanning and the seeds yield a valuable oil, which is used for burning, and is highly esteemed as a hair oil, preventing it turning grey, and curing scalpy eruptions.

a commercial name for a polishing powder made from oxides of iron.

a Scottish name for certain mosses and lichens used in the Highlands for dyeing woollen stuffs brown, &c.; Parmelia physodes is the dark brown crottle; Sticka pulmonacea, the light brown crottle; Isidium corallinum, the white crottle, used in the preparation of red or crimson dye. The isidiod from of other crustaneous lichens may be used in a similar way. Lecanora parella is another, Permelia omphalodes is the black crottle; and P. saxatilis is one of the crottles most frequently used in dyeing yarn.

a red powder sometime called persis, obtained from the Lecanora tartarea and other lichens, by steeping in ammoniacal liquor, and which yields a rich purple colour, employed in dyeing yarn. See Archil.

Cutch, Kuth.
See Catechu.

a process of taking solar portraits in Prussian blue, by a
wash of cyanogen on the prepared paper, whence the name.

----------------- Supplement

in the original language kate signifies a tree, and chu juice.

the colouring principle of turmeric.

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