Teksti ilmestynyt kirjassa:
The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes. Gathered by John Gerarde of London Master in Chirvrgeria,
Imprinted at London by Iohn Norton. 1597
Of Madder. Chap. 444.
There is but one kinde of Madder onely: but if all those that are like unto it in leaues and maner of growing were referred thereto, there should be many sorts: as Goose grasse, soft Cliuer, our Ladies Bedstraw, Woodroose, and Crossewoort, all which are like to Madder in leaues, and therefore they be thought to be wilde kinds thereof.
The garden or manured madder, hath long stalkes or trailing branches dispersed farre abroade uppon the grounde, square, rough, and ful of ioints, at euery ioint ser rounde with greene rough leaues, in maner of a starre, or as those of Woodroofe: the flowers growe at the top of the branches; of a faint yellowe colour: after which come the seede, rounde, greene at the forst; afterwarde red, and lastly of a blacke colour: the roote long, fat, full of substance, creepeth farre abroade withinthe upper crust of the earth, and is of a reddish colour, when it is greene and fresh.
Wilde madder is like informe unto that of the garden, but altogither smaller, and not so rough: the flowers are white: the roots is verie finall and tender, and oftentimes of a reddish colour.
Sea Madder hath a roote two foote long, with many dry threds hanging thereat, of a reddish colour like Alkanet, on the outside of the same forme and bignes, but within it of the colour of the scrapings of Iuniper, or Cedar wood, sending foorth diuers slender stalkes rounde and full of ioints: from which come foorth small thin leaues, stiffe and sharpe pointed, somewhat hairy, in number commonly sower, standing like a Burgonion crosse; from the bosome of which come foorth certaine tufts of smaller leaues thrust togither upon a heape: the flowers grow at the top of the stalkes of a pale yellowish colour.
Madder is planted in gardens, and is very common in most places of England.
The seconde groweth in moist meadowes, in moorish grounds, and under bushes almost euerie where.
The last groweth by the sea side on most places.
They flourish from Maie unto the end of August: the rootes are gathered and dried in Autumn, and solde tothe use of Diers, and Medicine.
Madder is called in Greeke ----,Erythoradanum: in Latine Rubia, and Rubeis: in shops Rubia tinctorum: Paulus AEgineta sheweth that it is named Thapson which the Diers use, and the Romaines call it Herba Rubia: in Italian Rubbia, and Robbia: in Spanish Ruuia, Roya, and Garanza: in French Garance: in high Dutch Rotte: in lower Dutch B[?]ee, and B[?]ee crappen: in English Madder, and red Madder.
Of the temperature of Madder, it hath beene disputed among the learned, and as yet not censured, whether it do binde or open; some say both, diuers diuersly deeme: a great Phisition (I do not say the great learned) called me to account as touching the faculties heereof, although he had no commission so to do, notwithstanding I was content to be examined upon the point, what the nature of Madder was, bicause I haue written that it performeth contrary effects, as shall be shewed: the rootes of Madder, which both Phisitions and Diers do use, as they have an obscure binding power and force; so they likewise of nature and temperature colde and drie: they are withall of diuers thin parts, by reason whereof their colour doth easily pearce: yet haue they at the first a certaine little sweetenes, with an harsh binding qualitie presently following it; which not onely we out selues haue obserued, but also Anicen the prince of Pisitions, (the great Phisitions master) who in his 58. Chapter hath written, that the roote of Madder hath a rough and harsh taste: nowe Master Doctor, whether it binde or open I haue answered, attending your censure: but if I haue erred, it is with the multitude, and those of the best, and best learned.
The decoction of the rootes of Madder is euery where commended for those that are busten, brused, wounded, and that haue fallen from high places.
It stranchech bleeding, mitigateth inflammations, and helpeth those parts that be hurt and brused.
For these causes they be mixed with potions, which the later Phisitions call wound drinkes in which there is such force and vertue, as Mathiolus also reporteth, that there is likewise great hope of curing of deadly wounds in the chest and intrails.
Our opinion and iudgement is confirmed by that most expert man, somtimes Phisition of London Johannes Springus, who in his Rapsodes hath noted, that the decoction fo Madder giuen with Triphera, that great composition is singular good to stay the reds, the hemorrhoides and boudie flixe, and the same approoued by diuers experiments: which confirmeth Madder to be of an astringgent and binding qualitie.
Of the same opinion as it seemeth is also Eros Iulia hir freed man (commonly called Trotula) who in composition agains untimely birth doth use the same: for if he had thought that Madder were of such a qualitie as Dioscorides writeth it to be of, he woulde not in any wife haue added to those medicines which are good against an untimely birth.
For Dioscorides reporteth, that the roote of Madder doth plentifuly prouke urine, and that grosse and thicke, and oftentimes bloud also, and it is so great an opener, that being but onely applied, it bringeth downe the menses, the birth, and afterbirth: but the extreme rednes of the urine deceiued him, that immediately followeth the taking of Madder, which rednes came as he thought, from bloud mixed therewith, which notwithstanding commeth no otherwise then from the colour of the Madder.
For the roote hereof taken any maner of way dot by & by make the urine extreme red: no otherwise then Rubarb doth make the same yellow, not changing in the mean time the substance therof, nor making it thicker then it was before, which is to be understoode in those which are in perfect health, which thing doth rather shew that it doth not open, but binde, no other wise then Rubarbe doth; for by reason of his binding qualitie the waterish humours do for a while keepe their colour. For colours mixed with binding things do longer remain in the things colored, and do not so soon vade: this thing they well knowe that gather colours out of the iuices of flowers and herbes, for with them they mixe allume, to the end that the colour may be retained and kept the longer, which otherwise woulde be quickly lost. By these things it manifestlty appeereth that Madder doth nothing vehemently either clense or open, and that Dioscorides hath rashly attributed unto it this kinde of qualitie, and after him Galen and the rest that followed, standing stiffely to his opinion.
Plinie saith, that the stalkes with the leaues of Madder, are used against serpents.
The roote of Madder boiled in Meade or honied water, and drunken, openeth the stoppings of the liuer, the milt and kidneies, and is good against the iaundise.
The same taken in like maner prouoketh urine vehemently, insomuch that the often use thereof causeth one to pisse bloud, as some haue dreamed.
Langius and other excellent Phisitions haue experimented the same to amende the lothsome colour of the Kings euill, and helpeth the ulcers of the mouth; if unto the decoction be added a little allume and honie of Roses.