Improvements in the arts and sciences (väriä koskevat kohdat)

Scientific American 1, 2.1.1864

There exists in England a Society for the encouragement of the Arts and Sciences, which numbers among he members many of the best and most talented persons in the United Kingdom. Prince Albert, when living, took an active part in the proceedings of this institution and aided its objects by every means in his power. Whether it was the comfort of the working-classes which engrossed his mind, or whether the perfection of some rare and beautiful work of art, in tended to give pleasure to more cultivated intellects, his energies, time and money, were equally interested and devoted to the fullest accomplishment of the duty in hand.

In pursuance of its object to encourage the arts and render Great Britain first in all that pertains to civilization, the Society offered premiums varying in ammount from $500 to $100 for the best inventions or discoveries to the arts and sciences. They also publish lists of certain substances, articles, fabrics, instruments, machines, colors, processes, &c., &c., in daily use, which are to be the subjects of special premiums. For some improvements medals are offered, which it is supposed bear a high value; not so much, perhaps, for their intrinsic worth as for the honor conferred by them upon the recipient. We transfer to our columns a number of the subjects for which prices are offered, not with the idea of inducing competition among our countrymen for the possession of the premiums, as that is not permitted, we believe, by the Society; but mainly with the object of placing before our readers, in pursuance of the design of the Scientific American, the latest and most pressing wants of the age we live in:


Pigments. — For an account of the various pigments wool in the Fine Arts, with suggestions for the introduction of new and improved substance.


Rollers for Calico Printing. — For any important improvements for facilitating the production and economising the coat of engraving rollers for printing calicoes and other fabrics.

Doctors for Calico Printing. — For the best material for, and form of "doctors" for calico printing machines, which shall obviate the several objections to those now in use.

Aniline Colors. — For a means of fixing upon cotton and other fabrics all the ordinary aniline colors, so that the dyed fabric will effectually resist the action of soap and water, or cold dilute alkalies.

Naphthaline. — For a process for converting the naphthaline of gas works into alizarin° or madder-red.

Turkey Red. — For an essay, with the results of experiments, on the manufacture of Adrianople red.

New Scarlet Dye. — For the production of a scarlet dye for cotton.

Murexide Red. — For rendering murexide red more permanent, when exposed to the atmosphere and sulphurous vapor.

Bleaching wool. — For an account of any important improvements In the bleaching of wool.

Lakes for Carriages. — For the production of cheap purple and yellow lakes, of good quality, suitable for carriage builder, &c., and not liable to fade or change color.

Mordants. — For a treatise on the mordants employed in the dyeing of cotton, wool and silk.

New Green Dye. — For an account of the "green dye from Malda," as shown in the Indian department at the International Exhibition of 1862, including original researches, giving methods of fixing the same upon cotton and other fibers and yarns.

Green without Arsenic. — For the manufacture of a brilliant green color, not containing arsenic, copper, or other poisonous materials.

Chlorophyll. — For the manufacture of chlorophyll from grasses, suitable for dyeing silk and other fabrics of a green color.

Green Dyes. — For the manufacture of green dyes from coal or wood tar.

Ultramarine. — For an artificial ultramarine, not liable to alteration when thickened with albumen and fixed by steam.

Colors for Dyeing, &c. — For the discovery of oxy-naphthallc acid, a preparation of chloroxy-naplithallc acid, or for a treatise on the application of Laurent's colors to dyeing and calico printing.

Trade On Foreign Dye Stuffs. — For an essay on the influence of the Aniline series of colors upon the trade and commerce in foreign dye stuffs.

Thickening Colors. — For the introduction of any substance the use of which will essentially economise the cost of thickening the colors and sizes used in dyeing and dressing fabric.

Substitute for Egg Albumen. — For a thoroughly decolorixed blood albumen, or any economic and efficient substitute for egg albumen for calico printing.

Use for Yolk of Eggs. — For a new, large and economic use for the yolks of egg, with particulars of the mode of preparation and preservation.

Uses of Seateeed. — For the extraction from seaweed of any substance or preparation capable of extensive application as a dye, drug, thickening, tanning agent, or any other generally useful product.

Clays. — For an account of the male of occurrence, and of the uses of Cornish, Devonshire and Dorsetshire clays, and the quantities annually worked.


Dressing and Dyeing Skins. — For an account of the materials and methods at present employed in preparing and drawing siting, and the cetera and treatments to which they are submitted in dyeing.

Dyeing and Dressing Leather. — For improvements in the method of dyeing or dressing Morocco or calf leather, in such manner as to prevent the surface from cracking in working, and to render it more lit to receive the gilding required in ornamenting books, furniture and other articles.


Color for Japanned Surfaces. — For the preparation of any color, applicable to the Japanned surfaces of papier mach, that shall be free from the brightness (or glare) of the varnished colors now used, but possess the same degree of hardness and durability.

Color for Slate. — For the preparation of light color, to be used in enameling or Japanning slate, which will stand the action of the heat from the fire without substitute for the expensive copper rolls now used in paper machines; a firm surface, not easily damaged by indentation, and not liable to oxidation, is essential.


Paper-Hangings Colored in the Pulp. — For the manufacture of papers from colored pulp, bearing upon them designs, either colored or white, discharged after the manner of calico printing.


Red Oil. — For the solidification of oil by nitrous compounds, without the formation of red oil, or for the removal of the red oily body without injury to, or softening the solidified fat.


Colored Starches. — For the production of a series of colored starches, which can bo applied to articles of dress, such as lace, he without injuring or ataining the fabric, but at the same time give to them the required tints, and thus render them in harmony with other portions of dress.


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