The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: O, P, Q (väriin liittyvät sanat)

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.

the bark of the oak which is largely used for tanning; the inner cortical of young trees being preferred, as containing a larger proportion of tannin. Besides our home supplies of oak-bark, estimated at 200,000 to 800,000 tons per annum, 4000 to 5000 tons more are imported from the Continent for use in the tanneries. See Flittern-bark.

an argillaceous earth of different colours, which, when finely ground, is used as a pigment: a name given to the oxides of various metals. Red ochre is a form of specular iron ore; brown ochre a variety of hematite.

painters' colours or pigments, formed of mineral substances worked up with oil, for ornamenting and preserwing wood, stone, &c., Besides the large quantity used at home, painters' colours, to the value of nearly half a million sterling, are exported.

soft mud or slime; a tanner's name for a solution of oak-bark, or other tanning material, in a cistern, in which the hide or skin is immersed.

a colour composed of equal parts of red and yellow; a fruit.

See Alkanet,

see Orchilla, and Archil.

a name of various dye-lichens, varieties of Roccella and Lecanora; R. fuciformis and tinctoria, imported from the Canary and Cape de Verde islands, Angola and Lima.

yellow sulphuret of arsenic.

See Archil.

Oxides or iron,
the rust on iron from which various pigments and polishing powders are prepared by chemists, bearing special commercial names.

a popular general name for all colouring substances used as pigments; to lay on colours.

a child's box containing cakes of water-colours.

a name in India for the Wrightia tinctoria, from which a species of Indigo is obtained; in Italy, a wooden shovel of any kind; a battledore; the blade of an oar.

a name for the Nicaraqua-wood (Cæsalpinia echibata), a concentrated decoction of which is largely used as a dye-stuff. See Nicaragua-wood.

a shaped quill or metal instrument for writing with; a coop for poultry; a fold for cattle; a reservoir of water; a name in Scotland for the dung of towls.

a black lead, slate, or other instrument, or brush, for writing or drawing.

a linear-measure of 5½ yards; a square perch is equivalent to the 160th of an acre, or the 40th of a rood; a term applied to the French decametre. Also the name of a fish, one species, the Sander (Perca Lucio-perca), is very common in the rivers which empty themselves into the Black sea. It is cured like cod, and might readily supply the place of it. The roe is much in request in the Levant; the oil is also more in esteem than that of other fish, and might very well be used for burning; for purposes of tanning; for the manufacture of soap; for the preparation of common colours, &c.

a name for the crab's-eye lichen, the Lecanora Parella, found on rocks in mountainous countries, which yields a purple dye equal to that of archil.

a name for the Cæsalpinia echinata. See Brazil-wood, and Peach-wood.

a colouring matter prepared from lichens, the mass being of a drier character than archil. See Cudbear.

Philadelphia Bark,
see Quercitron.

a paint; any colour used by painters.

a painter's colour, a yellowish or pale red, or light crimson, of which the chief varieties are rose-pink, Dutch, and English-pink; a garden-flower; a vessel with a round setern and bulging sides, capable of carrying a large cargo; to slash cloth: to work in eyelet holes.

a little saucer, containing safflower prepared with a small portion of soda, and used for giving a flesh tint to silk stockings, &c.

a ship with a high, narrow stern.

the legumes of Cæsalpinia Papan used as a tanning material, but inferior to Divi-divi.

a comon name for sulphate of lime or gypsum, from its occurrence in the Paris formation.

a carburet of iron commonly known as black lead, and also called graphite, used for making crucibles and leads for pencils; we import large quantities from Ceylon. A genus of plants with acrid, caustic properties. See Lead-word.

a kind of blacking or paste for harness and leather; a substance compounded in oil, beeswax, and spirit varnish, for giving a polish to articles of household furniture.

a name for the rind of the pomegranate fruit, which is used in medicine, and in dyeing, on account of its astringency. It is also said to be employed for tanning Morocco leather. The bark of the root is emetic and purgative, and administered for worms.

such constituents on burned vegetables as are very soluble in water, and fixed in the fire; the lixivium of the ashes of wood fuel evaporated in iron pots. Thesea ashes are principally used in the manufacture of flint glass, prussiate of potash, and soft soap. The imports of pot and pearl ash range from 4000 to 9000 tons a-year.

(French), black lead.

a name for smalts.

Prickle yellow,
a very common Wst Indian wood, the procude of Xanthoxylon clava Herculis, used for furniture, flooring and inlaying, and said to afford a dye., and to possess medicinal properties. See Yellow-Wood.

a well known fugitive colour, used in dyeing, for tinting paper, and by weatherwomen. It is obtained by mixing a solution of sulphate of iron and yellow prussiate of potash.

Prussian-bue Manufacturer,
a manufacturing chemist who prepares this pigment, which is chiefly made at Newcastle, Birmingham, Hull, and London.

a name in India for the Butea frondosa, and B. superba. Their fibre is used for cordage, or beaten to a kind of oakum, for caulking boats. It is also called dhak. The flowers are used for dyeing.

a substance extracted from Garancine by alum.

a yellow pigment obtained from India. See Indian yellow.

a name for the black oak (Quercus tinctoria) of the United States, the wood of which is caluable for building, and for cutting into staves: the bark is used for tanning, while the cellular integument is extensively employed in dyeing wood, silk, and paper hangings, and forms an important article of export from Philadelphia.

----------------- Supplement

a Dutch vessel.

Pitch pink,
the Pinus resinosa (Aiton) of North America; the name is also given to P. rigida.

Pohutu kawa,
a useful New Zealand timber tree, the Metrosideros tomentosa; the bark is used for tanning.

Poland starch,
a technical name in the trade for blue starch.

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