A Dictionary of Arts: Berries of Avignon.

A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines; containing A Clear Exposition of Their Principles and Practice

by Andrew Ure, M. D.;
F. R. S. M. G. S. Lond.: M. Acad. M. S. Philad.; S. PH. DOC. N. GERM. Ranow.; Mulh. Etc. Etc.

Illustrated with nearly fifteen hundred engravings on wood
Eleventh American, From The Last London Edition.
To which is appended, a Supplement of Recent Improvements to The Present Time.

New York: D Appleton & company, 200 Broadway. Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut St.


BERRIES OF AVIGNON, and Persian Berries. (Graines d'Avignon,, Fr.; Gelbbeeren, Germ,) A yellowish dye-drug, the fruit of the rhamnus infectorius, a plant cultivated in Provence, Languedoe, and Dauphiné, for the sake of its berries, which are plucked before they are ripe, while they have a greenish hue. Another variety comes from Persia, whence its trivial name: it is larger than the French kind, and has superior properties. The principal substances contained in these berries are, 1. A coloring matter, which is united with a matter insoluble in ether, little soluble in concentrated alcohol, and very soluble in water: it appears to be volatile. 2. A matter remarkable for its bitterness, which is soluble in water and alcohol. 3. A third principle, a small quantity. A decoction of one part of the Avignon or Persian berry in ten of water affords a brown-yellow liquor bordering upon green, having the smell of a vegetable extract, and a slightly bitter taste.

With helatine that decoction gives, after some time, a slight precipitate, -
- alkalis - yellow hue,
- acids - a slight muddiness,
- lime-water - a greenish-yellow tint,
- alum - a yellow color,
- red sulphate of iron - an olive-green color,
- sulphate of copper - an olive color,
- proto-muriate of tin - a greenish yellow with a slight precipitate. (See CALICO PRINTING.)

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