Recent Patents. To Bartholomew Beniowski [...] for improvements in the apparatus for, and process of, printing.

Recent Patents. To Bartholomew Beniowski, of Bow-street, Covent-garden, in the county of Middlesex, Major in the late Polish army, for improvements in the apparatus for, and process of, printing.— [Sealed 26th April, 1849.]

The London Journal of Arts, Sciences, and Manufactures, and Repertory of Patent Inventions.

Conducted by Mr. W. Newton, of the Office for Patents, Chancery Lane. (Assisted by several Scientific Gentlemen.)

VOL. XXXVI. (Conjoined Series.)

London: Published by W. Newton, at the office for patents, 66, Chancerylane, and Manchester; t. and W. Piper, Paternoster Row; Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., Stationers' Court; J. McCombe, Buchanan St., Glasgow; and Galinani's Library, Rue Vivienne,

Paris. 1850

This invention relates, firstly, to improvements in connection with types for letter-press printing; secondly, to improvements in apparatus for composing type; thirdly, to im provements in apparatus for inking printing surfaces, or supplying them with coloring matter; and, fourthly, to improved machinery for printing.

The improvements under the first head of the invention (relating, as above stated, to types) consist, in the first place, in rendering the ordinary shape of the body-part of types more suitable for printing from cylindrical surfaces. It will be easily understood that, in composing with the ordinary types on a cylindrical surface, a truly cylindrical surface of type cannot be obtained without employing types of a slightly tapering form, which must of course vary, however slightly, with every changing diameter of cylinder upon which they are imposed; and, for this reason, it would be necessary to have a special shape of type for each machine. The patentee obviates this by coating the ordinary types with different thicknesses of varnish at different parts of the length of their back and nick surfaces, and thereby produces the taper re quired. The method he prefers of eftecting this is as follows: — The types are placed upon a flat surface, such as a type founder's setting-up stick, with the back-side upwards, and a coat of varnish is laid over about half of the type surface thus presented, from the foot upwards; then a second, and, if necessary, a third coat is laid over about a quarter of the surface;— when dry, the type is turned over by the ordinary means practised by type-founders when "dressing" type; and a similar coating is given to the nick side; and, after the varnish is hardened, the types are dressed in the ordinary man ner, to remove any asperities which may be on the edges thereof. Types will thus be produced tapering from the foot upwards.

The types, prepared as above, are intended to be used for printing from the improved machine, for which the present inventor obtained letters patent in October, 1847, in which the types are set up on the inside or concave surface of a cylinder; but it will be understood that, when required to be used in machines having a convex printing surface, the upper portion of the type, or that nearest the . face, must be made the thickest.

As types, prepared in the above manner, could not be cleaned in the ordinary way with a solution of potash without destroying the varnish, the patentee employs a method somewhat similar to that usually adopted for cleaning wood engravings. The substance he uses for this purpose is common turpentine; and to prevent this from entering the interstices between the types, and thereby acting upon the varnish, he proceeds as follows: — The inking-rollers are first thrown out of gear, or taken out, and the types cleaned as much as possible by passing a few sheets through the machine; water is then poured over the types, and their printing faces are dried with a sponge, leaving the water in the interstices; then, with a brush dipped in turpentine, the faces of the types are cleaned,—while the turpentine is prevented by the water from acting upon any other part of the type; a few more sheets of paper are then again passed through the machine, and the types will be as clean as when first cast.

The next improvement under this head consists in the construction of moulds for casting types. In Plate VIII., fig. 1, represents one of the improved moulds complete; and figs. 2, and 3, shew the two halves of the same, separated. The peculiarity of this mould consists in its being so constructed as to receive the type-metal at the side instead of at the top, as usual. The orifice or channel for the reception of the melted metal is shewn at a. By such construction of the mould, great economy is said to be effected, as the most expensive parts of the mould, viz., the mouth-pieces, and a great portion of the back plates, are dispensed with. It will be understood that the process of casting is performed by means of the pump. Another advantage in casting from the side instead of the top is, that the " blowing " occurring at the " break," when casting with the pump, being at the side instead of the foot of the types, is less injurious: this advantage will be readily understood.

For description of the inventions see Vol. XXXI., page 166, and Vol. XXXIV., p. 320.The second head of the invention, which relates, as above stated, to improvements in apparatus for composing types, consists, firstly, in an improvement in the apparatus designated as the Authoriton, and described in the specification of the inventor's former patents, severally bearing date the 17th November, 1846, and 14th October, 1847*; and, secondly, in an apparatus denominated the " revolving composing-stick." The improvement in the Authoriton consists in cutting notches in the partitions which separate the types;—the object being to allow the tweezers to pick up any type that may lie close to the partition, by admitting the leg of the tweezers through the notches.

The revolving composing-stick is shewn in elevation at fig. 4. It consists of an angular piece a, which may be of any suitable material, attached to which is a composing-stick b, of the ordinary construction. The piece a, is mounted on the top of a vertical rod c, which passes through a hole in the table d; and the lower end of this rod turns in a socket sup ported by a bracket e, screwed to the table d. The advantages of this apparatus are, first, that the compositor is enabled to handle the composing-stick with much greater facility, as he can turn it to any required position; and, secondly, he is relieved from the weight of the composing-stick and types contained therein. This apparatus can only be conveniently used when composing from the Authoriton.

The third head of the invention consists in covering the composition usually employed for the manufacture of inking-rollers with some material which shall have the effect of protecting it from atmospheric influences, and also allow of the inking-cylinders being driven at an increased speed, without the risk of the composition being melted or otherwise injured by the heat caused by the rapid motion. Various substances, such as gutta-percha or ordinary India-rubber, may be employed for this purpose; but the patentee prefers the sub stance known as vulcanized India-rubber. These rollers are constructed by pouring the melted composition into vulcanized India-rubber tubes, in the centre of which a rod is placed to serve as the axle. A very effective roller may also be made by pouring water or any other liquid into a vulcanized India-rubber tube, one end of which has been stopped with a perforated stopper, having a rod passed through its centre; which rod extends through the tube, and projects to any convenient distance beyond it. When the tube is filled with water, the other end is stopped up by passing a perforated stopper over the other end of the rod, and inserting it in the tube: it will, of course, be understood that both ends of the roller, thus formed, must be rendered water-tight.

The improvements in machinery for printing, which constitute the fourth head of the invention, relate principally to the operations of feeding, conducting, and delivering the paper during the operation of printing. Fig. 5, is a front elevation of the concave cylindrical printing-machine, described in the specification of the patent of 1847, with the present improvements adapted thereto; and fig. 6, is a plan view of a portion of the cylinder and framework. a, a, is the framework of the machine; and b, b, is the main cylinder, in the interior of which the forms of type are imposed. This cylinder is mounted on antifriction rollers c, and driven as described in the specification of the above-mentioned patent. d, d, are the printing-rollers, mounted in brackets attached to the framework; e, e, are the distributing-rollers; f, is one of the inking-rollers; g, is the ink-fountain; and h, is the vibrating roller for supplying the inking-table with ink. The inking apparatus is also driven as described in the former patent. The position of the form of type is represented at i. a, a, are the feeding-boards, upon which the paper to be fed into the machine is placed; and b, b, are the delivery-boards, which receive the paper after it has been printed upon: these boards move in slides, in order to allow of their being taken out separately when required. c, c, are rollers, mounted in a vibrating frame k, and extending across the machine. Around these rollers an endless blanket d, is passed, which is furnished with strips of a sticky substance for picking up the paper and feeding it into the machine. These strips are shewn at s, s, in the enlarged views, figs. 7, and 8. e, e, are pinions, mounted on the ends of the rollers c; and into these pinions fixed vertical racks/, /, gear, as shewn in the drawing. At each end of the frame k, in which the feedingrollers c, are mounted, is fixed a lever g, which oscillates vertically on a fulcrum h, projecting from the framing a, a.—i, is a strong spring, fixed to the framework, which raises the lever g, by pressing upon its short arm. This spring is furnished with a roller i*, which is acted upon by a cam j, (shewn by dots in fig. 5,) fixed to the interior of the main cylinder. To the longitudinal stationary piece k, are fixed hooked guide-springs I, which partly surround the printing-cylinder d. m, are delivering-bands, passing round rollers n, supported by brackets attached to the feeding-board a, immediately above. The delivering-bands m, are severally furnished with looped pieces of India-rubber, leather, or other elastic substance m*, denominated " skating-pieces." These skating-pieces are intended, as the paper is delivered from the printing-roller, to press it upon and slide it up a rail o, o, which is termed a " skating-rail." To the chase, containing the form of type, are affixed "margin-pieces" p, as shewn at figs. 7, and 9. These pieces project above the printing surface of the types about one -sixteenth of an inch, and are made of India-rubber, leather, or some other elastic substance.

The operation of this machine is as follows: — Paper having been placed upon the feeding-board a, (as at z,) motion is communicated to the main cylinder b, as described in the former specification, when the cam/, (shewn by dots at fig. 5,) will raise the spring i, from the lever g, (as shewn also by dots at fig. 5,), and the vibrating-frame k, with the feeding-rollers c, will be allowed to fall upon the paper z, on the feeding-board a, by which the top sheet of paper will be caused to adhere to the sticky strips s. The cam/, having passed the spring i, allows that spring to fall and press upon the lever g, by which the said lever is made to raise the frame k, and rollers c, c; which rollers, in rising, are caused to revolve by means of the toothed pinion working in the fixed rack f; and the sticky strips, which are attached to the endless blanket d, surrounding the rollers, will lift up a sheet of paper from the board a, (as shewn at fig. 7); and the rollers c, c, revolving within the blanket d, and strips s, (by the rack and pinion, as before mentioned) will cause that sheet to be moved forward, until its advancing margin comes in contact with the hooked springs I, I. Simultaneously with this just-described progress of the sheet, it is progressively detached from the sticky strips s, by means of wires q, which stretch across the oscillating frame k, in the spaces between the sticky strips: the ends of these wires are fixed to the frame k. The paper is now in a position to be carried forward by the marginpieces p, and printing-cylinder d, and next between the printing surface and printing-cylinder d. Simultaneously with this last progressive motion of the paper, the sheet slides upon the hooked wires I, and also becomes detached from the printing surface, and is progressively guided round the printing-cylinder d, until it is caught between the skating-pieces m*, (attached to the band m,) and the polished skating-rail o, o, (as shewn at fig. 7). These skating-pieces continue to cause the advancing corners of the paper to slide forward until they leave the rail and allow the sheet to fall down. By this time the feeding-rollers will have fed another sheet beneath the printing-roller d, ready to be operated upon by the margin-pieces p, hooked wires I, and second skating-pieces m**.

The manner in which this mechanism is arranged for feeding, printing, and delivering the paper at the left-hand side of the machine is shewn on the left-hand side of fig. 5.

From the above description it will be understood that the operations of feeding and receiving are performed without the aid of feeding and receiving boys. It will also be evident that, instead of effecting the oscillating motion of the feeding apparatus by the cam-piece j, and spring i, it may be done by a boy;—in such case, two or more feeding apparatuses should be connected by a vertical bar, jointed to two or more feedingframes, in a manner more or less similar to that shewn at fig. 10; so that one and the same boy, moving the bar up and down periodically, may perform the operations necessary for the feeding of two or more printing-cylinders.

For the sticky substance, employed by the patentee, as above mentioned, various substances might be used with more or less advantage, such as simple wax, cobbler's wax, various plasters, in particular the diachylon of the Pharmacopoeia Londinensis, &c., provided they possess the property of stick ing easily to paper, and of being detached therefrom without soiling it. The substance, however, which is preferred, is prepared as follows: — Take India-rubber and immerse it in olive oil, or other fixed oil, for a few days, until it becomes of a clammy nature, then dry off the superfluous oil by means of a cotton or linen cloth, and the substance is ready for use. Should this substance lose its sticky properties, they will be restored by rubbing into it a small quantity of oil. The advantages said to attend the employment of the sticky substances for the feeding operation are as follows: — First, it enables the paper to be raised and carried forward in confined and narrow spaces; secondly, sheets of larger dimensions than usual may be raised and fed with ease and precision; and, thirdly, it allows of the operation of feeding being performed automatically, which has not hitherto been even attempted.

The patentee claims, First,—the method above described of manufacturing tapering types. Secondly,—the novel construction of mould for casting types, above shewn and described, in which the channel for the fused metal is formed in the body and "carriage" of the mould,—the ordinary mouth-pieces being dispensed with. Thirdly,—forming the notches in the partitions of the Authoriton to admit the leg of the tweezers. Fourthly,—the peculiar construction of apparatus called the revolving composing-stick. Fifthly,—protecting the ordinary composition of which inking-rollers are made, from atmospheric influences and injury caused by rapid motion, by covering it with any suitable material, such as vulcanized India-rubber. He also claims the manufacture of inking-rollers, by filling tubes, of any suitable material, with water or other fluid. Sixthly,—the employment of a sticky substance for lifting up and moving the paper forward. Seventhly,—the mode employed for detaching the paper from the sticky substance. Eighthly,—the peculiar mechanism by which the sheets are carried forward. Ninthly,— the peculiar mode of guiding (in the act of printing) the sheet by sliding contact instead of rolling contact, by which the expensive and troublesome mode of employing endless bands and all their necessary appendages are dispensed with. Tenthly,—the mode described of carrying forward the printed sheet and depositing it on the delivery-board. Eleventhly,—the mode above described of carrying the paper by means of the marginpieces; which motion is entirely different from the usual mode of effecting the same by dropping-bars, grippers, &c. And, Twelfthly,—the adaptation to printing machinery in general of the above-described methods of feeding the paper, carrying it between the printing-cylinder and printing surface, and delivering it from the machine.— [Inrolled October, 1849.]

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