A Treatise on Calico Printing, Of Colour-Making, Of Articles containing COLOURING Properties. (2)

A Treatise on Calico Printing, VOL. I-II
Printed for C. O'Brien, Bookseller, Islington, and fold by Bew, Paternoster-row: Richardson, Royal Exchange: Murray, Fleet-Street: And the Booksellers of Manchester, Glasgow, Dublin, &c.
MADDER, under various names, is of very ancient use; there are various species, the best is imported from the Levant, though that from Zealand is most in use; the root of the best is of a lively colour, and when powdered and put on blue paper instantly adheres; (Printers in trying it generally make infusions) it should likewise be pasty and unctuous, and when dried and ground should not be above a year old; the red of this root is considered as a fixed oil united with an acid, giving it the nature of a bitumen.

WELD, of all yellow colouring substances, and there are more than of any other colour, gives with ease the truest dye, and every part is useful; It is cultivated in large quantities in many parts of Englnd, the thickest is the best.

FRENCH-BERRIES are used as a substitute, but, as well known, are much inferior in colour and durability.

FUSTICK is a species of the mulberry tree, growing in Jamaica and Brazil, it very readily gives its colour with a moderate warmth; Old Fustick gives a darker colour than young. Sumach and various barks have similar effects.

INDIGO is of many species, it is procured by large quantities of a certain plant (see note 30) being highly fermented, and the seculence moulded into lumps: the sort mostly used comes from America, but the best is made at Java; it floats on water, is almost violet, and sparkles when broken; or if exposed to a fire, it will consume immediately. Woad is procured in a similar manner.

LOGWOOD or Campeachy-Wood, grows plentifully about the Bay of Honduras, and lately has been introduced into Jamaica; it generally comes over in large logs.

BRAZIL is a general name for this wood, wherever procured; the soundest and highest in colour is the best; to extract the colour by water, hard water is the properest.

IRON-LIQUOR is generally procured by a solution of iron in stale beer; formerly it required twelve or eighteen months, though now procured in a very short time; but whether in all respects it is the better for it, will not here be decided; however, Gatty's is now in request by many printers, but still good old Iron Liquor has its value. — See note 28.

OAK-GALLS are excrescences from the stem and branches of the tree, caused by the puncture of insects, in order to deposit their eggs.

ALLUM, TARTAR, SALT of LEAD, etc. are spoken of in the compendium of chemistry.

KERMES, is an insect which seeds on an astringent shrub, and though little in use, all allow is not excelled by any article for imparting its colour, which is a bright red, variable by using different salts.

GUM LAC is a bright red colouring drug, produced by the moisture left by a species of ants on the branches of trees in the East Indies, which is hardened by the sun and air: some think it is a moisture which they draw from the trees.

COCHINEAL is an insect found on the Opuntia, a species of the Fig-tree; acids and alkalies easily vary its made; it is chiefly in use in dyeing scarlet, as a substitute for Kermes: — The best carmine is made from this insect; carmine is likewise procured from scarlet rags, by extracting the colour, which is in reality the cochineal itself.

Note, The three last articles are little in use among Printers (cochineal in some cases excepted) but as well as Coccus Polonicus, various red and green Woods, Archil, Roucou, Walnut Rinds, Santal, and many other colouring and astringent substances, in use among Dyers, might certainly be rendered useful if needed, in callico-printing; hence it seems a reprehensible circumstance in many Printers, treating the art of dyeing with little concern; for the principles of it include the foundation of printing, as far as procuring colours are the object; consequently, those who wish to extend their knowledge, whether for amusement or interest, might undoubtedly find advantage in perusing works, either on the theory or practice of dyeing; and therefore the writer has occasionally had recourse to it (see note 41) but, however improvements in any shape may be recommended, deviations from efficacious and established modes should not be made without proper reflection, much less from a mere love of innovation, for every innovation is very far from being ultimately an improvement, or otherwise advantageous, and articles already are perhaps not so much wanting as a proper use of them, by bringing them under such regulations as to ensure some certainty of effect in their application.

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