The Dyer's Guide. Chapter I. Introductory. On the calico printer's mordant for yellow and red, and on compound colours.

The Dyer's Guide
Being a Compendium of the Art of Dyeing
Linen, Cotton, Silk, Wool, Muslin, Dresses, Furniture, &c. &c.

With The Method of
Scouring Wool, Bleaching Cotton, &c.
Directions for Ungumming Silk, And For Whitening And Sulphuring Silk And Wool.
And Also
An Inttroductory Epitome of The Leading Facts in Chemistry, As Connected With The Art of Dyeing.

By Thomas Packer,
Dyer and Practical Chemist.

"Cet arte est un des plus utiles et des plus merveilleux qu'on connoisse."
- Chaptal.

"There is no art which depends so much on chemistry as dyeing."
- Garnett.

Second Edition,
Corrected and Materially Improved.

Printed for Sherwood, Gilbert, And Piper,

* Acetate of Alumina is now most frequently made for the calico-printers by dissolving alum in a solution of crude acetate of lime, (pyrolignite); a gallon of the acetate, of specific gravity, 1.050 or 1.060, being used with two pounds and three-quarters of alum. A sulphate of lime is formed, which precipitates, while an acetate of alumina mixed with some alum floats above. The acetate of alumina employed as a mordant for chintz, is still commonly made by the mutual decomposition of alum and acetate of lead."— Ure's Berlhollet, vol. ii. p. 331.

Take one gallon of soft and pure water, of a heat of 150°, three pounds of common alum, one pound and a half of sugar (acetate) of lead; mix these together, and let them stand for two or three days, so that they may incorporate, often stirring them during that interval; then add two ounces of pearl-ash, and the same quantity of clean powdered chalk or whiting. After a time the clear liquor, now become an acetate of alum, must be drawn off. When used, it is thickened either with paste, flour, or gum arable, or Senegal; four pounds of either of the gums to each gallon of liquor*. A block or a press similar to a copper-plate press for paper, but much larger, and having the copper plates in proportion, is employed to spread the acetate of alum from a utensil called a sieve, which is, however, not porous, while a boy or girl called a Teerer, works it smooth; when smooth on the sieve, the printer applies his block, and charges it with the acetate of alum; the block thus charged, is correctly put on the cotton cloth, which is laid upon a blanket spread upon a table; it is then struck with a mallet once or twice, by which, or by the pressure of the rolling-press, if copper-plate, the acetate of alum is driven into the pores of the cloth. The cloth thus prepared, is hung up in a hot stove, and dried by a high degree of heat. The goods are now ready, if for red, for the madder; and if for yellow, for the weld copper. Sometimes, however, lately, the colour is previously prepared, and applied at once in more instances than are prudent. To the above mordant, M'Kernan adds three ounces of sulphate of copper, omitting the potash; and he adds, " When the colour is wanting on the scarlet cast, omit the sulphate of copper."

Wool readily takes the alum at a boiling heat; common alum is in many instances proper for wool; and in others, where it might be improper, it is corrected by the use of argol or cream of tartar.

Yellow and red produce orange; red and blue, purple; but upon cotton, a scarlet, purple, or crimson cannot be produced in any way equal to those colours in wool or silk. Yellow and blue form the green.

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