A Dictionary of Arts (supplement): Madder, Ground. Madder Root. (Garancine.)

(A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines; containing A Clear Exposition of Their Principles and Practice)
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Arts, Manufactures, and Mines:
Being A supplement to his Dictionary
by Andrew Ure, M. D.,

Illustrated with one hundred and ninety engravings.

New York: D. Appleton & Company, 200 Broadway.  Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut St.

GARANCINE, an extract of madder by means of sulphuric acid, prepared in France.

MADDER, GROUND; imported for home consumption in 1839, 96,702 cwts.; in 1840, 184,179 cwts.; duty 2. per cwt.


MADDER ROOT; in 1839, 80,259 cwts.; in 1840, 112,714 cwts; duty 6d. per cwt.

A patent was granted in August, 1843, to Mr. F. Steiner, for the manufacture of Garancine from used madder, formerly thrown away, as being exhausted of its dyeing principle. His process is as follows: "A large filter is constructed outside the building in which the dye-vessels are situated, formed by sinking a hole in the ground, and lining it at the bottom and sides with bricks without any mortar to unite them. A quantity of stones or gravel is placed upon the bricks, and over the stones or gravel common wrappering, such as is used for sacks. Below the bricks is a drain to take off the water which passes through the filter. In the tub adjoining the filter is kept a quantity of dilute sulphuric acid, of about the specific gravity of 105, water being 100. Hydrochloric acid will answer the several purposes, but sulphuric acid is preferred as more economical. A channel is made from the dye-vessels to the filter. The madder which has been employed in dyeing is run from the dye-vessels to the filter; and while it is so running, such a portion of the dilute sulphuric acid is run in and mixed with it as changes the colour of the solution and the undissolved madder to an orange tint or hue. This acid precipitates the colouring matter which is held in solution, and prevents the undissolved madder from fermenting or otherwise decomposing. When the water has drained from the madder through the filter, the residuum is taken from off the filter and put into bags. The bagsa are then placed in an hydraulic press, to have as much water as possible expressed from their contents. In order to break the lumps which have been formed by compression, the madder or residuum is passed through a sieve. To 5 cwt. of madder in this state, placed in a wood or lead cistern, 1 cwt. of sulphuric acid of commerce is sprinkled on the madder through a lead vessel similar in form to the ordinary watering-can used by gardeners. An instrument like a garden spade or rake is next used, to work the madder about so as to mix it intimately with the acid. In this stage the madder is placed upon a perforated lead plate, which is fixed about five or six inches above the bottom of a vessel. Between this plate and the bottom of the vessel is introduced a current of steam by a pipe, so that it passes through the perforated plate and the madder which is upon it. During this process, which occupies from one to two hours, a substance is produced of a dark brown colour approaching to black. This substance is garancine and insoluble carbonized matter. When cool, it is placed upon a filter and washed with clear cold water until the water passes from it without an acid taste. It is then put into bags and pressed with and hydraulic press. The substance is dried in a stove and ground to a fine powder under ordinary madder stones, and afterward passed through a sieve. In order to neutralize any acid that may remain, from 4 to 5 lbs. of dry carbonate of soda for every hundred weight of this substance is added and intimately mixed. The garancine in this state is ready for use."

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