A Dictionary of Arts: Ink.

A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines; containing A Clear Exposition of Their Principles and Practice

by Andrew Ure, M. D.;
F. R. S. M. G. S. Lond.: M. Acad. M. S. Philad.; S. PH. DOC. N. GERM. Ranow.; Mulh. Etc. Etc.

Illustrated with nearly fifteen hundred engravings on wood
Eleventh American, From The Last London Edition.
To which is appended, a Supplement of Recent Improvements to The Present Time.

New York: D Appleton & company, 200 Broadway. Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut St.


INK. (Encre, Fr.; Tinte, Germ.) is a coloured liquid for writing on paper, parchment, linen, &c. with a pen.

Black ink. Nut-galls, sulphate of iron, and gum, are the only substances truly useful in the preparation of ordinary ink; the other things often added merely modify the shade, and considerably dimihish the cost to the manufacturer upon the great scale. Many of these inks contan little gallic acid, or tannin, and are therefore of inferior quality. To make 12 gallons of ink, we may take -
12 pounds of nutgalls,
5 pounds of green sulphate of iron,
5 pounds of gum senegal,
12 gallons of water.

The bruised nutgalls are to be put into a cylindrical copper, of a depth equal to its diameter, and boiled, during three hours, with three fourths of the above quantity of water, taking care to add fresh water to replace what is lost by evaporation. The decoction is to be emptied into a tub, allowed to settle, and the clear liquor being drawn off, the lees are to be drained. Some recommend the addition of a little bullock's blood or white of egg, to remove a part of the tannin. But this abstraction leads to lessen the product, and will seldom be practised be the manufacturer intent upon a large return for his capital. The gum is to be dissolved in a small quantity of hot water, and the mucilage, thus formed, being filtered, is added to the clear decoction. The sulphate of iron must likewise be separately dissolved, and well mixed with the above. The colour darkens by degrees, in consequence of the peroxidizement of the iron, on exposing the ink to the action of the air. But ink affords a more durable writing when used in the pale state, because its particles are then finer, and penetrate the paper more intimately. When ink consists chiefly of tannate of peroxide of iron, however black, it is merely superficial, and is easily erased or effaced. Therefore, whenever the liquid made by the above prescription has acquired a moderately deep tint, it should be drawn off clear into bottles, and well corked up. Some ink-makers allow it to mould a little in the casks before bottling, and suppose that it will thereby be not so liable to become mouldy in the bottles. A few bruised cloves, or other aromatic perfume, added to ink, is said to prevent the formation of mouldiness, which is produced by the ova of infusoria animalcules. I prefer digesting the galls, to boiling them.

The operation may be abridged, by peroxidizing the copperas beforehand, by moderate calcination in an open vessel; but, for the reasons above assigned, ink made with such a sulphate of iron, however agreeable to the ignorant, when made to shine with gum and sugar, under the name of japan ink, is neither the most durable nor the most pleasant to write with.

From the comparatively high price of gall-nuts, sumach, logwood, and even oak bark, are too frequently-substituted, to a considerable degree, in the manufacture of ink.

The ink made by the prescription given above, is much more rich and powerful than many of the inks commonly sold. To bring it to their standard, a half more water may be safely be added, or even 20 gallons of tolerable ink may be made from that weight of materials, as I have ascertained.

Sumach and logwood admit of only about one half of the copperas that galls will take to bring out the maximum amount of black dye.

Chaptal gives a prescription in his Chimie appliqués aux arts, which, like many other things in that book, are published with very little knowledge and discrimination. He uses logwood and sulphate of copper, in addition to the galls and sulphate of of iron; a pernicious combination, productive of a spurious fugitive black, and a liquor corrosive of eens. It is, in fact, a modification of the vile dye of the hatters.

Lewis, who made exact experiments on inks, assigned the proportions of 3 parts of galls to 1 of sulphate of iron, which, with average galls, will answer very well; but good galls will admit of more copperas.

Gold ink is made by grinding upon a porphyry slab, with a muller, gold leaves along with white honey, till they be reduced to the finest possible division. The paste is then collected upon the edge of a knife or spatula, put into a large glass, and diffused through water. The gold by gravity soon falls to the bottom, while the honey dissolves in the water, which must be decanted off. The sediment is to be repeatedly washed till entirely freed from honey. The powder, when dried, is very brilliant, and when to be used as an ink, may be mixed up with a little gum water. After the writing becomes dry, it should be burnished with a wolf's tooth.

Silver ink is prepared in the same manner.

Indelible ink. - A very good ink, capable of resisting chlorine, oxalic acid, an ablution with a hair pencil or sponge, may be made by mixing some of the ink made by the preceding prescription, with a little genuine China ink. It writes well. Many other formulæ have been given for indelible inks, but they are all infeerior in simplicity and usefulness and usefullness to the one now prescribed. Solution of nitrate of silver thickened with gum, and written with upon linen or cotton cloth, previously imbued with a solution of soda, and dried, is the ordinary permanent ink of the shops. Before the cloths are washed, the writing should be exposed to the sun-beam, or to bright daylight, which blackens and fixens the oxide of silver. It is easily discharged by chlorine and ammonia.

Red ink. - This ink may be made by infusing, for 3 or 4 days in weak vinegar, Brazil wood chipped into small pieces; the infusion may be then boiled upon the wood for an hour, strained, and thickened slightly with gum arabic and sugar. A little alum improves color. A decoction of cochineal with a little water of ammonia, forms a more beautiful red ink, but it is fugitive. An extemporaneous red ink of the same kind may be made by dissolving carmine in weak water of ammonia, and adding a little mucilage.

Green ink. - According to Klaproth, a fine ink of this colour may be prepared by boiling a mixture of two parts of verdigris in eight parts of water, with one of cream of tartar, till the total bulk be reduced one half. The solution must be then passed through a cloth, cooled, and bottled for use.

Yellow ink is made by dissolving 3 parts of alum in 100 of water, adding 25 parts of Persian or Avignon berries bruised, boiling the mixture for a hour, straining the liquor, and dissolving it in 4 parts of gum arabic. A solution of gamboge in water forms a convenient yellow ink.

By examining the different dye-stuffs, and considering the processes used in dyeing with them, a variety of coloured inks may be made.

China ink. - Proust says, that lamp-black purified by potash lay, when mixed with a solution of glue, and dried, formed an ink which was preferred by artists to that of China. M. Merimée, in his interesting treatise, entitled De la peinture à l'huile, says, that the Chinese do not use glue in the fabrication of their ink, but that they add vegetable juices, which render it more brilliant and more indelible upon paper. When the best lamp-black is levigated with the purest gelatine or solution of glue forms, no doubt, an ink of a good color, but wants the shining fracture, and is not so permanent on paper as good China ink; and it stiffens in cold weather into a tremulous jelly. Glue may be deprived of the gelatinizing property by boiling it fo a long time, or subjecting it to a high heat in a Papin's digester; but as ammonia is apt to be generated in this way, M. Merimée recommends starch gum made by sulphuric acid (British gum) to be used in preference to glue. He gives, however, the following directions for preparing this ink with glue. Into a solution of glue he pours a concentrated solution of gall-nuts, which occasions an elastic resinous-looking precipitate. He washes this matter with hot water, and dissolves it in a spare solution of clarified glue. He filters anew, and concentrates it to the proper degree for being incorporated with the purified lamp-black. The astringent principle in vegetables does not precipitate gelatine when its acid is saturated, as is done by boiling the nutgalls with limewater or magnesia. The first mode of making the ink is to be preferred. The lamp-black is said to be made in China, by collecting the smoke of the oil of sesame. A little camphor (about 2 per cent.) has been detected in the ink of China, and is supposed to improve it. Infusion of galls renders the ink permanent on paper.

Sympathetic ink. The best is a solution of muriate of cobalt.

Printer's ink. See this article.

By decomposing vanadate of ammonia with infusion of galls, a liquid is obtained of a perfecty black hue, which flows freely from the pen, is rendered blue by acids, is insoluble in dilute alkalis, and resists the action of chlorine. Whenever the metal vanadium shall become more abundant, as it probably may ere long, we shall possess the the means of making an ink, at a moderate price, much superior to the tannate and gallate of iron.

To prepare the above vanadic salt cheaply, the cinder of hammerschlag obtained from the iron made at Ekersholm, in Sweden or other iron which contains vanadium, being reduced to a fine powder, is to be mixed with two thirds of its weight of notre, and one third of effloresced soda. The mixture is to be ignited in a crucible; cooled and lixiviated, whereby solutions of the vanadates of potash and soda are obtained, not pure, indeed, but sufficiently so for being decomposed, by means of sal ammoniac, into a vanadate of ammonia. This being rendered nearly neutral with any acid, constitutes and an excellend indelible ink.

Ei kommentteja :