A Dictionary of Arts: Gamboge. Graphite. Green Dye. Green Vitriol. Gum Resins.

A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines; containing A Clear Exposition of Their Principles and Practice

by Andrew Ure, M. D.;
F. R. S. M. G. S. Lond.: M. Acad. M. S. Philad.; S. PH. DOC. N. GERM. Ranow.; Mulh. Etc. Etc.

Illustrated with nearly fifteen hundred engravings on wood
Eleventh American, From The Last London Edition.
To which is appended, a Supplement of Recent Improvements to The Present Time.

New York: D Appleton & company, 200 Broadway. Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut St.


GAMBOGE (Gomme Gutte, Fr.; Gutti, Germ.) is a gum resin, concreted in the air, from the milky juice which exudes from several trees. The gambogia gutta, a tree which grows wild upon the coasts of Ceylon and Malabar, produces the coarsest kind of gamboge; the guttaefera vera (Stalagmites cambogioides) of Ceylon and Siam affords the best. It comes to us in cylindrical lumps, which are outwardly brown yellow, but reddish yellow within, as also in cakes; it is opaque, easily reducible to powder, or specific gravity 1*207, scentless, and nearly devoid of taste, but leaves an acrid feeling in the throat. Its powder and watery emulsion are yellow. It consists of 80 parts of a hyacinth red resin, soluble in alcohol; and 20 parts of gum; but by another analysis, of 89 of resin, and 10*5 of gum. Gamboge is used as a pigment, and in miniature painting, to tinge gold varnish; in medicine as a powerful purge. It should never be employed by confectioners to colour their liquors, as they sometimes do.

GRAPHITE. (Plombagine, Fr.; Reissblei, Germ.) is a mineral substance of a lead or iron gray color, a metallic lustre, soft to the touch, and staining the fingers with a lead gray hue. Spec. grav. 2.08 to 2.45. It is easily scratched, or cut with a steel edge, and displays the metallic lustre in its interior. Burns with great difficulty in the out-ward flame of the blow-pipe. It consists of carbon in a peculiar state of aggregation, with an extremely minute and apparently accidental impregnation of iron. Graphite, called also plumbago and black lead, occurs in gneiss, mica slate, and their subordinate clay states and lime stones; in the form of masses, veins, and kidney-shaped disseminated pieces; as also in the transition slate, as at Bonrrodale in Cumberland, where the most precious deposite exists, both in reference to extent and quality, for making pencils. It has been found also among the coal strata, as near Cumnock in Ayrshire. This substance is employed for counteracting friction between rubbing surfaces of wood or metal, for making crucibles and portable furnaces, for giving a gloss to the surface of cast iron, &c. See PLUMBAGO, for some remarks concerning the Cumberland mine.

GREEN DYE is produced by the mixture of a blue and yellow dye, the blue being first applied. See DYEING; as also BLUE and YELLOW DYES, and CALICO PRINTING.

GREEN VITRIOL is sulphate of iron in green crystals.

GUM RESINS. (Gomme-résines, Fr.; Schleimharze, Germ.) When incisions are made in the stems, branches, and roots of certain plants, a milky juice exudes, which gradually hardens in the air; and appears to be formed of resin and essential oil, held suspended in water charged with gum, and sometimes with other vegetable matters, such as caoutchoue, bassorine, starch, wax, and several saline matters. The said concrete juice is called a gum-resin; an improper name, as it gives a false idea of the nature of the substance. They are all solid; heavier than water; in general opaque and brittle; many have an acrid taste, and a strong smell; their colour is very variable. They are partially soluble in water, and also in alcohol; and the solution in the former liquid seldom becomes transparent. Almost all the gum resins are medicinal substances, and little employed in the arts and manufactures. The following is a list of them: asa-foetida; gum ammoniac bdellium; euphorbium; galbanium; gamboge; myrrh; olibanum of frankincense; opoponax; and scammony. Some of these are described in this work under their peculiar names.

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