Dictionarium polygraphicum. Enamel... (ohjeita).

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol I.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
To prepare the matter for Enamel.
Take lead in piggs thirty pounds, plate-tin of Cornwal thirty three pounds; mix and calcine them as directed for lead, precisely observing the directions there laid down. This done searce the calx, and put it all into a glaz'd earthen pot, fill'd with water, put it over a fire, and let it boil a little; then take it off, and pour the water gently into another vessel, which will carry along with it the more subtile calx. Repeat this until no more of the calx can be subtiliz'd; which you may discover by the pureness of the water in pouring it out of one vessel into the other. After this calcine the remains of what is in the first pot, as before, and thus continue to calcine and subtilize till you can get no more of the subtile calx. Lastly, put the waters out of all the receivers into larger, and set it on a slow fire to evaporate. The fire must be very gentle for this reason, that the calx do not founder or fall to the bottom, but continue more fine and subtile, than when it was first calcin'd.
Your calx being thus prepar'd, take thereof about twenty five pound, and as much fritt of white tars, beaten and searced, to these add four ounces of salt of tartar, finely searced and prepar’d; mix all these powders very well together in a pot, and let it stand in the glass-house furnace or oven about ten hours to digest and purify; then take them out, and reducing them to an impalpable powder, keep it in a close dry place for use. Thus must your matter for Enamel be prepar'd to receive the colours, but of that more hereafter.

To make Enamel of a milk-white colour.
This colour of all others is the purest; 'tis used for the ornaments of virginity, the emblem of innocence, as also the symbol of candour and chastity. To perform this, do thus: take six pound of the prepar’d powder, and twenty four grains of manganese of Piedmont, prepar'd; mix them well together, and put them into one of your furnace pots to melt and purify over a very swift fire, which will be done in a little time. The matter being thus melted, take it out of the pot, and throw it into very fair water, and being afterwards dryed, put it again into the pot to melt; do thus with it thrice, changing the water. When you have thus purified it, if you find it justly white, 'tis good; but if it be greenish, add a little more manganese, and 'twill become white as milk, and fit Enamel for gold, or other metal. Take it off the fire, and make it up into cakes, and keep them for use.

A turcoise-blue Enamel.
This colour of the turcoise or Turkey-stone, is very fine for Enamel, but withal very difficult to make well, and requires a great deal of experience. But now for the Enamel, which to make of this turcoise colour, you must put of the prepar'd powder six pound, into a white glaz'd pot to melt and purify it; then cast it into water, and when dry put it again into the pot, and being melted over again, add to it, at four times, this composition, viz. Scales of copper thrice calcin'd, three ounces, of prepar’d zaffer eighty six grains, of manganese prepar'd, forty eight grains; mix all these and reduce them to a very fine powder, stir the matter very well each time with your iron-hook, that the powders may incorporate, and for reasons given elsewhere.
Thus when your matter is fully and well tinged, take the approbation of a goldsmith on some of it, as to the colour, that you may have the more assurance before you proceed to empty your pot. Your own experience must shew you how to proportion the ingredients for tinging the matter more or less. If you perceive that the tinging-powders are too predominant, add the more principal prepar'd powder, if it be too faint, add the greater quantity of the tinging-powders; and thus do to improve or lessen the colour until it be to your satisfaction.

To make a very fine blue Enamel.
You may make Enamel of this colour with four pound of the principal prepar'd powder, two ounces of prepar’d zaffer, forty eight grains of copper thrice calcin'd, these reduc’d to a mixt impalpable powder, must be put into a white glaz'd pot; when the metal is well melted, cast it into water, and when 'tis dry put it into the pot again; after that, let it stand upon the fire until it be well digested and incorporated; then take it off, and you have a very fine Enamel for goldsmiths, which make into cakes, and keep for your use.

Another blue Enamel.
This Enamel is altogether as gay as the former, only the colour is not the same, for which reason 'tis prescrib'd here.
To make which, take four pounds of the principal prepat’d powder, two ounces of plates of copper calcin'd, forty eight grains of prepar'd zaffer, mix and reduce them to an impalpable powder, put this into your white glaz'd pot, and having melted the metals until they incorporate, cast it into water, whence being dry, return it to your pot, and let it remain there until it purify; when the colour is well mixt to your satisfaction, take it off, and cake it as before.

To make a pretty green Enamel.
It may be very perfectly imitated, if you put four pounds of the principal powder into your white glaz'd pot, and let it melt and purify ten or twelve hours in the furnace, afterwards cast it into water, dry it and put it into the pot again, and let it be fully refin'd; then take scales of copper thrice calcin'd, two ounces, scales of iron at the smith's forge on the anvil-block, forty eight grains; mix and reduce them to an impalpable powder, and throw it at three several times and portions into your pot of principal matter, stirring the metal very well, that it may be equally tinged by the mixture of the colours; if it be to your fancy, and of a pleasant colour, let it stand a while on the fire, until it be throughly incorporated; thus take it off, and you'll have a delicate green Enamel very proper for all sorts of gold smith's work.

Another green Enamel.
The colour of this following is something different from the former, but no less excellent: Take six pounds of principal powder, two ources of foretto of Spain prepar'd, forty eight grains of crocus Martis, prepar'd with vinegar, make these into an im palpable powder, and mix them well, and put these into your white glaz'd pot; let it remain in the furnace to melt and refine the matter; afterwards cast it into water, and again into your pot, having refin’d it before, until it refine very well; when 'tis melted, observe whether the colour be satisfactory, and let it stand some hours longer to refine, and when 'tis taken off, you’ll have a very fine given Enamel for goldsmiths. If the colour be too faint, add more tinging powder proportionably enough to perfect it.

There is another way to make green Enamel after this manner; put into a white glaz'd earthen pot four pounds of principal powder, and let it refine in the furnace a little while, cast the metal afterwards into water, and (being dry'd) again into the pot; then add at three equal portions, this powder compounded of scales of copper thrice calcin'd, two ounces, and of crocus Martis prepar'd with vinegar, forty eight grains, these well mixt and powder'd together, stirring the metal with the iron-hook to incorporate it, let it remain on the fire until it be well refin'd, and when 'tis well and perfectly colous’d to satisfaction, take it off and keep it for use.

To make black Enamel.
Tis most necessary in this art, and can least of all be spar’d, because it has a peculiar beauty which sets it off among the more splendid and sparkling pieces; you may make a very good velvet-colour with four pound of the principal powder, two ounces of prepar'd zaffer, and two ounces of manganese of Piedmont, prepar'd as before directed; mix and pulverize them very well together, and put them into a glaz'd earthen pot in the furnace for some hours; the pot must be more than ordinary large, because the metal will rise very much; when’tis purified, cast it into water, dry it, and then return it into the pot to be refined over again, which will be in a little time; then see if the colour be to your fancy, and according as you find it, put in more or less of the former ingredients, and having thus perfected it, take it off and cake it; this Enamel will be a good velvet-black for goldsmiths.

Another black Enamel.

This second sort is distinct from the other by the difference of the quantities and tinging ingredients.

Take fix pounds of principal powder, two ounces of zaffer prepar’d, two ounces of crocus Martis, prepar'd with vinegar, two ounces offeretto of spain, pound and mix them very well together, making an impalpable powder, and put it into your glaz'd pot in the furnace to melt and purify; when it is well digested, cast it into water, and dry it, and put it again into the pot, where let it remain a while to refine; when 'tis for your purpose, take it off and cake it as usual; and you’ll have a very good and most convenient Enamel for the goldsmiths to set in colours, and enamel with.

Another black Enamel.
Here is a third way of making the velvet-black Enamel, much better and of a finer gloss than the former.
To make which, take four pounds of principal powder, four ounces of red-tartar, two ounces of manganese of Piedmont prepar’d, reduce these to a very fine powder, and put into a glaz'd pot bigger than ordinary, because of the rising of metal; let it melt and digest in the furnace, and cast it into water, (and when 'tis dry, put it into the pot again, there to remain until it melt and refine anew; when you find the colour proper for your use, make it into cakes, and keep it for the goldsmiths use.

To make purple-colour'd Enamel.
Take four pounds of principal powder, add to this two ounces of manganese of Piedmont, prepar'd as for red Enamel, put these into a white glaz'd earthen pot, allowing it room enough to bear with the ebullitions and rising of the metal; when 'tis thoroughly melted, cast it into water, dry it, and put it again into the pot to refine; then consider whether it be well enough colour’d, and accordingly make it up into cakes, and keep it for use as before.

Another purple Enamel.
This is no less delicate than the former, for all manner of goldsmiths work.
Take fix pounds of the principal powder, three ounces of manganese of Piedmont prepar'd, fix ounces of scales of copper thrice calcin'd, as before prescrib'd, reduce these to an impalpable powder, and let them dissolve and refine in the white glaz'd pot in your furnace; afterwards cast the metal into water, dry it well, and return it into the pot to refine over again; examine the colour, if it be right, take it off and cake it up for use as before.

To make Enamel of violet-colour.
Take six pounds of principal powder, two ounces of manganese of Piedmont prepar’d, and forty-eight grains of thrice calcin'd scales of copper, make all into a very fine powder, and being well mixt, put them together into your white glaz'd earthen pot in the furnace, let it melt and digest; then cast it into water, and dry it, put it into the pot again, and let it refine very well; try its colour, and if 'tis agreeable, take it out and cake it, and you'll have a very fine violet-colour’d Enamel, proper for all manner of gold smiths work of that sort.

To make yellow Enamel.
Take six pounds of principal powder, three ounces of tartar, seventy two grains of prepar'd manganese, reduce all into an im palpable powder, mix it well, and put it into a glaz'd earthen pot, large enough to dispense with the ebullition and rising up of the metal; let it stand in your glass-house furnace to melt and incorporate, afterwards cast it into water, then dry it, and leave it in the pot again to refine very well; then try the colour, and if it be sufficient, make it into cakes as before, and you’ll have a very taking yellow Enamel for all sorts of metal except gold, which by its resemblance would only dull and spoil the beauty, unless it were placed among other colours, as the goldsmiths already are very well acquainted withal.

To make a crystal-ground for red Enamel.
The red requires a crystal more lasting than any of the former, therefore the following is a composition fit for that purpose.
Take twenty four pounds of salt of polverine, rochetta, or soda, prepar’d, and fix pounds of fritt, these mixt and finely powder'd, must be steep'd in water to bring the mass into a body like paste, and then make it up into small thin cakes; lay them on tiles in a lime-kiln, or potter's-furnace for six hours to calcine, or near the glass-house furnace vault, or on the upper vault, taking special care that they don't melt, let them remain there for three or four days, or until they be very well calcin'd.
This done resolve them into and impalpable powder, adding thereto four pounds of calx of lead and tin prepar'd and calcin’d according to directions, four pounds of white calcin'd tartar; these being mixt and very finely pulverized, put them into your glaz'd pot at the glass-house furnace to melt and refine, thence throw the metal into water, and again (when dry) into the pot to melt; cast it a second time into the water, and dry it, let it melt and refine over again in the pot for some hours, and 'twill be fit for use.
Consider always the lead which is among the other ingredients, and be very careful that you let none of it remain in the pot when you throw the matter out into the water, for it will be apt to precipitate to the bottom, and this for several reasons elsewhere given.

An excellent preparation of fusible manganese to be used in making red Enamel.
We have given sufficient direction elsewhere, to prepare manganese of Piedmont, for tinging these matters, of which we have already discours'd, but for red and rose colour Enamel, there are some more exquisite ingredients and preparations required, which we shall give an account of here before we speak of the Enamel itself.
Any other than manganese of Piedmont will not serve the purpose, for that only is fit for the use to contribute to the fairness and life of the colour; take therefore equal quantities of this manganese and salt-petre, as much as you please, and let them reverberate and calcine in an earthen pot in your furnace twenty four hours; then take it out and wash it well in warm water to separate the salt-petre, dry it well, and the mass will be of a red colour: To this add an equal quantity of sal-armoniac, grind these on a marble with distill'd vinegar, as painters do their colours; dry it, and reduce it to powder, putting it afterwards into a strong matrass or bolt-head of glass, big-belly'd and long neck'd, there to sublimate about twelve hours; break your matrass, mix all the volatile and fixed parts together, adding the same quantity of sal-armoniac, as there are flowers, and take care to weigh them before composition; grind, pulverize, and sublime as before, repeating this until your manganese remain fusible in the bottom of the matrass; and this is that which you must preserve to tinge crystal with, and make it ruddy and diaphanous, or transparent as a ruby.

The way to make a fixt sulphur, to be used in compositions for Enamel.
This fixt sulphur serves for several uses in chymistry, and very gonvenient for obliging young artists.
Now, though it be not so unavoidably necessary for making red Enamel, yet we will not omit it here, because it contributes to our prescribing two sorts of ways for it, as well as to satisfy the more curious goldsmiths.
Put flowers of sulphur, as much as you please, into a glass cucurbit luted at bottom, pouring thereto oyl-olive as much as will drown the matter by two inches; set the cucurbit on a violent sand-furnace for a full hour; then take it off, and pour in strong vinegar, and the sulphur will soon precipitate, and the oil ascend on the surface of the vinegar; decant this from the fulphur into another vessel, and put in more fresh oil as before, do thus thrice, and you'll have at length a fixt sulphur to make use of for Enamel.

Another fixt incombustible sulphur.
There is yet another way for fixation of sulphur for the same use, and several chymical operations, wherein it has very great virtue.
Make strong lye of quick lime and harsh oak ashes; put therein flowers of sulphur until the liquid surface be four inches upmost; boil it for a considerable while over the fire; this will cleanse and purge the sulphur from its unétuosity and corruption, and qualify it for your purpose. Separate the lye from the sulpur, and drying it, you'll have it white, fixt, and incombustible, exceeding proper for the goldsmiths to make use of on gold.

To extract spirit of saturn, an excellent ingredient for Enamel and glas-work.
We think fit to propose all the preparations proper for making a red Enamel, before we shew the way to make it, because the ingredients to be used must first be provided, in order to proceed regularly to our business.
Reduce good litharge, as much as you please, to an impalpable powder, and set it in a glaz'd earthen vessel over a still fire; add to this good distill'd winégar, till four inches above it; mix them well together, and then let them settle until the vinegar become milk-colour'd, which will be in a little time; decant this vinegar off gently, and put on fresh, continuing to do thus until it admits of no more colouring; then put all the milk colour’d vinegar into a glaz'd earthen vessel, and let it stand until the lead precipitate to the bottom; from whence pour off the clear vinegar, which will be at top; and that milk-colour'd sediment which remains, is what we call spirit of saturn, tho’ improperly, and that which we make use of for the Enamel and glass.
If it do not precipitate well to your liking, and that the vinegar at the top be not clear, cast some cold water among it; if that won't do, and that your vinegar continues muddy, set all the water and vinegar together over a gentle fire to evaporate, and thus you'll have the more spirituous part of your vinegar a sediment in the bottom of the vessel, which is exceeding useful for glass-work. Keep it together with the rest of the saturn for use.
This noble preparation, which we call spirit of saturn, does indeed contain it, but you must have skill to extract it thereout. To say that 'tis all spirit of saturn is untrue, for 'tis that wherein the spirit is contain'd, and from whence it may be more easily and better separated, than from the mass of lead; I propose this first step towards extracting it as such, whereby the curious may succeed with little trouble.

To make Enamel of a blood-colour red.
To stain Enamel of this colour, take ten pounds of common fritt, add to it six pounds of glass of saturn prepar'd, make all into a very fine powder, which must be put into a glaz'd earthen pot at the glass-house furnace, to melt, boil, and refine; after this, cast thereon powder of thrice calcin’d copper at discretion, stirring all about that they may incorporate together with powder of red tartar until it be perfectly stained; and thus you'll have a delicate deep sanguine Enamel fit for all manner of work you can desire to apply it to.

Another blood-colour Enamel.
This Enamel will be very beautiful, and may serve instead of the rose-colour Enamel hereafter prescribed.
To make which, put ten pounds of fritt for crystal, and six pound of glass of saturn before-mentioned into one of the glass-house furnace pots; let it melt and purge well; after this cast it into water, dry it, and return it into the pot; when 'tis well melted again, throw in at several times, five or six ounces of powder of thrice calcin’d copper, stirring all together with the iron crook to mix and incorporate them well together, and also a like quantity of powder of red tartar, still stirring it; this being well boil'd and refined, observe if the colour be perfect, if not, add equal parts of the powders of copper and tartar; as much as you find necessary to bring it to perfection. Let it remain to boil and purify, trying it again and again, until you find it com pletely colour’d.

Another red Enamel of a very splendid ruby-colour.
The beauty of this Enamel is very surprizing, and of as lively a lustre as the ruby it self, which it communicates to all the work wherein 'tis used.
For this fine effect, we must have recourse to the fusible manganese, of which add twenty ounces to each pound of crystal ground: let the whole be well purified; then try the colour, and according as you find it, add the greater or lesser quantity of manganese, or crystal ground respectively, until it be brought to its just degree of perfection, as a ruby, and which ought to be very admirable.

Another ballas ruby colour Enamel.
The same manganese must be had to make this fine colour; put ten pound of crystal ground in a glaz'd pot, to melt and purge at the glass-house furnace; throw the matter into water, dry it, and melt it over again; do thus thrice, and when the mass is afterwards well melted, tinge it with the fusible manga nese as before, and 'twill become purple-colour’d. Add to it at eight times impalpable powder of alum to bring it to a red. Be very careful that the alum do not blacken it; but rather make it yellowish, and the manganese dissipating, 'twill become red, and so make the colour most perfect and just, of a fine ballas ruby.

Another Enamel of a rose-colour for gold.
Take ten pound of crystal ground, melt it at the glass-house furnace in a glaz'd pot; add to it at four times five ounces of red calcin'd copper, stirring the metal every time; then put into it crocus Martis, and manganese prepar'd as before; then let it alone to cleanse for six hours, and if the colour is not true, put in by little and little more crocus Martis until it be of a fine rose-colour.

Another very fine rose-colour.
Among our rose colour Enamels, this seems the finest; to make which, take four pounds of crystal ground, let it melt in a gaz'd pot at the glass-house furnace; cast it afterwards into water, and melting it over again, add by little and little an ounce and a half of calx prepar’d, stirring the metal every time to incorporate; then let it alone for a little while, until you perceive it of an ash colour; when it comes to that, forbear putting in any more calx, left you make it too white; then refine the mass, and after add to it minium two ounces, purge, refine, and throw it out into water, and putting it into the pot, let it stand to melt, and purisy over again about eight hours; then put in an ounce and half of red thrice calcin’d copper, and as much crude white tartar, with a dram of blood-stone, and the like quantity of fixt sulphur; these pulveriz'd very fine and mixt together; tir the metal, and incorporate them very well together: afterwards see if the colour answers your expectation; if it be too deep, add a little more manganese to weaken it; if it be too pale, improve it with some more of the last composition of copper tartar, blood-stone, and sulphur, until it be to your purpose. And thus you have an Enamel of an exceeding fair rose-colour.

Another rose-colour Enamel.
Set fix pounds of crystal ground in a glaz'd pot at the glass-house furnace to melt and cleanse; then cast into it at four several times intermitting, four ounces of calx as prepar'd of lead and tin; stir the matter very well at each time until it incor porate; then let all purge for a while, and cast it ladleful by ladleful into water, and again put all into the pot to melt and refine anew; after this, add to it an ounce and a half of red copper pulveriz'd and calcin'd, which will tinge the whole of a deep colour, but cast it in at three intervals, and stir it very well to incorporate. Two hours after, add to it at thrice, an ounce and a half of crocus Martis; mix it well as before, and let it remain to refine about three hours; then throw on it six ounces of tartar calcin'd, chimney soot vitrified one ounce, crocus Martis again one ounce and a half pulveriz'd, and all well mixt at four several intermissions and quantities, stirring the metal always with the iron-crook; let it swell, but not boil over. After this, let it repose and purify about three hours; stir it again and try the colour; if it be red as blood, it's right; if not, add at discretion, a little more of each of these powders of tartar, foot, and crocus Martis, until the colour be full and true, and so let it stand for a whole hour, and try it again; if you find it perfect, proceed no further, but keep it for use, ’tis very proper to apply to gold for Enamel.

Another splendid Enamel of a carbuncle colour.
Take very pure gold, and for the better assurance, refine it your self, and dissolve an ounce of it in three ounces of aqua regalis; let the solution distil over a gentle fire until the gold precipitates, and thus repeat an exhalation and cohobation six times, and the last time take out the gold; powder and put it into a crucible cover'd and luted, on a reverberatory to calcine; let it remain until it become of a very excellent and scarlet red, which will not be without a considerable allowance of many hours.
This done, take of the crystal ground, and melt a quantity of it in a glaz'd pot at the furnace of the glass-house; and being well purg'd, throw in a twentieth part of the powder of gold, in proportion to the quantity of the metal, stirring the whole very well; let it alone for some time; then try it, and according as you find the colour, put in more powder, until you bring it to a true transparent carbuncle-colour.
We have given another way to calcine gold, no less sufficient than this, together with a way to make a fine carbuncle; and this rare colour may as well be given to the stone as the Enamel, by the directions for preparing the gold; the curious may choose which they will, they being equally sufficient.

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