A Popular History of British Lichens.
Genus II. Parmelia. (Väriä koskevat osat/Passages regarding dyes)

A Popular History of British Lichens, comprising an account of their structure, reproduction, uses, distribution and classification. By W. Lauder Lindsay, M.D., Fellow of the Botanical and Royal Physical Societies of Edinburgh, etc. Lovell Reeve, 5, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden. Lontoo 1856.

Genus II. PARMELIA, Ach.

[…] [P. caperata] In the north of Ireland, under the name of "Stone crottles," and also in the Isle of Man, it was used by the peasantry to yield a lemon-coloured dye for woollen fabrics. […]

[…] [P. ceratophylla] This species is the "dark crottle" of the Scottish peasantry, by whom it has been used to dye woollen stuffs brown. It is one of the Lichens capable of yielding a gum similar to gum-arabic, and it has been recommended by some authors as an edible species. […]

[…] [P. saxatilis] It has been for ages used by the peasantry of Scandinavia, Scotland, and other countries of northern Europe, to yield a brownish or brownish-red dye for thread, yarn, stockings, nightcaps, and similar goods of home manufacture. In Scotland it is one of the most familiar "crottles," and is also known under the name of "Stane-raw," or "Staney-rag." Not only do the peasantry use it in the way we have mentioned, but it would appear, upon the evidence of the Border ballads, that the Border fairies were sometimes ha bited in tunics dyed with this Lichen. "Like the feld-elfin of the Saxons, the usual dress of the fairies is green; though on the moors they have been sometimes observed in heath-brown, or in weeds dyed with Stone-raw or Lichen." ([?] of the Scottish Borders, vol. ii. p. 310.) In Shetland this Lichen, in common with the dye prepared from it, is called "Scrottyie;" it is there found common on argillaceous, but rarely on magnesian, rocks, and is always collected in August or autumn, because at this period richest in colouring matter. The Norwegian and Swedish peasantry use it to dye their home-made garments, sometimes adding Parmelia parietina, or alder-bark. In Scandinavia it appears always to have been reckoned most honourable for the inhabitants to weave their own cloths,—to make and dye their own vestments. The primitive customs of our own ancestors in this respect have been almost completely dissipated by the introduction of steam, and the progress, hand in hand, of science and art.

[…] The variety omphalodes yields readily to boiling water a deep brown, and, on ammoniacal maceration, a reddish-brown colouring matter, which has also been much used by the peasantry of various countries of northern Europe in the dyeing of woollen fabrics. It is the "Alaforel-laf" of the Swedish and Norwegian peasant, the "black crottle" of the Scotch Highlander, and the "kenkerig" of the Welsh mountaineer. In Ireland it was prepared for use as a dye by steeping the Lichen in stale urine, adding a little salt, and subsequently giving the mass consistency and a ball-form by mixing with lime. Pennant affirms that it formed an important article of commerce in Scotland in 1772, selling at 1s. to 1s. 4d. per stone; and Dr. Walker lauds its red dye as of peculiar permanence, uninjured by exposure, and unaffected by acids, alkalis, or alcohol,—"a most singular property," as he truly observes (were it true), "as there is no red dye in use that remains unaltered by these powerful agents." These statements are unquestionably either exaggerated or unfounded. […]

[…] [P. parietina] One variety, Candelaria,—so called from being used by the Swedes to dye the candles set apart for their religious ceremonies,—has lately been transposed by Massolongo into a separate genus (Candelaria vulgaris). […] Chemical analysis has detected in this Lichen yellow and red colouring matters,—the former being parietinic or chrysophanic acid, which is one of the colouring matters of officinal rhubarb; several alimentary principles, as gliadine, starch, sugar, gum; several medicinal substances, as resin, bitter matter, gallic acid, and a peculiar ethereal oil; besides wax, stearine, chlorophyll, and some salts, as carbonate of lime. In young plants we have met with bundles of acicular crystals, resembling the rhaphidiau bundles of many phanerogamic plants, which consist generally of phosphate or carbonate of lime. Its yellow colouring matter has been abundantly employed by the peasantry in various countries of northern Europe for dyeing woollen goods. The late Dr. Johnston of Berwick, in his interesting 'Botany of the Eastern Borders,' mentions that about Wooler children collect it at Easter, for dyeing their Pasque eggs. […]

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