Mechanical an Useful arts. Lithography.

The Year-Book of Facts in Science and Art Exhibiting the Most Important discoveries and Improvements of the past year, in mechanics and the useful arts; natural philosophy; electricity; chemistry; zoology and biology; geology and geography; meteorology and astronomy. By John Timbs, editor of "the Arcana of Science and Art." London: David Bogue, Fleet Street, MDCCCXLIX (1849)Mr. S. Williams has read to the Society of Arts, a paper, "On the History and Progress of Lithography." He commenced by stating that Lithography, like many other important discoveries, owed its birth to mere chance; and proceeded to give a brief account of the circumstances under which Alois Senefelder turned his attention to the discovery of a ready means of printing what as a writer and aspirant to histrionic fame he produced. "I had just succeeded," states S-nefelder, "in polishing a stone plate which I intended to cover with etching ground in order to continue my exertions in writing backwards, when my mother entering the room, required me to write a washing-bill. It so happened that there was not a morsel of writing paper or ink at hand, — nor had we any one to send for these materials; I therefore resolved to write with my ink, prepared with wax, soap, and lamp black, upon the stone which I had just polished, as the matter would admit of no delay. Some time after, requiring the stone for use, and the writing being as I had left it, it occurred to me whether I could not bite in the stone with acid." This Senefelder succeeded in doing; — and thus the art was discovered. Baron Aretin in Munich, Count Lasteyrie in Paris, and Mr. Ackermann in London, fostered the rising art; and in 1819 Senefelder's account of lithography appeared, with illustrations showing the then state of the art. Mr. Hullmandel (observes Mr. Williams) has done more to improve and establish lithography in England, and to make it available to artists, than any other individual, Senefelder alone excepted. The author proceeded to describe the nature of the lithographic stone, and the difficulties which had to be overcome by the first artists, not merely in drawing upon the stone, but also in enabling the printer to reproduce their works. The specimens exhibited he divided into six classes; and stated that each of the specimens in the various classes is produced in the following manner: — Class 1. Drawings, on one stone only, with the crayon, and printed in black ink. Class 2. Drawings with the crayon on two or three stones, and printed with neutral tints. Class 3. Drawing made on several stones, and printed in colours. Class 4. Drawings in lithotint with the brush and liquid a process patented by Mr. Hullmandel. Class 5. Drawings made with a stump, used as in making chalk drawings. This process is also patented. Class 6 consists of specimens of printing from transfers from old prints, newspapers, and pen drawings, by a process known and patented as the anastatic process. — Athenæum, No. 1054.

Ei kommentteja :