A Treatise on Calico Printing, Rules, &c.

A Treatise on Calico Printing, VOL. I-II
Printed for C. O'Brien, Bookseller, Islington, and fold by Bew, Paternoster-row: Richardson, Royal Exchange: Murray, Fleet-Street: And the Booksellers of Manchester, Glasgow, Dublin, &c.
1. Diagonal strokes are always best for working, as they are the least likely to be injured by the action of the doctor: horizontal strokes ard the worst, being soon torn up.

2. Shades should stand clear of each other, that the work appear not as a mass of colour, from the common circumstance of its. spreading, which in general, is according to the texture of the cloth; hence borders for fine lawn, or other handkerchiefs, admit of neater engraving thaa for cloth in general.

3. Two many points should not come to a centre as fig. 103, as those the most horizontal would be wora out sooner than the rest; as likewise from the confluence of the shades, the colour will spread and appear in a body further from the centre than desired.

4. Instead of objects standing in dark grounds, as fig. 104, there should be something between them as fig. 105, to break the action of the doctor.

* The proficient may probably smile at such directions, as if every Engraver ought not to be well acquainted with these circumstances: bat the Writer all through the work, begs every one to carry in mind that it is not proficients he ventures to advise, though he frequently recommends matters to be retained by them in memory: in fact, the work itself is more as a remembrancer, than a guide or an instructor, and as a remembrancer it may be an assistant to all-See the latter part of the introduction.5. Great care should be taken as the work goes on, especially if it be a close pattern, that one part is not heavier than another, particularly if it be a small or close trail, to which nothing more contributes, than keeping the bevil of the graver alike*; the depth of the engraving mould likewise be attended to, that in repairing a plate, if rub bing down is requisite, it does as little injury as possible.

6. In solid ground patterns, objects should not. stand wide apart, as the ground by the action of the doctor will he gone sooner than objects, or more properly the work within them.

7. In respect to punches, the first circumstance to attend to is, whether the impressions they are to. make, or parts of an impression, are to stand alone or to have fine, coarse or solid work that is Hone with the graver, join to them; for, excepting some cases, as perhaps where a strong outline may be required to a flight or faint filling, the impression made by the punch and the strength of the engra ving should be proportioned, as in the instance of dark grounds; for in this case, if the outlines of the punch be sharp and fine, the impression that it will make in the copper will be much sooner worn out than the ground, the engraving for a dark ground being generally very strong and deep.

8. Punches should not be larger than fig. 106, it being very difficult to use large ones, so as to make an even impression with them, and they should  be as little solid as possible: — If however, the object be too large to be done with one punch, two or more different punches to form the object had better be made.

9. Punches with coarse bodies or thick lints will cause the copper to rise about the edges, therefore in some instances the graver has double work to do, hence the punches should he so wrought as to form outlines, which are to be filled in with the graver.

10. There being always more or less trouble in. the trial of every new plate, on account of the joinings, the fixing the plate to the slider, &c. it is recommended to the proprietor or wor ker of everv press, the following expedient for the preventing of such an inconvenience, similar to what is offered for squaring blocks.

When you have a plate that exactly accords to that part of the roller as intended, whether a quarter plate, on a half quarter one, or both; and it is likewise exactly cut on the sides for the purpose of being screwed or otherways fixed to the slider, let there be made at the four corners of the square of it, and in as many intermediate divisions as can be made convenient, fine holes drilled through it, as straight as possible; then, whenever another plate is to be made use of, that and the plate which has the drilled holes, are to be laid face to face, and with a fine needle prick through the drilled holes in the plate that lays uppermost to the plate that is beneath (taking great care that neither of the plates be removed) and at the same time, as carefully mark, according to the notches already cut in the sides of the uppermost plate, where they are to be cut in the other; thus will the square of every plate (intended to work at the same press) be alike, without the Engraver having the trouble (as is usually the case) of squaring every plate, to say nothing of the chance of a mistake; and thus likewise will every plate be adjusted to the press with as little inconvenience.

The writer is aware, notwithstanding what he has above suggested, that it may be neceslary sometimes to twist or turn the plate out of its square direction, to render the work more accurate; hence it seems better to be adjusted to the press, after being engraved. And this brings to his recollection a case, where a stripe quarterplate was obliged to be twisted near a quarter of an inch out of the usual situation; the square being in the direction as fig.000 therefore the stripes could not join without that twist; but had that plate been squared from a standard plate, per sectly square and adjusted to the press, the circumstance would not have happened; and this is aprpof (in the writer's opinion) of the needfulness of adopting some such mode. See the same ex pedient as before offered, for squaring a block.


* See the introduction to putting on, shewing the necessity of an operation being accommodated with true and other conveniences.

** As to putting on the block, the Writer owns he never very much desired to have any thing to do with it, not from thinking it beneath him, but from a thorough conviction of the difficulties and other disagreeable circumstances attending it, together with the great probability that after the utmost care, the effect at last, from causes which cannot be always foreseen, would not be as intended.
The Writer now concludes (at least for the present) his suggestions on Designing, Puttingon, Cutting, Printing, and Engraving, with again enforcing what he recommended at the beginning, and has several times repeated (though probably to some the repetition may be tiresome) that in. every part of the operation, the successive stages, and the appearance of the work as for sale, should be kept in view; and that every drawer, cutter and printer, should consider the operation under his hands, so connected with, or dependant on each others respective branches, that unless attended to in that light, the last state cannot exhibit an appearance which is undoubtedly desired, or even an appearance that will do credit to any part of the operation; as an im perfection in one part only, must diminish the value of the whole; and is the more to be re gretted (at least in the writer's opinion) if pro ceeding from the circumstance of one person having, somehow or other, got his work out of his hands, without being able or willing to consider what other operations it has to go through, or in what manner it may be affected by them; and therefore, as every one must allow it is better to prevent faults, than having to remove them, the writer has endeavoured to be as particular as possible in the subject of putting on the block; as the more attentively that operation is per formed, in adapting it to the circumstances that are to follow, the after-processes are more likely to succeed.* As for exquisite neatness of drawing, (except in particular cases) the writer does not lay so much stress on it as many do; he himself seldom affected it:** it has its merits undoubtedly i but (as spoken of in the beginning of this work) it only has it, strictly speaking, when united with more generally essential properties, and which in fact includes the consideration of almost every article which he has mentioned, as well as others which he may yet exhibit; and adverting to what he has so often recommended, and indeed but just alluded to, namely, the acquiring a general knowledge of the business, and in virtue of that knowledge looking to the ultimate effect, let it be remembered by every one, that indolence and inattention will frustrate the best formed precepts and clearest displayed rules; and that he who would acquire same, or profit, must be vigilant; and if he be fortunate enough to have some track pointed out to him, he will look on all sides, as well as directly forward; and not only take advantage  of every encouraging circumstance, but will, even make obstructions and difficulties useful to him, by stimulating him to fresh and more vigorous exertions towards attaining the object in view, and of course reaping the credit and recompence due to such efforts and such perseverance.

In fine, bringing to a point all the positions or principles which the writer has been endeavouring to inculcate, be it remembered, by every one, that





And lastly


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