A Treatise on Calico Printing, Of Pinning.

A Treatise on Calico Printing, VOL. I-II
Printed for C. O'Brien, Bookseller, Islington, and fold by Bew, Paternoster-row: Richardson, Royal Exchange: Murray, Fleet-Street: And the Booksellers of Manchester, Glasgow, Dublin, &c.
Before you begin pinning a block, especially if it is to be pretty full, a few brads drove in, in the vacant places or indeed all that are necessary, is very proper to be done, in order to secure the veneer from rising or removing, and if the pinning be very close or covering, take care that brads are first put in, punched down, and pegs put over them.

1. A block that has many pins to be put into it particularly if it is not a small one, should be hollow in proportion to the size and quantity of the pins, and should be in a dry state, for pins acting as wedges even in a degree when bored for, they naturally tend to throw a block round; hence if ablock that has a great many pins, and particularly if they be large ones, happens to be very round when began to be pinned, the consequence Perhaps would be its being rendered useless, from the extreme round state into which it would then be thrown.

This inconvenience may possibly be prevented, for some degree where the back, or a cross back is but weak, by having, a strong temporary back firmly fixed on.

2. It is usual for Pinners in pinning of blocks tos begin at one end and work gradually on to the other, whether the pinning is full or not, but  perhaps it would be more adviseable to do a little at one end, then a little at the othei, then a little in the middle, and fill up or finish in the same progressive manner; as, besides the chance of avoiding the partial warping of the block, you are more certain, by doing thus, of preserving an even face of pinning; for it sometimes happens that pinning is suller at one end than the other, or different in other respects, from being; finished in a hurry, or put into another person's hands, and the like; which would probably be avoided, by pursuing the method above recom mended, or something similar to it.

3. Where large and small pins are to stand together, it is in general necessary to put in the large ones first, especially if they be considerably so, as by taking up the most room you will the better judge where to put in the small ones, and small ones can be the easier set to them.

4. The quicker pins are put in, the firmer they hold; and the more uniformly upright they are put in, the evener they work; for if put in very slanting, the setting of them upright afterwards, loosens them at the bottom; and consequently in the course of working they will be easily removed, as well as by other, common accidents.

5. If you have 3 number of large pins to put in, avoid (if the pattern will admit) two or more standing near each other exactly in a line with the grain, especially if not bored for, from the great chance of their splitting the face, by standing in such a direction.

6.1f you have a flower, or leaf, or other object, as fig, 86, begin at the points, and then fill up the line as regularly as you can, that is, in respect to the distances of the pins from each other: If the shape be like fig. 87, begin at the points, and then, fill upthe line.

7. If you have branchings, sprays, curls? &c. as fig. 88, 89, and 90, take care of the line or stalk from which the others run or branch out, as these should be kept in as perfect a line as you can, keeping however the angles in view, that the corners may be open in making the lesser branches.

8. If you have small curve lines, as fig. 91, do not put a pin in the middle, as fig. 92, but rather put two, as fig. 93, otherwise it will have an angular appearance, especially if the pins be large.

9. Where pins are required to be placed near the cutting as fig. 94, the shade of the wood will frequently deceive the pinner, respecting the distance to be observed in placing the pins; in order to guard against this circumstance, frequently look at the block with the face held directly against the light.

10. If you file the pins without the wood being wetted or swelled, do not file them even with the wood; else in a very little time they will be too low; as exclusive of the wood swelling by working, the repeated blows of the Printer at the back of the block, draw the pins further in, exclusive likewise of the pins wearing away, especially when worked in colour in which iron liquor is used. Observe likewise, before you begin fileing, if there be such a quantity of pins as to make it of consequence, that the face be even; or as nearly so as it can possibly be.

11. If on any particular account, you swell the wood, observe that there be brads to prevent the veneer from rising; this however is a bad method from the chance of the face being damaged by the file or pumice-stone, and consequently ren dered coarse or gouty; it is therefore better to file it in a dry state, without fileing so low as the wood, as the wood when it is damped will swell and be even with the surface of the pins, unless the pins are left very much above it.

12. In bradding prints and grounds, drive the brads different ways, that they may have the firmer hold; a few brads well disposed of is better than a great many, as they act as wedges in the hack, even if the veneer is drilled or bored through, and of course tend to throw some blocks round the same as pins would, as the boring for the brads must not be so deep as the brads are long, they then having no hold of the wood; and remember, in prints or grounds that have backs of deal, or other flight wood; longer brads than common are requisite; otherwise, from the softness of the wood> or openness of the grain, they will be of little service.

13. Take care that brads do not stand in lines close together with the grain, as the more diamond wise they stand, the better they hold; and consequently a less number will do; neither is there such a chance of the face being split.

Care shouid likewise be taken that brads are not put on a joint; it is however necessary where there is a joint, to put more brads about it than elsewhere as well as round the edge.

* Every one knows how workmen will contend about their respective excellencies: This however would be less ridiculous, if the contention was not too generally carried on in improper places.

** The Writer here again makes a remark addressed to Masters (tho' touched on already,and will be more generally dwelt on with collateral circumstances, in the essay at the closing of this work) that half the facility of a man's operations (granting he has abilities) is owing to the liberty of following his own method, hence at a shop he seldom seems to do justice, or that what he does is done by a proper mode, it being too customary in Masters to be minuting as it were, how much is done, as well as perpetually enquiring how such a thing is to be done, or why not done in such a manner, thus the man (unless he is little solicitous about his situation) is under continual restraint, and consequently the progress of his work impeded, (to say nothing of occasional interruptions,) hence, few expeditious cutters a» well as others, who can have business at home, though capable of doing much general service at a shop, have any inclination to be at one: It must not be concluded however, but that the progress of a Man's work mould be looked after; what the Writer means is, that as no person is always alike able or disposed to work, it is more adviseable to form an estimate of his abilities, by what he can do in the course of a day or two, a week, or in some cases a month or more, and then set a value on him accordingly.
Note, It may be expected that more might be said about Cutting and Pinning, and more the  Writer could have said, but as every Cutter and Tinner has something peculiar in the construction of tools, mode of using them, and the like*, (though some of the advantages they think they possess, are only of consequence, from that satisfaction which every person experiences in doing any thing his own way**) it would be to little purpose to give directions in many cases, even if it were possible to do it explicitly.

Hence the writer deems it sufficient to have attended principally to those matters which im mediately lead to the point he all along wishes to be kept in view; that is, the effect intended to be produced on the cloth: but nevertheless, Cutters and Pinners, may find in other parts of this work observations enough that concern them; though, (as already intimated) they are more conveniently introduced under other heads. — See particularly Rule i, 12, 14, 17 and 19 for putting on, as well as several of the Rules for pitches, and what is said about blocks.

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