A Treatise on Calico Printing, General Rules to be observed at a Shop.

A Treatise on Calico Printing, VOL. I-II
Printed for C. O'Brien, Bookseller, Islington, and fold by Bew, Paternoster-row: Richardson, Royal Exchange: Murray, Fleet-Street: And the Booksellers of Manchester, Glasgow, Dublin, &c.


* If the pinning be not of such consequence as to affect the block, or that the grounds are not affected by it, the pinning can be performed in most cases while the grounds are cutting, and thus some time may be saved.

** It is certainly necessary to let the face of a print, or a ground that has fine-work, imbibe the iron liquor, especially if the wood be soft, for reasons well known: and to prevent the backs of prints or grounds from imbibing water, the effect of which is well known, it is as necessary to paint, them where the veneer is hand - tooled away, and likewise the sides and ends.

1. When a print comes home, if not pinnea or bradded, or trimmed out doors, the first object is to get it bradded and pinned (if there are to be any pins in it*) and so much trimmed, that an impression may be had of four joinings; then make what alterations and amend ments that may be needful, which being done, get it iron liquored** and backed, or span-holes cut; then get it in order, as well as your blocks, for taking it off for the grounds, and when they come out of the cutter's hands, just fight them to the pitches, but no more, for sear of their wanting some addition; and try each ground to a separate impression of the print 4 times joined, to see if they all answer in respect to the pitches, joining, and fitting; which when adjusted, put all the grounds to one impression of the print four times joined, which when likewise adjusted, make your last trial on a piece of cloth, which should be kept for such purposes; then get them numbered, the grounds marked what colour they work in, and painted between the work where handtooled, and round the sides, to prevent the water much affecting them, (as intimated in the note) then give notice they are ready for working, and keep them in a proper place till wanted; which you should always know a day or two before-hand, otherwise the print may go to work in a very im proper state, in being either too round or too hollow.  — See the article setting prints and grounds to work.

Note, If it be a rule to have prints and grounds trimmed and bradded out doors (which, under certain circumstances is most convenient, as at some shops there are too few people to do such things, or they may be busy on other matters) directions mould be given in what manner they are to be bradded, and particularly how much trimmed, for sear the joinings or other parti of the work be imperfect, and of course you may find it needful to make some additions.

2. As it frequently happens in prints and grounds, where the work is loose, or wide apart, that the pitches stand detatched from the work, care should be taken that a sufficiency of veneer be left about the pitch to admit of two or three brads, otherwise the brads, especially if carelessly put in, are apt to split the veneer, and the pitch pin is consequently injured, or perhaps entirely removed; which at all times is troublesome to replace in a proper manner.

As it is probable that notwithstanding the care which may have been taken to render the prints and grounds perfect in every particular, something may be faulty, it is necessary (and an injunction should accordingly be given) that every printer when he has to begin a new print, or even a ground, should send for the drawer or some proper person to look at it before he proceeds.

This leads the Writer to observe that a drawer or putter-on ought frequently to go round the Printing Shop, there being continually, from feme oversight of his own, the negligence of others, or from accidents that will unavoidably feappen, somethin* to alter, remove or rectify.

4. A Print or ground should never he sent to the print room, or any other place to be put by till wanted, without knowing of the proper person whether or not it is done with, and with cutters (as mentioned before) the first object should  be to brad and just so much trim it that the pitehes should be seen, and then give it to the drawer, or if it be the carpenters province to brad and trim it, it should be sent to him, and when he has done, he has to deliver it to the proper person.

N.B. A first impression of every print, and the last joined one, with the grounds, should be care sully preserved; and where there are young apprentices, good employment may be made for them, by always having impressions of prints, and some particular grounds, on clear paper, in order to vary the colouring of the pattern as much as possible, it not being so laborious as inventing patterns, and yet partaking of the nature of it, as it is inventing new grounds for them.

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