The Dyer's Guide. Chapter V. On Dyeing Silk And Cotton Black, &c. For dyeing black, particularly cotton velvets, at Manchester.

The Dyer's Guide
Being a Compendium of the Art of Dyeing
Linen, Cotton, Silk, Wool, Muslin, Dresses, Furniture, &c. &c.

With The Method of
Scouring Wool, Bleaching Cotton, &c.
Directions for Ungumming Silk, And For Whitening And Sulphuring Silk And Wool.
And Also
An Inttroductory Epitome of The Leading Facts in Chemistry, As Connected With The Art of Dyeing.

By Thomas Packer,
Dyer and Practical Chemist.

"Cet arte est un des plus utiles et des plus merveilleux qu'on connoisse."
- Chaptal.

"There is no art which depends so much on chemistry as dyeing."
- Garnett.

Second Edition,
Corrected and Materially Improved.

Printed for Sherwood, Gilbert, And Piper,

In a large dye-house where much business is done, a great many wine-pipes or other large tubs, or any substitutes are arranged in an appropriate place. Into these are put old iron hoops, rusted in the air, and cut into short pieces; a layer of the iron pieces and a layer of the alder bark, again a layer of iron and a layer of the bark, and so on in succession from the bottom to the top. When the pipes are all thus filled, water is poured into them till they are filled up; they remain in this state for six weeks or two months according to the season, whether summer or winter.

The same process will do for any other cotton goods as well as velvets, such as calicoes, cambric, and jaconot muslins, cotton in the skein, &c.

In some cases there are persons who pass the goods through the liquor of the aforesaid black vat. The colour of this liquor when it is fit for use is purplish, particularly after being once used and returned to the vat again, which it always is. Others begin by passing the goods through a decoction of logwood and sumach, then through sulphate of iron, then wash off through logwood only; then through sulphate of iron; always washing off from this last; the goods are then dried, and this is called the first time of saddening.

They are next passed through logwood, then through sulphate of iron, then washed off, then again through logwood, then sulphate of iron, and then washed off; and then dried. This is called the second time of saddening.

Supposing the goods to consist of a hundred or a thousand pieces, after drying the second time they are brought in lots to the foreman for examination, and assorted into lots one, two, and three. All that is fit for lot one is full enough and has ground enough, and is of a rich full-bodied brown, ready for galling or sumaching: sumach being the substitute for galls, this process is termed in ihe dyehouse, macing. Lot two is not full enough, and must pass through logwood, then sulphate of iron, and then be washed off. Lot three is still more deficient; this must be passed through logwood and the sulphate of iron twice and then washed off, and both lots two and three dried again.

Lot one is now to be sumached for the first time: that is, passed through a decoction of sumach, then through sulphate of iron, and then washed off: if the decoction of sumach be kept up strong after all of them are once sumached, they may be dried. Lots two and three, when they are dry, are also to be sumached the same as lot one, and dried.

As soon as any of them are dry they are ready to be sumached the second time by passing them through the decoction as before; but instead of sulphate of iron, some of the alder bark and iron liquor are used; or as we shall term it, the liquor of the black vat. They are then to be washed off and dried. If the black liquor and the sumaching be powerful, some of the goods will be finished when dry. Such are examined by the foreman; those which are not finished must go through the last process again. The finished goods are well and repeatedly washed off in fresh clear soft water two or three times and then dried.

The cambric muslins are sent to be calendered to imitate silk sarsenets.

Book-muslins must be sent to the muslin dressers, except where, in some cases, they sarsenet and dry their own goods.

By the above method the ground is secured, and so is the black, and also the strength of the goods.

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