The Dyer's Guide. Chapter V. On Dyeing Silk And Cotton Black, &c. Miscellaneous observations relative to Adrianople red.

The Dyer's Guide
Being a Compendium of the Art of Dyeing
Linen, Cotton, Silk, Wool, Muslin, Dresses, Furniture, &c. &c.

With The Method of
Scouring Wool, Bleaching Cotton, &c.
Directions for Ungumming Silk, And For Whitening And Sulphuring Silk And Wool.
And Also
An Inttroductory Epitome of The Leading Facts in Chemistry, As Connected With The Art of Dyeing.

By Thomas Packer,
Dyer and Practical Chemist.

"Cet arte est un des plus utiles et des plus merveilleux qu'on connoisse."
- Chaptal.

"There is no art which depends so much on chemistry as dyeing."
- Garnett.

Second Edition,
Corrected and Materially Improved.

Printed for Sherwood, Gilbert, And Piper,

In regard to the above processes, we may observe, that those given for Adrianople red in Ure's Berthollet, are more numerous, being regularly numbered to the seventeenth, or last operation called brightening. After a careful attention to those processes we see no reason to alter our own, yet we nevertheless advise the dyer to become acquainted with what is stated in that work, many details being there given for which we have not room, particularly for making different shades of the colour. We add, however the following from Vol. ii. p. 140.

"Cotton dyed red, may, moreover, be made to pass through all the shades, down to the palest orange, thus: pure nitric acid is diluted with two-fifths of water; chips of tin are oxidized in it till the liquor grows opal; the solution is employed at different strengths; the colour varies according to the concentration of the solution: when it is strong, shades are obtained which have some relation to those of scarlet.

"In general, when brilliant colours are desired, we must not charge them too much with oil; we must give feeble leys long repeated, charge little with alum, employ the best madders, and, at last, brighten powerfully without sparing soap."

We have directed good olive oil; but M. Vitalis directs fat oil, (gallipoli) to be used in the processes for dyeing Adrianople red, and Berthollet says, it must not be a fine oil, but one containing a strong portion of the extractive principle.

A factory for dyeing this red was first established in this country in 1790, by M Papillon, who obtained a premium from the Commissioners and Trustees for Manufactures in Scotland, for communicating the details of it on condition it should not be divulged for a term of years, during which M. Papillon was to have the sole use of his secret. This term being expired the process was published. See Vol. xviii. of Tilloch's Magazine.

M. Vitalis, (in his work on Dyeing published in 1823) has given, at length, the mode of dyeing Turkey red at Rouen. It differs in many particulars from Berthollet and others. We learn from him that two systems for imparting this colour are in use at Rouen. The first is called the grey course from the cotton being subjected to the maddering immediately after it has received the oily preparations, and the mordants of galls and alum which give it a grey colour. The yellow course, is so called from the cotton, after having received a first time the oily preparations, as well as the mordants of galls and alum, not being exposed to the maddering till it has passed a second time through the same preparations, and the same mordants which give it a yellow colour. This second manner of working the Turkey red is called, in the dyehouse, remounting on the galls. Dr. Ure, in a note to Berthollet, Vol. ii. p. 378, has detailed these two courses, and made, besides many valuable observations on them, and the dyeing of Adrianople red generally, for which we must refer to the work, as our limits prevent the possibility of any further notice of them here, except to add, that a process for dyeing cotton of a smoke red; and another for dyeing cotton a cherry red, is well deserving the attention of the dyer.

In regard to the blood used in dyeing Adrianople red. Dr. Ure decidedly affirms, that " it adds no colouring matter to the madder in the dyeing operation,'' in this he is countenanced by the observations of Chaptal, see Berthollet, Vol. ii. p. 141. " To the use of blood in the madder copper," says Dr. Ure, "I attribute nothing, as from the rancid and putrid state in which I have seen it used, were it not for the prejudice of the operator, it might be safely dispensed with." A very eminent calico manufacturer, whom Dr. Ure consulted, assured him, that in the Turkey red process the only essential mordants were oil and alumina; and that bright and fast reds, equal to any produced by the complicated processes of sheep's dung, galls and blood may be obtained without those articles.

We make no comments on these observations, but leave them to the good sense and intelligence of the dyer: they deserve the utmost attention.

Linen yarn takes a colour almost as brilliant as that of cotton, but it must be passed through a double number of oils and leys. The latter must even be very strong, otherwise the oil flows out at the surface. The greatest attention must be bestowed on the scouring out first: for the yarn mingles and entangles by the heat to such a degree, that it sometimes can be neither dipped nor unravelled.

It should be mentioned that the large dyers of Adrianople red, now obtain their soda for lixivium No. 1, by using common salt in solution, to which is added a solution of pearl-ashes. On boiling these together a muriate of potash is formed, which is taken out of the liquor with a skimmer; a carbonate of soda remains dissolved in the liquor, and is, of course, applied to the same purpose as, and at a much cheaper rate than, the Alicant soda.

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