The Dyer's Guide. Chapter V. On Dyeing Silk And Cotton Black, &c. To dye cotton an Adrianople or Turkey red.

The Dyer's Guide
Being a Compendium of the Art of Dyeing
Linen, Cotton, Silk, Wool, Muslin, Dresses, Furniture, &c. &c.

With The Method of
Scouring Wool, Bleaching Cotton, &c.
Directions for Ungumming Silk, And For Whitening And Sulphuring Silk And Wool.
And Also
An Inttroductory Epitome of The Leading Facts in Chemistry, As Connected With The Art of Dyeing.

By Thomas Packer,
Dyer and Practical Chemist.

"Cet arte est un des plus utiles et des plus merveilleux qu'on connoisse."
- Chaptal.

"There is no art which depends so much on chemistry as dyeing."
- Garnett.

Second Edition,
Corrected and Materially Improved.

Printed for Sherwood, Gilbert, And Piper,

For one hundred pounds of unbleached cotton, take the following articles and pursue the described processes.

Lixivium, No. 1. Dissolve one hundred and fifty pounds of alicant soda, (barilla) in three hundred quarts of river water. There must be no more water than enough to dissolve the salt. An egg must float on it or it will not be strong enough.

Lixivium No. 2. One hundred and fifty pounds of fresh wood ashes, and three hundred quarts of water.

Lixivium No. 3. Seventy-five pounds of quicklime, and three hundred quarts of water.

The cotton is to be boiled three hours in a liquor composed of equal parts of each of the above solutions, taken from them when clear and in a settled state. The liquor must be replenished occasionally, so that it shall always cover the cotton during the whole time it is boiling; after which it must be taken out, washed, and dried in the air.

Into one hundred and thirty quarts of a mixture consisting of equal parts of the above three lixiviums, put twenty five pounds of sheep's dung and part of the intestinal liquor, previously well mixed by means of a wooden pestle, and the whole strained through a hair sieve. Then twelve pounds and a half of good olive oil is poured into the mixture, when it instantly forms a soapy liquor.

Into this liquor the cotton should be worked hank by hank, often stirring it; the cotton, after all the hanks have been worked separately first, is then left in the liquor for twelve hours; it is then taken out, lightly wrung and dried. The liquor is put by for brightening. This process is repeated three times during the working; and by the time the solution is all worked four hundred quarts might be used, but that will not injure the clear of it from being applied in brightening; and it must be reserved for that purpose.

When the cotton has been three times dipped in this soapy water, and three times dyed, the same process is repeated, except that the sheep's dung is left out; the liquor is also preserved for brightening. The cotton, having gone through these processes, should be as white as if it had been bleached.

When dry it is to be galled, using a quarter of a pound of galls to every pound of cotton; after this it is dried, then take six ounces of alum for the first aluming; it is then to be dried again, and to hang three or four days in the air, and then, when dry, to be alumed again; four ounces of alum, and four of the lixivium may be added to the last alum water.

The madder used for this red is called lizary, which furnishes a dye incomparably finer than that produced by any other madder. Of lizary madder, therefore, take two pounds for every pound of cotton, and twenty pounds of liquid sheep's blood well mixed with the water in the copper before the madder is put in. The butcher should stir the blood to prevent its coagulating; the copper should be carefully skimmed; the madder should not boil, but be brought during the process from blood-heat to within a few degrees of the boiling point: if it boil at last, as some prefer it, it should only be for a few minutes.

In order to brighten the colour, the cotton is dipped in a lixivium of fresh wood ashes, and five pounds of white soap: yellow or mottled soap is improper. When the cotton has been well worked in this liquor, it is, with the liquor itself, put into a copper sufficiently large to hold it with some addition of water, and made to boil over a slow fire, for three, four, or more hours. The liquor must be covered with coarse white linen cloths, to keep as much steam in as possible.

Some of the skeins of cotton must be taken out from time to time, and washed perfectly; when the red is judged perfect and sufficiently bright, the fire is withdrawn.

If instead of the wood-ash lixivium and soap, the two reserved liquors and soap are used, the red will be much brighter than the finest Adrianople carnation.

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