A Dictionary of Arts: Verditer, or Bremen Green.

A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines; containing A Clear Exposition of Their Principles and Practice

by Andrew Ure, M. D.;
F. R. S. M. G. S. Lond.: M. Acad. M. S. Philad.; S. PH. DOC. N. GERM. Ranow.; Mulh. Etc. Etc.

Illustrated with nearly fifteen hundred engravings on wood
Eleventh American, From The Last London Edition.
To which is appended, a Supplement of Recent Improvements to The Present Time.

New York: D Appleton & company, 200 Broadway. Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut St.


VERDITER, or BREMEN GREEN. This pigment is a light powder, like magnesia, having a blue or bluish green color. The first is most esteemed. When worked up with oil or glue, it resists the air very well; but when touched with lime, it is easily affected, provided it has not been long and carefully dried. A strong heat deprives it of its lustre, and gives it a brown or blackish-green tint.

The following is, according to M. J. G. Gentele, the process of fabrication in Bremen, Cassel, Eisenach, Minden, &c. -

a. 225 lbs. of sea salt, and 222 lbs. of blue vitriol, both free from iron, are mixed in the dry state, then reduced between mill-stones with water to a thick homogeneous paste.

b. 225 lbs. of plates of old copper are cut by scissors into bits of an inch square, then thrown and agitated in a wooden tub containing two lbs. of sulphuric acid, diluted with a sufficient quantity of water, for the purpose of separating the impurities; they are afterwards washed with pure water in casks made to revolve upon their axes.

c. The bits of copper being placed in oxidation-chests, along with the magma of common salt and blue vitriol previously prepared in strata of half an inch thick, they are left for some time to their mutual reaction. The above chests are made of oaken planks joined without iron nails, and set aside in a cellar, or other place of moderate temperature.

The saline mixture, which is partially converted into sulphate of soda and chloride of copper, absorbs oxygen from the air, whereby the metallic copper passes into a hydrated oxyde, with a rapidity proportioned to the extent of the surfaces exposed to the atmosphere. In order to increase this exposure, during the three months that the process requires, the whole mass must be turned over once every week, with a copper shovel, transferring it into an empty chest alongside, and then back into the former one.

At the end of three months, the corroded copper scales must be picked out, and the saline particles separated from the slimy oxide with the help of as little water as possible.

d. This oxidized schlam, or mud, is filtered, then thrown, by means of a bucket containing 30 pounds, into a tub, where it is carefully divided or comminuted.

e. For every six pailfuls of schlam thus thrown into the large tub, 12 pounds of muriatic acid, at 15° Baumé, are to be added; the mixture is to be stirred, and then left at rest for 24 or 36 hours.

f. Into another tub, called the blue back, there is to be introduced, in like manner, for every six pailfuls of the acidified schlam, 15 similar pailfuls of a solution of colorless clear caustic alkali, at 19° Baumé.

g. When the back (e) has remained long enough at rest, there is to be poured into it a pail of pure water for every pail of schlam.

h. When all is thus prepared, the set of workmen who are to empty the back (e), and those who are to stir (f), must be placed alongside of each. The first set transfer the schlam rapidly into the latter back; where the second set mix and agitate it all the time requisite to convert the mass into a consistent state, and then leave it at rest from 36 to 48 hours.

The whole mass is to be now washed; with which view it is to be stirred about with the affusion of water, allowed to settle, and the supernatant liquor is drawn off, This process is to be repeated till no more traces of potash remain among the blue. The deposite must be the thrown upon a filter, where it is to be kept moist, and exposed freely to the air. The pigment is now squeezed in the filter-bags, cut into bits, and dried in the atmosphere, or at a temperature not exceeding 78° Fahr. It is only after the most complete desiccation that the colour acquires its greatest lustre.

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