A Treatise on Calico Printing, Rules &c. for putting on.

A Treatise on Calico Printing, VOL. I-II
Printed for C. O'Brien, Bookseller, Islington, and fold by Bew, Paternoster-row: Richardson, Royal Exchange: Murray, Fleet-Street: And the Booksellers of Manchester, Glasgow, Dublin, &c.
When a Pattern is given to the Drawer to be put on, the first thing is to note what sorts of blocks it requires, whether with hard or soft faces, whole or joined ones, crossed or single oak or other backs, the grain lengthways or crossways, &c.

* The writer's opinion is more in favour of found single oak backs, with stout dove-tail backs let in cross ways:-See the section on blocks.Under these considerations it may be observed, that if it be a close small Pattern, a clear whole face is best; and if nice in the joinings and will require smart knocking with the maul, firm crossed oak backs are generally preferred:* If the Pattern be pretty open, the joinings not very nice, and the grounds not difficult to hit in, the warping is not of such consequence, as if other wise, and therefore, larger blocks with joined faces may do; and as light patterns do not need much knocking, deal backs may answer.

If the Cutting be coarse, and can be made to work without hatting, soft wood is preferable to hard, although the soft wood itself may need hatting; but then the boundage for the hat may be much larger.

In some instances, where solids are wanted to furnish, and they are not very large indeed, sycamore or some other spungy wood is still better.

In respect to work that is quite with the grain, it seems that the grain of the face should not entirely correspond with it, as fine lines lying; with the grain, and with the bottom proportionably slender, cannot stand very firmly, especially if cut deep; therefore in this case, if the grain be rather waving or curly, the work - will have a firmer bottom; indeed if the work be of such a nature that a strong or coarse bottom: may be left, it cannot be the worse for a strait grain.

It is, however, very faulty where a pattern chiefly confifts of fine lines or shades, to put: them on across the grain, and therefore in such cases, it is needful sometimes that the grain be across a block.

It is full as bad, and under some circumstances, much worse, to put on work with a fine face oil a beachy block; as in printing, or even under a Cutter's hands, the surface will crumble away.

Other circumstances may spring up which can not be precisely ascertained, but by attending to the above particulars, many of them may be obviated with very little trouble.

* This may not ploase some cutters, but the Writer makes equally free with masters, as will appear.2. Take notice,or discover in what particular the pattern consists, whether in respect to the colouring of it, or the size, quantity, or disposition of the commanding objects; or, if a trail, whether it be upright or meandering, close or open, and the like —which having ascertained, consider how to preserve or produce that effect on the cloth, against the chance of indifferent cutting, printing or colour; at the same time consider where it may weil be altered, or what may be left out in the cutting*, or eased in the penciling; or, in other words, how it may be executed with the greatest ease and least expence.

3. If the pattern be on so large a scale as to require, it, be informed of what width the cloth is for which it is intended, or on what it is most likely to be worked, on account of the joining of the selvedges; making some allowance for the variation that will happen in respect to the width of cloth of the same kind.

Small patterns, it may be observed, cannot be affected in their appearance by the joining of the selvedges when made up: the rule particularly alludes to surnitures, whether trails, sprigs or stripes; for if this circumstance be not attended to, much of the cloth will be cut to waste, or the joinings of the selvedges will have a very aukward appearance; and it is not every Upholsterer or Mantua-maker that is very ready at joining a Pattern by the selvedges, even if contrived in the best manner for that very purpose.

It is likewise necessary to attend to the above  rule, in regulating the width of the Print, on account of the off-edge printing; as printing an,edging with a fine print does it considerable injury; besides, if the edging be printed as the piece goes on, the colour gathers on the off-side of the print, and causes an, otherwise, unnecessary brushing of it, or a very bad impression at the beginning of the next table; and if the edgings are left till the whole piece is printed, the edging is frequently fuller or barer than the rest of the work.

The observations on Squaring a Block comes in here properly, but being made a Section of itself, it is considered further on.

* The repetition of a small part is, however, very hazardous, for though not visible on the block it may be so in the piece, as it hangs on the rolls.4. If you have to make out the pattern, as it often happens, from a small part; and you mean to copy exactly that small part,* take care that the repetition be not visible, and that one part does not appear heavier than the rest, and  therefore, if it be a trail with objects on it or about it, observe whe ther the objects, the trail in general, or any particular part of it soonest catches the eye; if it be the objects that are most striking, they must be properly disposed first, or at least their intended situations marked out, and the stalk or trail then drawn to them, taking care at the same time to balance and uniformly mix it: If it be the trail only, or any part of it that strikes most, that, by the same rule, should be marked out first, for these most essential parts being judiciously or ad vantageously disposed, it must consequently follow that the remaining subordinate parts may be made to compleat the uniform appearance of the whole, with proportionably less trouble.

In order to be certain of the joinings exhibitingas even an appearance as any other part of the face, let your joining (if possible) be taken from. about the middle of your sketch when made complete.

5. If the pattem you have to put on, be composed entirely of objects, or in which the objects are the commanding part, that stand promiscuous, as fig. 1, whether close or wide apart, be careful that one part be not more crouded, or tne objects larger than in another; for nothing is of greater con sequence to guard against, as it is obvious to any person, when the aspect of a Pattern is unequal on a piece, or even when made up.

As it is very difficult by the eye to keep objects promiscuously situated, and at the same time preserve an even face, the following expedient is offered to accomplish it, when the objects are not very close to each other, or not of a  long or straggling shape, as fig. 2, 3, and 4, as then it is best to set them at equal distances and vary the face by turning the objects about in as many dif serent directions as you can, or that the nature of the pattern will allow.

Rule a number of lines, as you can best make out, from the pattern, according to the distance the objects stand from each other, as Fig. 5, which done, place an object in every other square, as fig. 6, that is, one at the top of a square, another near the middle, another near the side, and so on, thus will you be certain of the objects having a regular appearance in the general disposition of them, and at the same time standing promiscuously.

6. In order to ascertain on the paper on which you make your sketch or tracings the joinings of trails as well as of sprigs that are irregularly disposed whether closely or widely situated, make use of this method.

 After you have made your sketch or tracing, repeat, either on separate papers, or on one large enough for the purpose, as much as is necessary to shew the joinings at the head and sides, in or der to supply that which is defective or remove whatever may be improper; having done this, hold it slopingly from your sight, and look at the whole from top to bottom, from side to side, and from corner to corner, to see that no lights nor heavy lines nor bodies of objects appear, and as there is generally in trails what may be called the main stalk, see that it branches out regularly from side to side, so that one side balances the  other, and that the branchings so run into, each other that it may seem to flow regularly all over, and to be still more certain of its even disposition, hold it with,the back towards you betwixt yourself and the light, that by seeing it reversed you may know if it lean more to one side than the other.

* Meaning that unless it is. on a small scale, it ia unadviseable to do so, from the great difficulty of preventing a repetition being seen.7. In small patterns it cannot be amiss to put on the halves or quarters exactly alike, according to the nature of the pattern*, taking, care that the halves or quarters are not to be distinguished, in the repetition of them, for the conveniency of one block answering for the grounding of each part after it comes off the grass whether the pattern was intended to be so grounded or not; for which purpose, as rubbing off is the least certain method, an oiled paper, or a drawing from a stensil is to be preserred, and a stensil seems best, because, as it is only a part of the pattern that is affected by the grafs grounds: except when composed only of plain set objects. If openings are cut in the stensil to fit the places that are either to be covered by the grounds as fig. 7, or left open by them, as fig. 8, their situations may be easily ascertained by marking thro these openings with a tracer or pencil, and then the other parts of the pattern may be added in whatsoever manner the drawer most approves.

8. Endeavour to keep all sprigs, or bunches of flowers, or even single flowers, whole on the piece, and likewise the main stalk of a trail, if you know what will be the width of the cloth: as it will be of some importance in the sale of a piece and the making of it up.

This leads to the observation that a Printer should not let a sprig, or principal flower, or other object get off the edge one side or the other; for in the case of sprigs, &c. standing wide apart, he may try, at least, on cloth of any width, if he can preserve them whole without leaving too broad anedging on either side.

9. A pattern with six sprigs or commanding objects standing as fig. 9, cannot join whole or in halves, but must drop or rise one third as fig. 10, or the objects will not be at proper distances in the joinings, but then, of course, the pitches must be made to answer in the same manner.

10. In transverse patterns, that is, in patterns in which the trail lines or objects run across from corner to corner, the way as represented by fig. 11, whether in stripes or all over, let the transverse disposition appear on the cloth the way as shewn fig. 12. as it will thwart the right hand disposition of the parts of a pattern generally observed in drawing, and the aptitude we usually have to look from the left to the right; as the light is from the left, and the hand in drawing naturally tends that way, otherwise we should be always incommoded by the shade of it.

11. The straiter the work is of the side or near the edge, the better it is, as there will be the fewer, gaps, and the necessity will be obviated of having (what the Printers call) a list to make up the deficiency, and less will be cut to waste in the making of it up.

This rule, however, should not be so strictly adhered to as to make the joinings too nice, by cutting straight through every thing, or particularly through a number of objects; for the more they can be preserved intire, the less injury is done to the pattern, as the print being pitched too high or too low, or too close or slack, renders them all unshapeable; it is likewise better to keep them whole on account of the grounds, especially the grass ones, as they by being disjointed must add to the bad shape of the objects; but, as it may happen that the breaking of tbe objects is of little consequence from their shape or situation, or that the ground-work may be of more consequence to preserve; the above observation must be regulated by attending to what are the characteristic parts of the pattern, or what first catches tie sight, and these must suffer the least possible injury, whatever may be the sate of the subordinate parts.

12. If some part of the pattern be coarse or have a body, it will not allow the fine parts to be so close or so fine as they otherwise might be, as the quantity of colour requisite to supply the solid parts will choak up those that are close, or cause those to work coarsely that are fine; and here it may again be observed, that though neat drawing on is to be commended, yet, if not drawn sufficiently open or clear; where for instance, there may be shades or shapes as fig. 13, 14, and 15, though cut by the best cutter, and may appear tolerably open and fair on the block, they will not appear so in the impression, to say no thing how they may suffer from a bad cutter or printer, or from being printed on coarse cloth, or when half worked out; for a print should be calculated to work decently when a certain quantity of work generally expected to be executed by one is nearly compleated, and therefore (to give some instances) in drawing or cutting shades as fig. 16, 17, it is not adviseable to put them on in that manner, however graceful they may appear on the block or even in the cutting, because the colour will hang in the corners and give the work a clumsy appearance, hence to cut them with less of a curve as fig. 18, 19, they will, by working clearer and neater, amply compensate for such a deviation.

13. Avoid, if you can, having any part of a close trail as in fig. 20, at the head of a print, as the pressure from the pitching of the print will render it coarser than any other part of the trail: the pressure however may possibly be prevented by the pitch pins standing out farther than com mon from the work: for which preventative see the rules for making pitches.

14. When you have shades, as fig. 21, or particularly lights standing or running with the grain as fig. 22, 23, be careful to have them cut sufficiently open, otherwise you will be deccivad by their working closer than intended; for when print gets moist the opening closes considerably, and what may have appeared open in putting on, or when cut, will be choaked up in the printing, especially is cut with a thick knife, or if not sufficiently cleared at the bottom and sides. — See more respecting this article in Rule 6, for cutting.

15. In joinings either at the head or side, the more a stalk or trail joins in this upright direction fig. 24, the better it is for working, instead of joining fig. 25, as the best Printer cannot at all times, on account of the varying of the cloth, keep the joinings so well in command at the side as he can at the head.

* An imperfection of this kind runs nearly all through the work of one of the first Printers about town. — This, with similar observations will be en larged on, in the progress of this work. 16. In drawing leaves or sharp-angled objects that are to be pencilled, it is recommended to terminate them as fig. 26, 27, or fig. 28, instead of fig. 29, 30, 31, as such a finish will keep the penciling, particularly the blue colour, an account of its thickness, from being run into white, or the ground; for without such a filling up of the ends, the pencillers will either leave a light at the corners, as fig. 31, or, in en deavouring to fill them up, they will be apt, from the largeness of their pencils, to come over the line, as fig. 32, and the same observation will hold good respecting every other place where the pencilling goes into corners or angles.*

Note. In calculating the expence of pencilling; and thereby fixing what quantity should be in a Pattern, a certain number of strokes or dashes, which a Penciller is supposed to make in a stated time, is worth a certain price.

17. In putting on the block, nothing is more deceptive than having ao leave lights in dark grounds; for if any shape is drawn fig. 33, you may be deceived when the ground is filled up, as it takes in the line you have drawn, and makes the light within-side appear less; it is still more deceiving if you have to draw the boundage as fig. 34, as its thickness gives the whole object a larger appearance than it really has. Here it may be noticed (though touched on before) in putting on  a print that is to have a thick boundage, see fig. 35, particularly if it is to be a doppy, that the shades and other work within fide see fig. 36, must be kept sufficiently clear and open; or the weight of colour requisite to furnish the boundage, or doppy, will be too much for such close shades or fine work. Observe likewise is there be lights as fig. 37, to give intimation to the Cutter to strike the ends with a small gouge, as fig. 38, which will prevent the colour from hanging in those otherwise sharp ends.

18. In drawing on grounds that have large bodies as fig. 39, that are to work in thin colour, especially if they stand wide apart, remember that they will in the working, from the sinking or spreading of the colour, and its adherence to the sides, make larger impressions than the surface of the cutting otherwise would; hence they should be proportioned to that circumstance, and put on perhaps smaller than they are in the pattern. And as the pale colours worked with such solids, will be lost, or appear much paler when impressed from fine lines or pins if on the same block; therefore in such cases separate grounds should he had for the fine parts or for the pins.

Under this head would be considered the drawing on blotch grounds, and the other grounds that fall into boundages, but as the cutting far ther or less into the boundage is partly regulated by the thickness of it; no precise direction can be given, as every one knows the circumstance to be attended to, in this case, is to prevent any, light edges from appearing either within or with out the boundage. — See more to this purpose Rule 7, under the article Cutting.

19. Wherever there are to be pins, mark them on the block previous to its going into the Cutter's hands, that the wood be not chisselled away, and where the pins touch or join the cutting, mark them accurately, and give intimation to the Cutter, that the ends of the shades or stalks may be cut downright, otherwise a disagreeable gap will be lest, as fig. 43; and in ascertaining the sizes of pins, be aware that as the wood gets coarse by working, the pins fink in, from the repeated blows at the back; and if worked in colour that has any corrosive quality in it, they soon get finer; hence if provision is not made for these circumstances, the impression of the wood wood and pins will in a little time be very disproportioned. It is likewise needful to inform the Cutter of what quality the pins are to be, that the depth of the chisselling maybe regulated accordingly.

20. In ruling Bengals the following mode is recommended, in order to make the ends join each other, (provided the block has not been too much warped, or any particular accident happened.)

Make on a flip of thick paper,or rather thin lead, with which tea-chests are lined, as many divisions as you have Bengals to put on, then fixing it to the square line at one end, prick through the divisions on the paper, and transser them to the block, the finer the pricked holes the better; having done this, remove the flip carefully ta the square line at the other end, taking care that the two extreme holes answer to the corners of the square, and prick through the same divisions as you did before; then rule as usual from the pricked marks, thus will each end of your square be a correct copy of the other; but as the ends of Bengals are of most consequeace to preserve, it may not be amiss with a sharp thin blade, to cut a little into the wood at each end.

21. If it be a joined block that you use, take care that the joint comes between the Bengals, and as a preventative against the consequences of a print with Bengals warping under the Cutter's hands, it may be necessary to let one end of the Bengals be cut thicker than the other; see fig. 44, and make the ends join by cutting away from the broad ones, when the print goes to work; or whenever Bengals do not pitch to. themselves, that is, when they join by pitchpins, it may be usesul to cut both ends, as fig. 45, and in the joining let the points run into each other, as you thereby prevent the [disagreeable appearance that the junction has when two square ends join badly, as fig. 46, but in the other instance, at the worst, tHey will appear as fig. 47, which is considerably better.

22. When you have a number of set objects., such as rosettes, rings, leaves, &c. to put on, it being very difficult, if not impossible, to trace or draw them alike in the usual way, it is best to have the objects cut accurately, and impressed or printed on the block, which if you can do clear enough  to cut from, it will save much time and; labour; or if you cannot do it so smartly as you wish, make a mixture of lamp black and flake white, so as to be about the hue of black lead, the paler the colour the better, and let there be little, if any, gum in it; spread this pretty thinly on a piece of soft leather, and so take off your impressions on the block, which done, draw over the objects, lo printed, with well-tempered carmine (some add gum bogia) and when finished clear away as much as you can of the colour you printed on, with a piece of stale bread; for if you use India rubber, it will change any colour which has gum bogia in it, to a very dark and dirty one.

Another method is by printing by our object on paper with a proper mixture of carmine and treacle, which a little practice will ascertain, and then rub it off from the paper on to  the block; the advantage of which mode is, that the colour does not speedily dry, so that you may take what time you please in rubbing it on; but the neatest method is by the object being engraved, and then taken off on paper, either by hand or a press, in the red oil colour that is used in the printing  on paper; which not speedily drying any more than the treacle colour, it may be rubbed on the same manner.

Other methods of a similar kind for another purpose, are proposed further on.

23. If for any particular purpose you want to fix your colour on the wood, a thin white transparent varnish will secure it; or if you use a black lead pencil only, strew some powdered rosin all over, and then move a hot iron about at a little distance over it, by which method the rosin will liquidate and form a kind of varnish over it; or what is still more simple, if you only draw your tongue wet with saliva, over a black-lead drawing, and let it dry, the black lead cannot be easily removed.

24. When you have a pattern to put on, consisting of very small objects, very closely and promiscuously situated, an eligible way to preserve an even face, is to take a small portion of the square of the block (in some cases half an inch will do) and see how many objects will go in it, and then repeat this portion on another paper, to what size you please; varying the disposition of the objects as much as the pattern will admit, in order to prevent the appearance of a repetition.

Note, Small close patterns will well bear enlarging a little, else in the cloth they appear smaller and closer.

As circles, rosettes, and other common objects, are always in use, it would not be amiss to have punches of different sorts and sizes, to use occasionally on paper or blocks, particularly where the objects are on dark grounds, as fig. 48, or have a thick boundage, as fig. 49, as the object impressed on the wood will be visible to cut or gouge from; or if the impressions suffer from damping, they may be drawn over in red, and thus from their accuracy much trouble would be saved; or if you want a solid object repeated accurately, it may be managed by stenselling it, that is, by an object as fig. 50, cut out of a piece of oil-skin, a piece of thick paper rubbed over with bees wax, or a piece of thin sheet lead, and then lay the colour on, with a pad, or in what other, manner you find convenient; or if you want to do something like fig. 51, it may be managed by cutting out the object nearly all round, as fig. 52, leaving just joining enough to prevent the inner piece from falling out, the impression of course will be imperfect as fig. 53, which imperfection must be made good by the pencil.

As sometimes on emergency things cannot be got on too soon, you may, after having put on the print, trace the same accurately with a firm oiled paper, and then retrace it on another block, or at least those parts that the ground which you mean to put on, falls into, or joins; on which accordingly draw your grounds; but strict charge must be given to the cutter that he does not deviate in the least from the drawing.

The advantage of this mede is evident, in having the principal grounds ready as soon as the print; and if they do riot exactly fit, perhaps a little alteration may make them; and that is better than setting some prints to work before the grounds are cut, as then whatever is amiss in the impression of the print, must remain so.

It is however suggested concerning this article and the preceding one, that they should only be used in cases of absolute necessity, as their neat ness and accuracy cannot be much insisted on.

In fact, every one must grant that any operation, especially where contrivance is necessary, and has to go through many hands, if exe cuted with precipitancy, cannot reasonably be expected to be free from some fault or other; and in this instance it most undoubtedly is requisite, that, with very few exceptions, prints and grounds should be adjusted to each ether be fore they go to work.

27. In finishing the joinings of some certain prints it will do no harm, to let the ends of stalks or objects, that join at the heads and sides, be a little too long, it being an. easy matter to pare or cut away what is superfluous; or sometimes if particular parts of a joining are suffered to remain rather longer than might seem needful, as fig. 54; they prevent the appearance of a break in the stalk, see fig. 55, 56, 57, if the print is slackly joined.

28. Avoid so disposing of a leaf, a flower, or several stalks at the corners of a print, as to require four joinings to bring them together, see fig. 58, 59, 60, but, if possible, let the corners of the square fall in some open or blank  part of the pattern, as the joinings are less likely to be perfect at the corners than any where else.

The above rule, it may be observed, chiefly respects patterns where the work is close, or the objects small; as in loose patterns, or where the are large, and light of work, it may not be of much consequence where the joinings are made.

N.B. In joinings it is perhaps best not to give much latitude, to Printers, as it thereby makes foma of them more careful in the joining, and rarely satisfy them how the grass grounds fall; for if they know they may run their, joinings a little, they will be apt to over-run that latitude; It is however necessary to inform them what work is to be grounded, that they may be accordingly careful in pulling over, their pieces, and folding them smoothly and even. The Foreman of a shop should be informed of the design of every pattern.

 29. Instead of the common way of making cut the joinings, by rubbing off from black lead, or by an oiled paper, the following mode is: offered where particular nicety is required, at least it must be something more certain, fromthe circumstance of one side and end being cut, than the usual mode, as there is always a probability of the Cutter deviating - from the drawing, or the marking; out of the joinings.

 After having regulated your joinings, draw or finish one end and one side, as you mean it be joined to the others, leaving the other end and side unfinished, at least within a quarter of an inch, or perhaps less, where the joinings are to be made; then let the end and side that you have drawn perfect, be cut a little way in the work, and likewise the squares; then dab a little treacle and lamp-black oa the edge of the part that is cut, and lay over it a flip ot strong paper, and press it sufficiently to receive an impression, taking care that you take the impression of the squares, unless you chuse to prick through the two corners, for the purpose of transserring them to the other;. either way remove the paper carefully to the other side or end, by joining the squares that you have rubbed off, to the other squares, or fixing the pricked holes to them: then rub the impression which you have, received from the end or side which you have cut, which will convey it to the block, to which impression you accordingly have to make good the drawing for the joinings. - In some cases it may be more convenient to let the print be cut all over to within a very little of one of the sides and ends, observing the same process of rubbing, as before suggested. Or, by  putting temporary pitches at a distance from the square, at the bottom and off-side, and having holes or pins to answer to them, within the squares, and at the same distance from them, if you strike an impression on paper, and then join it, (observing to guard the blank part of the block from the dipping) you will have at once the impression of that part of the block which is cut, and by which you may the easier regulate the joinings.

30. In prints with sprigs that stand wide apart, or in very loose trails, if it can be done without hurting the ground, a few pins placed between, and filed nearly to a point, and rather below the surface of the wood, will keep the cloth down; and cause the work to appear neater, by preventing the edges of the objects pressing too much on the cloth; it likewise answers the purpose of keeping the substance of the block nearly equal, as otherwise a deal of wood must be handtooled out; and the hollows that remain must weaken the block, and render it more apt to warp, or perhaps split, if the print requires much knocking. In grounds where the parts stand far from each other, it can be done very conveni ently, by letting these (what may be called) guard  pins, sall into parts of the impression of the print.

It is granted that an objection lies against this observation, as the points of pins standing at great distances from each other, are apt to make hole in the sieve, or in the cloth, especially where coarse or too much blanketing is used on the table; and if one thread of the piece is broken, it will in the process of copper or field-work be come a hole; therefore some caution is needful in this case to place the pins, not too far from the work, especially round the outside of it, so that the circumstance alluded to be prevented-

31. Where a print or ground is put on with out any drawing, such as rings, bengals, that are executed with dividers, tracers, &c. so that only an indenting is made in the wood, if a thin mixture of colour be spread all over, and the block afterwards scraped with a fine edge, some of the colour will remain in the indentings or hollows, and be tolerably visible; besides, by pursuing this method, if the wood be damped, and the indentings swelled up, there will be some guide to the Cutter; in short, it will have nearly the same effect as oiling the wood where a curf line is cut.

32. In drawing for pinning, be aware that though in the drawing, your lines may appear to stand distinct as fig. 61, 62, 63, yet the print when pinned will not have that appearance, the certain vacancy between the pins destroying if, as the pins will appear as fig. 64, 65, 66. Observe the same in drawing lights in bodies of pins, as fig. 67, for though the object may appear tolerably shapeable, while only as a line, yet it will be destroyed when enclosed in pins as fig. 68, there fore in such cases, let there be a proper openess. observed or provided for.

33. In drawing pinwork for cylinders, recollect that there will be some difference between the width of the surface of the pins, and: the bottom of them which in rings, rosettes, &c. will be of some consequence.

34. In adjusting the joinings and pitches, it may not be amiss, indeed it is necessary, if there be among the Printers, one who has a general judgment, to consult with htm respecting them.

* This kind of refinement is what the writer several times points out as objectionable in the patterns as executed on the cloth by some of the first Printers; in one ground almost all the leaves (as mentioned already) are of that long shape, fig. 110, so as to heighten the inconvenience when formed with pins; and in another, (perhaps the first in this country, for the variety of patterns it has produced, and the taste displayed in them) those leaves fig. m, are very frequent: but the ill effect is at all times visible, though the pencilling is as neat as can possibly be done here; therefore the drawing on paper should be regulated in a degree by the similitude that is attainable on the cloth; and, according to the principle of keeping the last stage in view, a little deviation had better, be made from the original, though in respect to itself not bettering the appearance, provided it tends to give the whole a better aspect; and particularly so, if it renders the operations easier, or more facile, in any of the branches.3. Though the following observation more concerns the designer, yet as the putter-on is sometimes left to his discretion, it is intimated here that pin shapes for leaves are bad for penciling two colours, viz. the blue over yellow, or yellow over bine, as the blue, and yellow are never so exactly on each other but that, they are seen at the edges; and so likewise are the edges of leaves or other objects of. this kind, fig. 106* and of pin shapes, those are the worst that are in this form fig. 107 on account of the sharp end; but, if such shapes must be retained, it is advised to end them thus fig. 108. Besides, there is another inconvenience attending pin shapes, indeed a general one, which is, that the surfaces of the pins continually get finer; hence, if not put in as close as possible to each other, or if put in of the smallest sizes, (speaking of them as boundages for colour) there soon will be very little line to be seen; and every one knows pumicing them must render the wood-work coarser; and it may be said too of this kind of shapes, fig. 109, that a small accident or little violence soon breaks them; or if the texture of the wood be not very firm indeed, they soon crumble away, or work gouty.

36. Observe as a general rule, that pins and wood never work well together, especially large pins with fine cutting, or fine pins with coarse cutting, and particularly where they stand close to the wood. See Rule 19.

37. In drawing on grounds that are to work in thin colour, if they have shades, or other long and thin shapas, terminating in points, remember that such long shades do not shew as such, even if very wide apart; and if put close together, they blotch up; therefore in many instances they should be drawn rather longer than apparently needful, and the Cutter must be directed to cross the ends with his knife.

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