The Chemistry of Dyestuff. Dyestuffs. Appendix, Drawings Of Plant.

A Manual for Students of Chemistry and Dyeing
M. Fort, M.Sc. (Leeds) Late Lecturer in Dyeing in the Bradford Technical College and L. L. Lloyd, Ph.D. (Bern) Lecturer in Organic and Technical Chemistry in the Bradford Technical College
Cambridge: at the University Press 1919
(First edition 1917, reprinted 1919)

FIG. I Ordinary Tar Still.

FIG. II. Plant for Distillation of Coal Tar Oils, Rectification of Oils, etc.

A Still, steam-heated.
B Savalle column, still-head.
C Air-cooler or condensator.
D Condenser proper (water tubes).

Interior Section of Column B-b. Dephlegmator.
O Overflow pipes.
W Wells.
P Perforated plates.
F Tiny fountains caused by vapour ascending, giving good fraction ation.

FIG. III. Plant for Manufacture of Diphenylamine Products.
A Autoclave.
B Vat for washing, dissolving out impurities.
C Table filter.

FIG. IV. Sulphonation Plant used in Manufacture of Benzene Sulphonates, etc.
A Autoclave with Stirrer and Gauge.
B Condenser for Excess Hydrocarbon.
C Receiver.
D Agitating vessel for neutralisation, "timing-out," etc.

FIG. V. Plant for Manufacture of Dimethylaniline.

A Autoclave in oil-bnth.
B Still (stirrer with hollow spindle for steam).
C Condenser.
R Receiver.

D Feed-pump.
E Separating vessel.
F Carboy.

FIG. VI. Plant for Manufacture of Naphthol products from Sulphonic Acids, e.g. Amidonaphthol sulphonic acid Y (2, 8, 6) from β-naphthylamine disulphonic acid G by heating under pressure with alkali.
A Pressure vessel for alkali melt.
B Vessel for neutralisation of alkali melt (with stirrer).
C Filter press.

FIG. VII. Plant for Kapid Distillation and Purification. Used in purification of Eesorcine.

A Retort-still.
B Condenser.
C Receiver.
D Moulds.

FIG. VIII. Plant for Alkylating, etc. under Pressure.
G Pressure gauge.
V Safety valve.
S Stirrer.

FIG. IX. Plant for Solvent Extraction and Separation, e.g. used of extraction of Kesorcine with Amyl Alcohol and Ether.
A Extraction vessel with spiral agitator.
B Separating vessels.
C Still for recovery of solvent

FIG. X. Evaporating and Grinding Plant used in Manufacture of Intermediate Products and Dyestuffs, Dyewood Extracts, etc.
A Supply pipes.
B Reservoir heaters.
C Evaporating pans (steam-jacketed).
D Grinding mills.

FIG. XI. Plant for Manufacture of an Azo Dyestuff.
A Vat for diazotising the amine component (with paddle agitator).
B Vessel for dissolving second component (phenol or amine).
C Coupling vat (with agitator).
D Monteju (receiving reservoir).
E Filter press.
N Vessel for sodium nitrite.

FIG. XII. Special Plant for Manufacture of an Azo Dyestuff.
A Autoclave for sulphonation, or dissolving, or diazotisation under pressure.
B Receiver from A for neutralisation, dilution, etc. if required.
C Coupling vat (tandem paddle stirrers).
D Vessel for dissolving or diazotising second component.
E Pump feeding press.
F Filter press.

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