Encyclopedia Britannica, 1st ed., 1771

CARMINE, a powder of a very beautiful red colour, bordering upon purple, and used by painters in miniature; though but rarely, because of its great price.

It is extracted from cochineal, by means of water, wherein chouan and antour have been infused; some add rocou, but this gives it too much of the oval cast. Others make carmine with brasil-wood, fernambouc, and leaf-gold, beat in a mortar, and steeped in white-wine vinegar; the scum arising from this mixture, upon boiling, when dried, makes carmine; but this kind is vastly inferior to the former: There is another carmine, made of brasil-wood and ferbambouc, by a different preparation.

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