A Dictionary of Arts: Camwood. Colcothar of Vitriol. Crayons, lithographic. Cudbear.

A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines; containing A Clear Exposition of Their Principles and Practice

by Andrew Ure, M. D.;
F. R. S. M. G. S. Lond.: M. Acad. M. S. Philad.; S. PH. DOC. N. GERM. Ranow.; Mulh. Etc. Etc.

Illustrated with nearly fifteen hundred engravings on wood
Eleventh American, From The Last London Edition.
To which is appended, a Supplement of Recent Improvements to The Present Time.

New York: D Appleton & company, 200 Broadway. Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut St.


CAMWOOD. An Article imported from Sierra Leone, which seems to possess similar dyeing powers with Brazil or Nicaragua wood.

COLCOTHAR OF VITRIOL. (Rouge d'Angleterre, Fr. Rothers Eisenoxyd, Germ.) is the brown-red peroxide of iron, produced by calcining sulphate of iron with a strong heat, levigating the resulting mass, and elutriating it into an impalpable powder. A better way of making it so as to complete the separation of the acid, is to mix 100 parts of the green sulphate of iron with 42 of common salt, to calcine the mixture, wash away the resulting sulphate of soda, and levigate the residuum. The sulphuric acid in this case expels the chlorine of the salt in the form of muriatic acid gas, and saturates its alkaline base produced by the chemical reaction; whence an oxyde will be obtained free from acid, much superior to what is commonly found in the shops. The best sort of polishing powder, called jewellers' red rouge or plate powder, is the precipitated oxyde of iron prepared by adding solution of soda to solution of copperas, washing, drying, and calcining the powder in shallow vessels with a gentle heat, till it assumes a deep brown red color. See IRON-

CRAYONS, lithographic. Various formulæ have been given for the formation of these crayons. One of these prescribes, white wax, 4 parts; hard tallow-soap, shellac, of each 2 parts; lamp black, 1 part. Another is, dried tallow-soap and white wax, each 6 parts; lamp black, 1 part. This mixture, being fused with a gentle heat, is to be cast into moulds for forming crayons of a proper size.

CUDBEAR was first made an article of trade in this country, by Dr. Cuthbert Gordon, from whom it derived its name, and was originally manufactured on a great scale by Mr. G. Mackintosh at Glasgow, nearly 60 years ago. Cudbear or persio is a powder of a violet red color, difficult to moisten with water, and of a peculiar but not disagreeable odor. It is partially soluble in boiling water, becomes red with acids, and violet but with alkalis. It is prepared in the same way as archil, only towards the end the substance is dried in the air, and is then ground to a fine powder, taking care to avoid decomposition, which renders it glutinous. In Scotland they use the lichen tartareus, more rarely the lichen calcareus, and omphalodes; most of which lichens are imported from Sweden and Norway, under the name of rock moss. The lichen is suffered to ferment for a month, and is then stirred about to allow any stones which may be present to fall to the bottom. The red mass is next poured into a flat vessel, and left to evaporate till its urinous smell has disappeared, and till it has assumed an agreeable colour verging upon violet. It is then ground to fine powder. During the fermentation of the lichen, it is watered with stale urine, or with an equivalent ammoniacal liquor of any kind, as in making archil.

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