A Dictionary of Arts: Scarlet Dye.

A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines; containing A Clear Exposition of Their Principles and Practice

by Andrew Ure, M. D.;
F. R. S. M. G. S. Lond.: M. Acad. M. S. Philad.; S. PH. DOC. N. GERM. Ranow.; Mulh. Etc. Etc.

Illustrated with nearly fifteen hundred engravings on wood
Eleventh American, From The Last London Edition.
To which is appended, a Supplement of Recent Improvements to The Present Time.

New York: D Appleton & company, 200 Broadway. Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut St.


SCARLET DYE. Teinture en écarlate, Fr.; Scharlachfärberei, Germ.) Scarlet is usually given at two successive operations. The boiler (see figs. 364, 365, article DYEING,) is made of block tin, but its bottom is formed occasionally of copper.

1. The bouillon, or the coloring-bath. - For 100 pounds of cloth, put into the water, when it is little more than lukewarm, 6 pounds of argal, and stir it well. When the water becomes too hot for the hand, throw into it, with agitation, one pound of cochineal in fine powder. An instant afterwards, pour in 5 pounds of the clear mordant G (see TIN MORDANTS,) stir the whole thoroughly as soon as the bath begins to boil, introduce the cloth, and wince it briskly for two or three rotations, and then more slowly. At the end of a two hour's boil, the cloth is to be taken out, allowed to become perfectly cool, and well washed at the river, or winced in a current of pure water. (See an automatic plan of washing described under the article RINSING MACHINE.)

2. The rougie, or finishing dye. - The bouillon bath is emptied, and replaced with water, for the rougie. When it is on the point of boiling, 5½ pounds of cochineal in fine powder are to be thrown in, and mixed with care; when the crust, which forms upon the surface, opens of itself in several places, 14 pounds of solution of tin (as above) are to be added. Should the liquor be likely to boil over the edges of the kettle, it must be refreshed with a little cold water. When the bath has become uniform, the cloth is to be put in, taking care to wince it briskly for two or three turns; then to boil it bodily for an hour, thrusting it under the liquor with a rod whenever it rises to the surface. It is lastly taken out, aired, washed at the river, and dried.

As no person has done more for the improvement of the scarlet dyes than Poërner, I shall here give his processes in detail.

[Bouillon, or coloring. - For every pound of cloth or wool, take 14 drachms of cream of tartar. When the bath is boiling, and the tartar all dissolved, pour in successively 14 drams of solution of tin (Mordant F, TIN), and let the whole boil together during a few minutes. Now introduce the cloth, and boil it for 2 hours; then take it out, and let it drain and cool.

Rougie, or dye. - For every pound of woollen stuff, take 2 drachms of cream of tartar. When the bath begins to boil, add 1 ounce of cochineal reduced to fine powder, stir the mixture well with rod of willow or any white wood, and let it boil for a few minutes. Then pour in, by successive portions, 1 ounce of solution of tin (Mordant F), stirring continually with the rod. Lastly, dye as quickly as possible. The colour will be a beautiful scarlet.

Second scarlet process of Poërner, the bouillon being the same as above given, and always estimated for 1 pound of cloth or wool. Rougie. - Take 1 ounce of cochineal in fine powder, and 2 ounces of solution of tin without tartar.

Third scarlet process of Poërner; the bouillon being as above. Rougie for a pound of cloth. - Take two drachms of cream of tartar, one ounce of cochineal, one ounce of solution of tin, and 2 ounces of sea salt; dye as in proces 1. The salt helps the dye to penetrate into the cloth.

TABLES of the COMPOSITION of the BOUILLON and ROUGIE, by different Authors, for 100 pounds of Cloth or Wool.

Composition of the Bouillon.

Names of the Authors. | Starch. [lb. - oz.] | Cream of Tartar. [lb. - oz.] | Cochineal. [lb. - dr.] | Solution of Tin. [lb. - oz.] | Common Salt. [lb. - oz.]
Berthollet | 0 0 | 6 0 | 8 9 | 5 0 | 0 0
Hellot | 0 0 | 12 8 | 18 6 | 12 8 | 0 0
Scheffer | 9 6 | 9 6 | 12 4 | 9 6 | 0 0
Poërner | 0 0 | 0 15 | 0 0 | 10 15 | 0 0

Composition of the Rougie.

Names of the Authors. | Starch. [lb. - oz.] | Cream of Tartar. [lb. - oz.] | Cochineal. [lb. - dr.] | Solution of Tin. [lb. - oz.] | Common Salt. [lb. - oz.]
Berthollet | 0 0 | 0 0 | 5 8 | 14 0 | 0 0
Hellot | 3 2 | 0 0 | 7 4 | 12 8 | 0 0
Scheffer | 3 2 | 3 2 | 5 7½ | 4 11 | 0 0
Poërner | 0 0 | 1 8 | 6 4 | 6 4 | 0 0
-"- | 0 0 | 0 0 | 6 4 | 12 8 | 0 0
-"- | 0 0 | 1 8 | 6 4 | 6 4 | 12 8

M. Lenormand states that he has made experiments of verification upon all the formulas of the preceding tables, and declares his conviction that the finest tint may be obtained by taking the bouillon of Scheffer, and the rougie No. 4. of Poërner. The solution which produced the most brilliant red, is that made according to the process of mordant B (TIN.) M. Robiquet has given the following prescription for making a printing scarlet, for well-whitened woollen cloth.

Boil a pound of pulverized cochineal in four pints of water down to 2 pints, and pass the decoction through a sieve. Repeat the boiling three times upon the residuum, mix the eight pints of decoction, thicken them properly with two pounds of starch, and boil into a paste. Let it cool down to 104° F., then add four ounces of the subjoined solution of tin, and two ounces of ordinary salt of tin (muriate). When a ponçeau red is wanted, two ounces of pounded curcuma (turmeric) should be added.

The solution of tin above prescribed, is made by taking - one ounce of nitric acid, of specific gravity 36° B, = 1.33; one ounce of sal ammoniac; four ounces of grain tin. The tin is to be divided into eight portions, and one of them is to be put into the acid mixture every quarter of an hour.

A solution of chlorate of potassa (chloride ?) is said to beautify scarlet cloth in a remarkable manner.

Bancroft proposed to supplant the nitro-muriatic acid, by a mixture of sulphuric and muriatic acids, for dissolving tin; but I do not find that he succeeded in persuading scarlet-dyers to adopt his plans. In fact the proper base is, in my opinion, a mixture of the protoxide and peroxyde of tin; and this cannot be obtained by acting upon the metal with the murio-sulphuric acid. He also prescribed the extensive use of the quercitron yellow to change the natural crimson of the cochineal into scarlet, thereby economizing the quantity of this expensive dye-stuff. See LAC DYE.

Ei kommentteja :