A Dictionary of Arts: Paints, Grinding of.

A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines; containing A Clear Exposition of Their Principles and Practice

by Andrew Ure, M. D.;
F. R. S. M. G. S. Lond.: M. Acad. M. S. Philad.; S. PH. DOC. N. GERM. Ranow.; Mulh. Etc. Etc.

Illustrated with nearly fifteen hundred engravings on wood
Eleventh American, From The Last London Edition.
To which is appended, a Supplement of Recent Improvements to The Present Time.

New York: D Appleton & company, 200 Broadway. Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 148 Chestnut St.


PAINTS, GRINDING OF. There are many pigments, such as common orpiment, or king's yellow, and verdigris, which are strong poisons; others which are very deleterious, and occasion dreadful maladies, such as white lead, red lead, chrome yellow, and vermilion; none of which can be safely ground by hand with the slab and muller, but should always be triturated in a mill. The emanations of white lead cause, first, that dangerous disease the colica pictonum, afterwards paralysis, or premature decrepitude and lingering death.

Figs. 775, 776, 777, 778 exhibit the construction of a good colour-mill in three views; fig. 775 being an elevation shown upon the side of the handle, or where the power is applied to the shaft; fig. 776 a second elevation, taken upon the side of the line c, d, of the plan or bird's-eye view, fig. 777.

The frame-work A A of the mill is made of wood or cast iron, strongly mortised or bolted together; and strengthened by the two cross iron bars E, F Fig. 778 is a plan of the millstones. The lying or nether millstone C, fig. 776, is of cast iron, and is channelled on its upper face like corn millstones. It is fixed upon the two iron bars, B B; but may be preferably supported upon the 3 points of adjustable screws, passing up through bearing-bars. The millstone C is surrounded by a large iron hoop D, for preventing the pasty-consistenced colour from running over the edge. It can escape only by the sluice hole E, fig. 776, formed in the hood; and is then received in the tub X placed beneath.

The upper or moving millstone F, is also made of cast iron. The dotted lines indicate its shape. In the centre it has an aperture with ledges G, G; there is also a ledge upon its outer circumference, sufficiently high to confine the colour which may occasionally accumulate upon its surface. An upright iron shaft H passes into the turning stone, and gives motion to it. A horizontal iron bevel wheel C, figs. 776, 777, furnished with 27 wooden teeth, is fixed upon the upper end of the upright shaft H. A similar bevel wheel L, having the same number of teeth, is placed vertically upon the horizontal iron axis M, M, and works into the wheel X. This horizontal axis M, M bears, at one of its ends, a handle of winch N, by which the workman may turn the millstone F; and on the other end of the same axis, the fly-wheel O is made fast, which serves to regulate the movements of the machine. Upon one of the spoken of the fly-wheel there is fixed, in like manner, a handle F, which may serve upon occasion for turning the mill. This handle may be attached at any convenient distance from the centre, by means of the slot and screw-nut J.

The colour to be ground is put into the hopper E, below which the bucket S is suspended, for supplying the colour uniformly through the orifice in the millstone G. A cord of chain T, by means of which the bucket S is suspended at a proper height for pouring out the requisite quantity of colour between the stones, pulls the bucket obliquely, and makes its beak rest against the square upright shaft H. By this means the bucket is continually agitated in such a way as to discharge more or less color, according to its degree of inclination. The copper cistern X, receives the colour successively as it is ground; and, when full, it may be carried away by the two handles Z, Z; it may be emptied by the stopcock Y, without removing the tub.

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