14.4.15

Chromatic Aberration.

The Galaxy 7, 1867

As an artist and a lover of truth, I have long felt myself impelled to make public certain facts which became known to me some years ago, but which have for several reasons been kept unpublished until the present time.

As the Corresponding Secretary to the American School of Ultra-Chinese Art, I am now authorized to inform the public that within the past few years a most startling optical delusion has fallen upon mankind. The sun shines to-day upon a world which to the vast majority of its inhabitants has undergone an essential change in its appearance.

If the reader will close this magazine and examine the illuminated cover, he will see, printed upon light straw-colored paper, a design in green, red and brown. He is in error, so is the friend to whom he turns for confirmation, so are the editors, the designers, the printer and the public. The brown and red parts of the design are respectively light-blue and dark-blue. The green portions and the paper upon which all is printed, he sees correctly.

So important an announcement as this, will not of course be credited unless it, is supported by abundant proofs. In order to establish my position, I must go back some years and relate the leading phenomena of this change in their regular sequence. In tracing the successive steps by which I have arrived at my present comprehension of the laws of color as they exist in the eye of the public, I shall find it convenient to quote from my note-book, in which I noted the various items of interest as they occurred.

I must first state that for several years I have lived the life of a hermit in the wilds of the Adirondack region. My only visitors have been chance hunters and parties of Summer excursionists. In justice to myself, I must state that these visitors have always been welcomed to share the shelter of my cabin, for it is not because I am a man-hater that I choose retirement from his society. Beside these chance visitors, I have, at intervals varying in length from six weeks to three months, instalments of supplies from the settlements. The more bulky of these supplies are brought during the Summer by boat and landed almost at my door. During the Winter it is a journey requiring both strength and courage to visit my cabin from the settlements, and I receive only mail matter and such light articles as can be brought over the snow.

Throughout these years of seclusion I have been diligent, and with Nature alone for my teacher, I have, especially during the past three years, been drawing nearer and nearer to the true standards of art, both in form and color. During my sojourn here I have visited New York but twice, one visit being before the chromatic aberration of which I am about to write took place. I have, however, sent pictures regularly to the exhibitions, and as I subscribe to several of the leading periodicals and papers, I keep up with the general topics which occupy the attention of the public. Of course art matters are of great interest to me, and when I find any commendation of my pictures in the publications which I receive, it is doubly grateful to me here in my mountain solitude, while the merciless and ignorant critic can only make me turn again to Nature with a deeper faith in her teachings, and a more profound pity for him who knows not her charms.

I will now quote from my notes:

JANUARY 20, 1863.
It is now perhaps three or four years since I first knew of an effort on the part of a few persons to establish in this country a school of art, which has for several years been creating a name for itself in England. It styles itself; or is styled, I can hardly tell which, the Ultra-Chinese School The principles advocated by its followers seem to me to be the time ones, and I foresee for them a glorious future if they remain faithful to the doctrines which they profess. After a long attempt to master the rules of perspective and effect, light has at length dawned upon me with the advent of the Ultra-Chinese School I here note my resolution to study and represent nature as I see her, unhampered by rules alike useless and incomprehensible. . . .

JUNE 21, 1863.
It seems impossible, on looking at my drawings and studies of a year ago, that I could ever have looked upon nature with so careless an eye. Yet I remember that I then considered myself a carefid student, and made what I called studies from nature of extended views. Now, after a few short months' study on the true method, so far higher is my reverence for created things, that I find enough to admire and worship in the grass at my feet and the pebbles at the brook-side. Beyond these my eye now seldom wanders, and whenever it does try to grasp an extensive prospect, it soon returns, wearied with its effort and glad once more to rest upon what it can understand. ....

These two quotations I have made to show the probable approximation of two events, to wit, the Chromatic Aberration, and the rise of the Ultra-Chinese School on this continent.

JULY 20, 1863.
I have seen notices of a new periodical which is said to be the official organ of the New School It is entitled "The True Path," and I have written, subscribing to it. . . .

DECEMBER 19, 1 863.
An unusually long time has passed without any news or arrival from the settlements, and I was beginning to fear that I should have to visit the nearest store for supplies, when, this evening, on returning from a walk, I found that a messenger had arrived and departed during my absence. On attempting to use the colors which he brought, I was surprised to find that mistakes had been made by the colorman in labelling the tubes of paint, the reds having been labelled as blues, and vice-versa. This, of course, has occasioned me much inconvenience, but I have re-marked the tubes, and the colors appear to be in themselves excellent. Some combination of circumstances has, undoubtedly, caused this blunder. . ...

Immediately after the receipt of my mislabelled colors, I wrote to Knoehaus and Shandler, informing them of the carelessness of their colorists, and ordering a fresh supply, as the inordinate quantity of red left me somewhat short of blue. This letter I sent by an Indian who passed my cabin bound for the settlements on Christmas Eve, 1863.

FEBRUARY 21, 1864.
A singular thing has happened today, which I am as yet at a loss to account for. I was returning home from a tramp through the snowy woods, and saw from the top of a bill a mile or so from here, a brilliant red object in the sunshine at the door. I could not imagine what it was until I drew near, when I with difficulty recognized a man who had formerly acted as my messenger, but whom I had not seen since he went to the war. My difficulty in recognizing him was not, however, due to his long absence, but to the fact that from head to foot he was dressed in red. His trowsers were a shade or two duller than his coat, and the whole effect was so singular that I almost fancied myself in the presence of a fifteenth-century heads-man. As I am very averse to speaking of peculiarities in dress or person, I affected not to notice this remarkable costume, and after a talk about his war experiences, I asked him to stay with me until to-morrow, as his walk through the woods had been a hard and long one. This he agreed to, and we together set about getting dinner ready.

In spite of my solicitude not to give offence, I must have looked askance at my guest, for I observed that he began after a while to regard me with some suspicion and to grow shy and silent. At our meal, frugal though it was, he unbent somewhat, and by the time that we had half finished our post-prandial pipes we were on such good terms that I ventured to ask him why he were that particular style of garment. He replied that he had the clothes when he was mustered out, and had continued to wear them since. I then naturally inquired when the color of the regulation uniform had been changed. He said that it had not been changed since '61, when he enlisted. I of course expressed some surprise at this, but he, misapprehending the cause of my wonder, said that nobody in the army wanted to give up the old blue, and for his part he thought that it was a very good color. It was evident, then, that he believed that he was dressed in blue, and for an instant I thought him a victim of color blindness. The reflection, however, that among the thousands of blue-clad soldiers, his singularity of costume could not have gone unnoticed, at once 'set me to thinking, and I determined to test his perception of color further before he left. Accoidingly, in the afternoon, as I was painting, a tree trunk from the window, I showed him my palette and asked him to point out different shades of red and blue. He invariably pointed to red when I asked for blue, and vice versa. Greens, yellows, and purples he could distinguish, but when I asked him to select brown he indicated black as being nearest, but not his idea of brown. I told him that black and red mixed would make brown, and desired him to select a red to mix experimentally. He pointed out dark blue, and on my mixing it with black expressed himself satisfied. I would have ended the conversation at this point, but my guest happened to be of an inquiring disposition, and proceeded to question me about the study on which I was at work, and about other canvases which I had tacked to the walls. In the course of his questioning he naturally discovered that colors which I called red were blue to him. His obstinacy at last annoyed me ; and when finally he asked me in what color he was dressed, truth compelled me to answer that it was red, and I then told him that he must be color blind, explaining at the same time that it was not an unusual phenomenon. He muttered something about " all the army being color blind too ; not to mention his folks at home ;" and then he kept silent for some time. He sat down, and for a while, regarded me curiously ; but as the sun sank toward the hill-tops he grew restless and went out of doors uneasily, coming back two or three times as if he had something to say, but did not like to say it. At last he went out abruptly, and at the end of ten minutes, chancing to look out at the window, I saw him just reaching the top of the first hill toward the settlements. Stepping to the door I shouted to him to return ; but, to my surprise, he looked back and then vanished over the crest of the hill at the top of his speed. Half an hour later I climbed the cliff, and could see, by the light of the declining sun, a brilliant red speck making excellent time across the ice of Round Pond, three miles distant.

I have just opened and examined the fresh supply of colors brought by my runaway soldier, and I find the same mistakes as in the last lot.

FEBRUARY 22, 1864.
I have been reflecting upon the events of yesterday, and have concluded that the repeated mistakes in labelling colors made by professional color men, and the coinciding mistakes made by my guest of yesterday, indicate something extraordinary. On making an effort of memory, and consulting my notes, I find that I have been aware of certain peculiarities in the dress of persons whom I have seen. For instance, the red shirts which have been the fashion among hmibermen and hunters have been superseded by blue shirts. The specimens of illuminated printing which have reached me on magazine covers, and in fly-leaf advertisements, have undergone changes.

MARCH 8, 1804.
I procured, some years ago, a glass' prism such as opticians make for experimental purposes, and, after trying some experiments, I threw it into a box of old traps, not expecting to want it again. I have hunted it up to-day and repaired its somewhat damaged sup-ports so that it will now revolve on its axes as formerly. I have likewise prepared a little upright frame in which I can place bits of card-board and so cut off whatever portion of prismatic color I wish. I am now ready to experiment upon the eyesight of my next available visitors.

MARCH 9, 1864.
Tried my prism in the sun this morning and it cast a beautiful spectrum on a sheet of white paper. In looking at it, however, it seemed to me that something was wrong, or, at least, strange. After a long search I found an attempt which I made in water colors long ago to copy the prismatic spectrum by actual matching colors. Of course it was infinitely short of the colors of sunlight, but it would answer my purpose, as I thought. On placing it beside the real spectrum I observed that the spaces occupied by the respective colors had changed. The space, for instance, occupied by blue and its modification was much smaller, and that occupied by red was much larger than on my painted spectrum. This, however, I knew might be caused by a temporary or local state of the atmosphere.

APRIL 20, 1864.
I have just made an experiment upon the optics of a party of homeward-bound lumbermen. They were ignorant of colors, to an extraordinary degree. I at last shut off all the prismatic colors, excepting blue, yellow and red. These they readily distinguished, interchanging, however, blue and red, and disputing over the yellow, some holding that it was yellow, and others that it was flame color. As they were going away, I heard one of them say to his companions, "That chap has lived alone with his paints no long that he's gittin' luny." " That's so," mid another, "did ye see them picters with red mountings into em ? " Well, I have obtained considerable light from these men, and they are welcome to doubt my sanity if they choose. . . . .

It is needless to follow up further the process by which I finally arrived at conclusions which proved to be correct. A classification of items gathered from the lumbermen and from my own observ-tions led me to the following result. To the persons whom I had seen and conversed with, the colors of the prismatic spectrum had been inverted. That is to say,
Violet had become Red,
Indigo had become Orange,
Blue had become Yellow,
Green remained Green,
Yellow had become Blue,
Orange had become Indigo,
Red had become Violet.

To simplify this inversion and reach the fundamental principles of the change, take these two columns, and cancel in each all excepting the three primary colors; writing these again in two columns we find that—
Red has become Blue,
Yellow remains Yellow,
Blue has become Red,
which is precisely the way in which these colors were seen by the lumbermen. One final experiment I waited long to try, in order to satisfy myself whether the change which had taken place was a physical or cosmical one. I knew the order in which the colors appeared in the rainbow, and I saw in several instances that they remained the same ; but I wished to ascertain if to others they were inverted. In July, 1865, I saw a rainbow while a party of excursionists were with me. I ascertained that to them all the order was reversed. This, of course, proved conclusively that the cause was physical; and that my own exemption from the delusion was the result of some suspension of the law, I could hardly doubt. If the reader will notice the next rainbow which appears within his range of observation, he will see violet, indigo, and blue on the inner side of the arch. If he has any memoranda by which he can prove when he last saw the rainbow in its proper order, he will confer a favor by sending the date of the observation to the author, to be used in fixing approximately the time when the aberration began to take effect. At about the time that, by the help of the rainbow, I arrived at a definite conclusion, I began to find with pleasure that I was classed by the art critics as a promising member of that Ultra-Chinese School. I began also to suspect that the members of that school had, like myself, retained a true perception of color. In the Autumn of 1865 I read in the " True Path " the following notices, which I need not say afforded me the keenest satisfaction:

We welcome with gratitude Mr. B. T. Sienna's two charming pictures in this exhibition. The first represents a mudturtle on a log near the bank of a pond. The delicate feeling for nature evident in the entire work is especially noticeable in the texture of the partially-dried mud of the bank. The water-washed log, instead of being that conventional gray color commonly seen in the works of our most celebrated artists, so-called, is of a pure purple, with a suspicion of scarlet in the shadow, which is entirely right. By introducing in his picture the cord which bound the turtle to the log, the artist hos shown a fearlessness that serves the highest praise. The second picture is as true in sentiment as in execution. A graceful group of mulleins is growing near the top of a hill. The rich soil which clothes the red sandstone region with the luxuriant vegetation which it supports, is most earnestly drawn and colored. We cannot too highly reverence the innate poesy of a mind which.could conceive the idea of introduc.ng the feet and knees of the painter in the near foreground, as Mr. Sienna has most feelingly done. This artist, it may b interesting to know, has his studio in the wilds of northern New York. Some years ago, before the true path had been opened in this country, Mr. Sienna, after a long course of study under the so-called best masters of the day, resolved to confine himself to the study of Nature alone, and with that end in view, retired t t his present abode. That he has faithfully followed the light which coot then given him, we may plainly see in his present immunity from the rules of perspective and from the conventional coloring of most city studios. Mr. Sienna's simple history is in itself an overpowering argument in favor of the principles advocated by the " True Path."

The reading of such truthful paragraphs led me to desire the acquaintance of these pioneers in the " True Path," and I accordingly wrote to one or two of them, and after having inaugurated a pleasant correspondence, I had the happiness of a Summer visit from one or two of the leading members.of the school. At their earnest solicitation I consented to visit New York during the Academy Exhibition of the present year, that I might see the practical results of the chromatic change, for I found to my delight that, as I had surmised, the Ultra-Chinese School, with their adherents, were the only ones who retained the correct perception of color. Most of my journey to New York was performed by night, so that I did not see many results of the great change until I reached the city. As I stepped ashore from the Albany boat, I saw the policeman at the landing in a dark red uniform, and almost every person I met had something strange about his or her dress.

Later in the day, when the more fashionable classes began to appear on the sidewalks and in carriages, the most malapropos costumes were to be seen. Blondes invariably wore reds and yellows, while brunettes rejoiced in the cool shades of blue and gray. The most peculiar effects were produced by the chignons, which almost all the ladies wore. As these were composed of alien hair, and dyed at that, I sometimes saw a bluish chignon, attached to a brown head of hair, or a reddish chignon with a head of hair which I should have called blue-black. Candor, however, compels me to state, that in many cases the hair of the head matched that of the chignon.

I presently saw two elegantly-dressed females approaching, exhibiting in their dresses the usual incongruities of color, at which I was curiously looking until I had nearly met them, when, involuntarily raising my eyes, I perceived that their faces were of an indescribable olive-green hue, shading into blue on the cheeks, and cut abruptly by a blue line, where there should have been the red of the lips. The whole effect was no horrible, that I crossed the street at once to avoid a nearer view.

Thus my whole sojourn in the city was full of the most singular sights. A blue-eyed friend, who had lost an eye in the. war, now wears a glass one in its place ; but instead of matching the natural eye which remains, it is a fine shade of crimson. Our national flag has interchanged the colors of its union and its stripes. Many brick homes are painted blue. I asked a policeman, when two cars were approaching, which was the Third Avenue car, and he told me the red one; I inadvertently jumped on the one which was actually red, and in half an hour found myself at some unknown up-town ferry. My former artist acquaintances were painting most atrocious pictures, and could not warmly admire those of the true school. Most happy am I, after a confusion such as I have described, which made me feel as if I was looking through a colored glass, to find myself away from the city, and once more surrounded by the truth of nature. Before I left, however, the Ultra-Chinese School was organized, no that we can begin in a systematic manner to lead back our fellowmen to their former condition. Knowing, as we do, our own correctness, it is, of course, painful to see the errors of mankind. We. have decided that our duty is, to paint Nature as we see her, and I am happy to state that our labor has not been without its fruits. Several of our pictures have been purchased by persons who truly desire to see nature as she is, and who, although they are not yet capable of seeing the resemblance between Ultra-Chinese pictures, and Nature's self, are yet willing to try and educate their organs of vision to the proper standard. Any who may read these pages, and who desire to join the company of those owning pictures that shall be a joy forever, may be set in the true path by sending their commissions to

B. T. SIBWIZA, Coy. See., U. C. S.

2.4.15

The Dyer's Guide. Chapter VI. Conclusion.

The Dyer's Guide
Being a Compendium of the Art of Dyeing
Linen, Cotton, Silk, Wool, Muslin, Dresses, Furniture, &c. &c.

With The Method of
Scouring Wool, Bleaching Cotton, &c.
And
Directions for Ungumming Silk, And For Whitening And Sulphuring Silk And Wool.
And Also
An Inttroductory Epitome of The Leading Facts in Chemistry, As Connected With The Art of Dyeing.

By Thomas Packer,
Dyer and Practical Chemist.

"Cet arte est un des plus utiles et des plus merveilleux qu'on connoisse."
- Chaptal.

"There is no art which depends so much on chemistry as dyeing."
- Garnett.

Second Edition,
Corrected and Materially Improved.

London:
Printed for Sherwood, Gilbert, And Piper,
Paternoster-Row.
1830.

We cannot conclude our work without observing, that from the researches continually going on in botany and other branches of natural history, and, more especially, from those in chemistry, there can be no doubt that discoveries, which will materially improve the art of dyeing, must, from time to time, be made. Some of these, not yet generally known, in the hands of a few persons, have already been found useful; but individual interest is, of course, a great enemy to their being made public. Others, although public, are, as yet, of too doubtful a utility to be noticed here.

If we have not given forms for the employment of some articles in use by certain dyers, such as kermes for reds; French Berries, (rhamnus infectorius,) the Canada golden rod (solidago Canadensis,) the Barberry (Berberis vulgaris,) and the French marygold, (Tagetes patida,) for yellows, &c. &c.; it is not to be concluded that such are not good in their kind, and might not be used occasionally with advantage. But as our object has been to give the best methods of dyeing the various colours, it would be impossible to notice many others in a manual of this kind, and in the limits within which we are necessarily confined. To mention those substances recently introduced into dyeing, the utility of which is not confirmed by extensive practice, would be injudicious, and tend to lead the young dyer astray; those, however, who have leisure and inclination, and are, besides, able to run the risk of the failure of new processes, may, and no doubt will, make experiments with them by which our art must be eventually served and improved.

1.4.15

The Dyer's Guide. Chapter VI. On Dyeing Cotton And Silk. Chromate of lead for yellow on silk or cotton.

The Dyer's Guide
Being a Compendium of the Art of Dyeing
Linen, Cotton, Silk, Wool, Muslin, Dresses, Furniture, &c. &c.

With The Method of
Scouring Wool, Bleaching Cotton, &c.
And
Directions for Ungumming Silk, And For Whitening And Sulphuring Silk And Wool.
And Also
An Inttroductory Epitome of The Leading Facts in Chemistry, As Connected With The Art of Dyeing.

By Thomas Packer,
Dyer and Practical Chemist.

"Cet arte est un des plus utiles et des plus merveilleux qu'on connoisse."
- Chaptal.

"There is no art which depends so much on chemistry as dyeing."
- Garnett.

Second Edition,
Corrected and Materially Improved.

London:
Printed for Sherwood, Gilbert, And Piper,
Paternoster-Row.
1830.

Chromate of lead, as a pigment has been for some time in use; M. Lassaigne, in 1820, made public a process for dyeing cloth with this article, which has since become pretty common in this country.

Immerse hanks of scoured silk for a quarter of an hour in a weak solution of acetate of lead at the ordinary temperature; take them out and wash them in a great deal of water: then dip them into a weak solution of chromate of potash. They immediately take a fine yellow colour; at the end of ten minutes the effect is complete. From this colour being decomposed in part by soap and water, it is chiefly applicable to silks. But by applying, however, a mordant of acetate or nitrate of lead, and passing the goods through bichromate of potash, a very beautiful and sufficiently fast yellow is now given to cotton goods in this country.

31.3.15

The Dyer's Guide. Chapter VI. On Dyeing Cotton And Silk. On dyeing silk of a Prussian blue colour.

The Dyer's Guide
Being a Compendium of the Art of Dyeing
Linen, Cotton, Silk, Wool, Muslin, Dresses, Furniture, &c. &c.

With The Method of
Scouring Wool, Bleaching Cotton, &c.
And
Directions for Ungumming Silk, And For Whitening And Sulphuring Silk And Wool.
And Also
An Inttroductory Epitome of The Leading Facts in Chemistry, As Connected With The Art of Dyeing.

By Thomas Packer,
Dyer and Practical Chemist.

"Cet arte est un des plus utiles et des plus merveilleux qu'on connoisse."
- Chaptal.

"There is no art which depends so much on chemistry as dyeing."
- Garnett.

Second Edition,
Corrected and Materially Improved.

London:
Printed for Sherwood, Gilbert, And Piper,
Paternoster-Row.
1830.

The application of colours derived from the mineral kingdom to dyeing is one of the most striking modern improvements in our art. Mr. Raymond received from the French government in 1801, eight thousand francs, (more than three hundred pounds sterling,) as a reward for communicating to the public his process for dyeing silk of a uniform fast and bright Prussian-blue colour by the application of that well known pigment. His process is as follows.

He first converts, by a gentle calcination, sulphate of iron into a red sulphate of iron: this he dissolves in sixteen times its weight of warm water and filters. The silk, prepared as for indigo dye, is put into the solution of iron, and left there for a shorter or longer time, according to the shade of blue that is wanted; it is then taken out and wrung very dry over a pole placed above the vat. It is then thoroughly cleansed by being twice beetled, plunging and agitating it each time in. running water. Dissolve in pure water heated to 167°, and put into a deal vat, one ounce oi ferroprussiate of potash, for every twelve ounces of silk to be dyed. When the prussiate is dissolved add one part, or even rather more, of muriatic acid, stirring the mixture well. When the liquor has acquired a greenish colour, and about 144° of heat, the silk must be immediately plunged into it and stirred about for some minutes. The silk having received the dye in an equal manner, it is taken out of the vat, well wrung on a pole above the vat, and then taken to the stream to receive two or three beetlings, and be plunged and agitated in the water, in order that it may be entirely freed from any portion of the prussiate of iron not truly combined with it.

Lastly, the silk being well washed in the stream, and thoroughly wrung, is to be placed loosely on the poles, as in the preceding operations; after which it must be well agitated in a large vessel three-fourths filled with cold water, to which must be added, for a hundred pounds of silk, two pounds of water of ammonia. The blue colour immediately becomes many shades deeper, of a much richer and brighter tint, and at the same time is fixed more perfectly in the silks. This change is effected in a few minutes. The silk must then be wrung by the hand and rinsed in the running water without beating. After this, it is dried on the poles in the same manner as other dyed silks. It need not be left on the poles more than twenty-four hours: but, nevertheless, this colour so far from fading in the drying, as is the case with many colours, is improved by it.

The solution of a little soap added cold to the ammonia bath, improves it, giving also softness to the silk, and rendering it more easy to separate. The soap should be uniformly dissolved.

For the substance of the above process, we are indebted to Dr. Ure's notes on Berthollet, vol. ii. p. 422. The prussiate of potash is now to be obtained as a regular article of trade from the dry-salters in this country.

Woollen cloth takes also the above dye, but it must be left longer than silk in the iron mordant.

30.3.15

The Dyer's Guide. Chapter VI. On Dyeing Cotton And Silk. Iron-grey.

The Dyer's Guide
Being a Compendium of the Art of Dyeing
Linen, Cotton, Silk, Wool, Muslin, Dresses, Furniture, &c. &c.

With The Method of
Scouring Wool, Bleaching Cotton, &c.
And
Directions for Ungumming Silk, And For Whitening And Sulphuring Silk And Wool.
And Also
An Inttroductory Epitome of The Leading Facts in Chemistry, As Connected With The Art of Dyeing.

By Thomas Packer,
Dyer and Practical Chemist.

"Cet arte est un des plus utiles et des plus merveilleux qu'on connoisse."
- Chaptal.

"There is no art which depends so much on chemistry as dyeing."
- Garnett.

Second Edition,
Corrected and Materially Improved.

London:
Printed for Sherwood, Gilbert, And Piper,
Paternoster-Row.
1830.

For iron-grey it is necessary to boil the same as for blues: this colour is much more beautiful when laid on a very white ground.

By having the drugs made into decoctions before-hand, greys either in woollen, silk, or cotton, may be dyed at a heat not much above what the hand will bear; and in a rotation of shades from light to dark, and varied, blue, red, yellow, brown, &c. with ease and with pleasure; so may, likewise, many stone-drabs, and other light brown drabs, as the mixture of yellow, fawn, and black, produces nut-browns, &c.

29.3.15

The Dyer's Guide. Chapter VI. On Dyeing Cotton And Silk. Black-greys.

The Dyer's Guide
Being a Compendium of the Art of Dyeing
Linen, Cotton, Silk, Wool, Muslin, Dresses, Furniture, &c. &c.

With The Method of
Scouring Wool, Bleaching Cotton, &c.
And
Directions for Ungumming Silk, And For Whitening And Sulphuring Silk And Wool.
And Also
An Inttroductory Epitome of The Leading Facts in Chemistry, As Connected With The Art of Dyeing.

By Thomas Packer,
Dyer and Practical Chemist.

"Cet arte est un des plus utiles et des plus merveilleux qu'on connoisse."
- Chaptal.

"There is no art which depends so much on chemistry as dyeing."
- Garnett.

Second Edition,
Corrected and Materially Improved.

London:
Printed for Sherwood, Gilbert, And Piper,
Paternoster-Row.
1830.

These are alumed and welded as for yellow, and, when the liquor is exhausted, part of it is thrown away, and some logwood is added; when the logwood is exhausted, sulphate of iron is added, sufficient to blacken the colour, the silk is then washed, wrung, and finished in the usual way.

28.3.15

The Dyer's Guide. Chapter VI. On Dyeing Cotton And Silk. Nut grey.

The Dyer's Guide
Being a Compendium of the Art of Dyeing
Linen, Cotton, Silk, Wool, Muslin, Dresses, Furniture, &c. &c.

With The Method of
Scouring Wool, Bleaching Cotton, &c.
And
Directions for Ungumming Silk, And For Whitening And Sulphuring Silk And Wool.
And Also
An Inttroductory Epitome of The Leading Facts in Chemistry, As Connected With The Art of Dyeing.

By Thomas Packer,
Dyer and Practical Chemist.

"Cet arte est un des plus utiles et des plus merveilleux qu'on connoisse."
- Chaptal.

"There is no art which depends so much on chemistry as dyeing."
- Garnett.

Second Edition,
Corrected and Materially Improved.

London:
Printed for Sherwood, Gilbert, And Piper,
Paternoster-Row.
1830.

The fustic decoction, archil, and a little logwood are put into water moderately hot, the silk is then returned, and when the liquor is exhausted, the silk is taken out, and to soften the colour the solution of sulphate of iron, or the black vat, is used. The silk is then returned once more, and if the colour does not appear sufficiently even, some red spots still remaining, it may be concluded that it requires a little more sulphate of iron.

Observe that, as sulphate of iron is the general base of all greys, if this be deficient in quantity, the colour is apt to change in dyeing, and to become rough and uneven.

To know whether the colour be sufficiently softened, it should be examined, and if it wet easily, after having been wrung on the peg, it wants sulphate of iron. On the contrary, if it wets with a little difficulty, the colour is sufficiently softened.

Too much sulphate of iron stiffens the silk considerably, making it harsh, and even depriving it of a part of its lustre; to remedy this it must be extra washed and wrung at the peg; this process carries off the sulphate of iron.

27.3.15

The Dyer's Guide. Chapter VI. On Dyeing Cotton And Silk. On dyeing silk grey.

The Dyer's Guide
Being a Compendium of the Art of Dyeing
Linen, Cotton, Silk, Wool, Muslin, Dresses, Furniture, &c. &c.

With The Method of
Scouring Wool, Bleaching Cotton, &c.
And
Directions for Ungumming Silk, And For Whitening And Sulphuring Silk And Wool.
And Also
An Inttroductory Epitome of The Leading Facts in Chemistry, As Connected With The Art of Dyeing.

By Thomas Packer,
Dyer and Practical Chemist.

"Cet arte est un des plus utiles et des plus merveilleux qu'on connoisse."
- Chaptal.

"There is no art which depends so much on chemistry as dyeing."
- Garnett.

Second Edition,
Corrected and Materially Improved.

London:
Printed for Sherwood, Gilbert, And Piper,
Paternoster-Row.
1830.

All the greys, namely, nut-greys, thorn-greys, black and iron-greys, and others of the same hue, black-grey excepted, are produced without aluming. The silk being washed from the soap and drained on the peg, a liquor is made of fustic, archil, logwood and sulphate of iron: fustic gives the ground, archil the red, logwood darkens, and the sulphate of iron softens all these colours, turns them grey, and, at the same time, serves instead of alum as a mordant.

As there is an infinite variety of greys, without any positive names, produced by the same methods, it would be endless to enter into details, which would prolong this treatise to little purpose.

For reddish-grey the archil should predominate; for those more grey, the logwood; and for those rather greenish, the fustic.

Care should be taken not to use the logwood too much, as with the sulphate of iron it darkens more than most drugs: therefore the black vat, made either with alderbark, or the other preparation mentioned in dyeing cotton, is preferable to the sulphate of iron.

26.3.15

The Dyer's Guide. Chapter VI. On Dyeing Cotton And Silk. Olives.

The Dyer's Guide
Being a Compendium of the Art of Dyeing
Linen, Cotton, Silk, Wool, Muslin, Dresses, Furniture, &c. &c.

With The Method of
Scouring Wool, Bleaching Cotton, &c.
And
Directions for Ungumming Silk, And For Whitening And Sulphuring Silk And Wool.
And Also
An Inttroductory Epitome of The Leading Facts in Chemistry, As Connected With The Art of Dyeing.

By Thomas Packer,
Dyer and Practical Chemist.

"Cet arte est un des plus utiles et des plus merveilleux qu'on connoisse."
- Chaptal.

"There is no art which depends so much on chemistry as dyeing."
- Garnett.

Second Edition,
Corrected and Materially Improved.

London:
Printed for Sherwood, Gilbert, And Piper,
Paternoster-Row.
1830.

Proceed in aluming, &c. the same as for other colours; the weld liquor being stronger, some logwood must be added. When the weld and logwood are exhausted a very small quantity of each must be added, which green the liquor, when the silk being passed through, a greenish olive is produced.

A reddish olive requires fustic, instead of logwood and pearl-ash, both of these being omitted.

Fustic gives a colour commonly called drab-olive upon cloth, because generally made to match with olive, this is commonly redder than the preceding.

25.3.15

The Dyer's Guide. Chapter VI. On Dyeing Cotton And Silk. On dyeing silk green.

The Dyer's Guide
Being a Compendium of the Art of Dyeing
Linen, Cotton, Silk, Wool, Muslin, Dresses, Furniture, &c. &c.

With The Method of
Scouring Wool, Bleaching Cotton, &c.
And
Directions for Ungumming Silk, And For Whitening And Sulphuring Silk And Wool.
And Also
An Inttroductory Epitome of The Leading Facts in Chemistry, As Connected With The Art of Dyeing.

By Thomas Packer,
Dyer and Practical Chemist.

"Cet arte est un des plus utiles et des plus merveilleux qu'on connoisse."
- Chaptal.

"There is no art which depends so much on chemistry as dyeing."
- Garnett.

Second Edition,
Corrected and Materially Improved.

London:
Printed for Sherwood, Gilbert, And Piper,
Paternoster-Row.
1830.

This colour is composed of blue and yellow. It is with difficulty produced on silk, because the blue vat is liable to spot and give a party colour, an inconvenience to which green is more liable than blue, and more perceptible. The boiling of silk for greens is the same as for common colours.

The silk being alumed as usual rather strongly, is washed off and divided on the sticks into small hanks of about four or five ounces, that it may be equally and easily managed in the working, from the yellow to green, in the blueing from the blue vat.

Weld is then boiled as stated in the article concerning yellow; when boiled, a liquor of it is prepared strong enough to give a lemon ground; the silk is then turned with all the expedition, care, and caution possible, that it may be even. When it appears full enough, some of the threads are to be separated and dipped in the vat, to determine this. If not full enough, more of the weld liquor must be added to the dye bath, and the silk returned and tried again, and so on; when the colour is right, the silk is washed off and beetled. It is then wrung and formed into hanks, and dipped skein by skein in the blue vat, the same as the blue and the purple should be; it must be wrung with equal care and dispatch.

This green is a kind of sea-green, of which there are upwards of twenty shades. The lighter shades, when taken out of the vat, are not washed but the silk must be worked in the hands by clapping it between them, and then be carefully opened and aired. A few threads are then washed, or rinsed; if the colour be right the whole is washed.

For the dark shades, when the weld is exhausted a little logwood is added to the liquor; in some cases, old fustic, in some annatto.

For very dark-wing or bottle-green shades, a little sulphate of iron is required.

24.3.15

The Dyer's Guide. Chapter VI. On Dyeing Cotton And Silk. Observations on crimson and scarlet upon silk.

The Dyer's Guide
Being a Compendium of the Art of Dyeing
Linen, Cotton, Silk, Wool, Muslin, Dresses, Furniture, &c. &c.

With The Method of
Scouring Wool, Bleaching Cotton, &c.
And
Directions for Ungumming Silk, And For Whitening And Sulphuring Silk And Wool.
And Also
An Inttroductory Epitome of The Leading Facts in Chemistry, As Connected With The Art of Dyeing.

By Thomas Packer,
Dyer and Practical Chemist.

"Cet arte est un des plus utiles et des plus merveilleux qu'on connoisse."
- Chaptal.

"There is no art which depends so much on chemistry as dyeing."
- Garnett.

Second Edition,
Corrected and Materially Improved.

London:
Printed for Sherwood, Gilbert, And Piper,
Paternoster-Row.
1830.

Crimson upon silk is produced at Norwich, London, and many other places, by using a much larger quantity of cochineal than that which is directed by Macquer: for in some cases, as much as a guinea a pound, has, it is said, been paid for dyeing silk crimson at Norwich. Archil has been used, likewise, in crimson, and the time of boiling is not so long. In some shades a little of the composition and tartar may be admitted, but in a small degree. It should be stated, however, that scarlet upon silk, is often done by annatto and safflower.

Observe, that although we have given the preceding processes for crimson and scarlet, yet many others might be mentioned. What has been said in regard to dyeing scarlet on woollen, (page 85.) should also be carefully attended to, particularly relative to the conversion of scarlet into crimson by alum, soap, and the alkalies. And though we have given directions for the preparation of a mtro-muriate of tin, yet pure Muriate of tin is now very often used for dyeing silk red. Mr. M'Kernan, gives us the following process for preparing it:;

Take of fine muriatic acid, of the specific gravity of 1.120, two quarts; add by degrees, one ounce at a time, of feathered tin, for twenty-four hours. Put the vessel in a sand heat and bring it gently to boil, observing to add more tin as that in the acid becomes dissolved. There should be some tin left undissolved when the liquor is cold, thus indicating that the acid is perfectly neutralized by the tin. Bottle for use.

The Dyer's Guide. Chapter VI. On Dyeing Cotton And Silk. Of fine violet.

The Dyer's Guide
Being a Compendium of the Art of Dyeing
Linen, Cotton, Silk, Wool, Muslin, Dresses, Furniture, &c. &c.

With The Method of
Scouring Wool, Bleaching Cotton, &c.
And
Directions for Ungumming Silk, And For Whitening And Sulphuring Silk And Wool.
And Also
An Inttroductory Epitome of The Leading Facts in Chemistry, As Connected With The Art of Dyeing.

By Thomas Packer,
Dyer and Practical Chemist.

"Cet arte est un des plus utiles et des plus merveilleux qu'on connoisse."
- Chaptal.

"There is no art which depends so much on chemistry as dyeing."
- Garnett.

Second Edition,
Corrected and Materially Improved.

London:
Printed for Sherwood, Gilbert, And Piper,
Paternoster-Row.
1830.

For this colour the common boiling is enough, the silk is alumed the same as for fine scarlet, washed and twice beetled. Thus prepared, two ounces of cochineal are given to it, with the same precaution as usual, but no composition nor tartar. Being worked moderately warm, in working it must be expeditiously turned; after a quarter of an hour the liquor should be brought to boil, when the turning need not be so expeditious, but it should, nevertheless, be continued for two hours. After being washed the silk is dipped in the vat, more or less strong, according to the shade required.

Washing and drying are done in the same manner as for blues and greens, and in general for all colours dipped in the vat, namely, a small quantity at a time, in order that the silk may be kept open to the air, and that the greening of the vat may pass correctly and equally to blue. For some shades archil forms a part of this dye. For other violets on silk see Chapter III.

23.3.15

The Dyer's Guide. Chapter VI. On Dyeing Cotton And Silk. Another process for crimson by Brazil wood

The Dyer's Guide
Being a Compendium of the Art of Dyeing
Linen, Cotton, Silk, Wool, Muslin, Dresses, Furniture, &c. &c.

With The Method of
Scouring Wool, Bleaching Cotton, &c.
And
Directions for Ungumming Silk, And For Whitening And Sulphuring Silk And Wool.
And Also
An Inttroductory Epitome of The Leading Facts in Chemistry, As Connected With The Art of Dyeing.

By Thomas Packer,
Dyer and Practical Chemist.

"Cet arte est un des plus utiles et des plus merveilleux qu'on connoisse."
- Chaptal.

"There is no art which depends so much on chemistry as dyeing."
- Garnett.

Second Edition,
Corrected and Materially Improved.

London:
Printed for Sherwood, Gilbert, And Piper,
Paternoster-Row.
1830.

The silk should be first alumed, and then passed through a strong decoction of Brazil wood, half a pail to a pound of silk, which is to be worked, and put through an additional and strengthened dye of Brazil wood, and then washed off: if in hard water this will generally crimson the Brazil wood sufficiently; but if in soft water a little pearl-ash must be added; about one pound of the clear solution of pearl-ash, or rather the clear solution of a pound of pearl-ash, as one pound of water will not, we believe, dissolve a pound of pearl-ash: this is enough for forty pounds of silk.

The decoction of Brazil wood is prepared thus: one hundred and fifty pounds of Brazil wood chips are put into a copper which holds about sixty buckets of water; the copper is then filled with water and boiled for three hours, the waste by evaporation being occasionally supplied. The fire is now damped, the clear liquor drawn off, the copper filled again, and again boiled for three hours more. This process is repeated four times in all, when the dye of the wood will be fully extracted.

Logwood and old fustic are treated in the same manner, but only two boilings are required for these.

In regard to crimson generally, see forward, observations on dyeing silk crimson and scarlet, and also some observations on the dyeing of wool scarlet, page 85.

22.3.15

The Dyer's Guide. Chapter VI. On Dyeing Cotton And Silk. Another process for crimson.

The Dyer's Guide
Being a Compendium of the Art of Dyeing
Linen, Cotton, Silk, Wool, Muslin, Dresses, Furniture, &c. &c.

With The Method of
Scouring Wool, Bleaching Cotton, &c.
And
Directions for Ungumming Silk, And For Whitening And Sulphuring Silk And Wool.
And Also
An Inttroductory Epitome of The Leading Facts in Chemistry, As Connected With The Art of Dyeing.

By Thomas Packer,
Dyer and Practical Chemist.

"Cet arte est un des plus utiles et des plus merveilleux qu'on connoisse."
- Chaptal.

"There is no art which depends so much on chemistry as dyeing."
- Garnett.

Second Edition,
Corrected and Materially Improved.

London:
Printed for Sherwood, Gilbert, And Piper,
Paternoster-Row.
1830.

When the silk is boiling in the soap-liquor, add one ounce of annatto, for every pound of silk, working it through the colander as directed, (page 136.) but without the composition or tartar: in some shades, however, both composition and tartar are admitted. The solution applied to cochineal with worsted has a considerable effect, changing it from a crimson, its natural colour, to a very bright fire colour; but it produces only a crimson when applied to silk; its gives, however, this colour a very beautiful tint; for, uniting with the tartar, it increases the effect without impoverishing the colour, and saving the annatto ground. Macquer.