Dictionarium polygraphicum. To marble books or paper.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
Dissolve 4 ounces of gum arabick, in 2 quarts of fair water; then provide several colours mix'd with water in pors or lhells, and with pencils peculiar to every colour, sprinkle them by way of intermixture upon the gum-water, which must be put into a trough, or some broad vessel; then with a stick curl them, or draw them out in streaks, to as much variety as may be done. Having done this, hold your book or books close together, and only dip the edges in on the top of the water, and colours, very lightly; which done, take them off, and the plain impression os the colours in mixture, will be upon the leaves; doing as well the ends, as the front of the book in the like manner.
And after the same manner you may make marbled paper, by dipping it on the flat, as also linnen cloth, &c. -

MARBLING of books is perform'd by book-binders, by sprinkling over the covers of books with black, by means of a black pencil, struck gently against the finger, or on a stick held for that purpose.

Marbling is not us'd, except to such books as are bound in calves-leather; and after the marbling is finish'd, the covers are glair'd over with the whites of eggs well-beaten, and afterwards glax'd over with a polishing iron.

Books are also marbled on the edges; but in this marbling there is no black us'd, but instead of it, red, blue, yellow, &c.


Dictionarium Polygraphicum. Containing. Polygraphick Dictionary. L. (Litharge.) How to make Spanish White. To give stuffs a beautisul Lustre.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
How to make Spanish White.
Grind white chalk with a tenth part of alum with fair water, 'till it is very soft, and afterwards bring them to a thickness, and make them into balls, lay them so that they may dry leisurely; then when you use them, heat them well in the fire.

To give stuffs a beautisul Lustre.
For every 8 pound of stuff allow a quarter of a pound of linseed; boil it half an hour, and then strain it through a cloth, and let it stand till it is turned almost to a jelly; then put an ounce and half of gum to dissolve 24 hours; then mix the liquors, and put the cloth into this glutinous mixture; take it out, dry it in the shade, and press; and if you find that once doing this is not sufficient, repeat the operation, and it will give the stuffs a very beautiful lustre.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Madder.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
Madder, a root of a plant, much used by dyers, to make the most solid and rich red-colour.

It is common enough; but generally comes from Holland, and if it is good it is red; 'tis finer than Brazil, and before you use it, it must be finely powdered, to give the better colour.

To extract a tincture of Madder for lake.
This is done by the same method as is done for extracting a lake from Brasl, and will produce a fine colour, which make into troches, drying them, and it will be a perfect lake, and very fine for use. See BRAZILE and LAKE.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. To dye linnen with crampenade. To dye linnen thread or cloth, a good red.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
To dye linnen with crampenade.
To every 3 ells of linnen use 1 pound of crampenade, and 6 quarts of water; let it over a fire 'till it begins to seeth, then put in 2 ounces of galls, and afterwards your linnen; then take it out often, and wring it, and put it into alum water: but if you would have the colour darker, you ought to have a lye of unflak'd lime or chalk-stones.

To dye linnen thread or cloth, a good red.
Soak a pound of samfleur 24 hours in 2 gallons of water, heating it over a gentle fire; then add half a pound of rasp'd Brazils a ounces of vermilion, and an ounce of alum dissolv'd in fair water, dip the linnen, and order it as other things.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. To dye stuff a limon, or lemon colour. To dye silk a Limon-colour.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
To dye stuff a limon, or lemon colour.
Boil the stuff an hour and a half with 3 pound of alum, 3 ounces of cerusse, and 3 ounces of arsenick; pour off the water, then put in fresh, and in the same kettle make a liquor of 16 pounds of green dyer's-wood, 3 ounces of pot-ashes, 2 ounces of turmerick; let them settle and boil; then pass the stuff quick through it, and it will be of a good lemon-colour.

To dye silk a Limon-colour.
This dye must first of all be tenderly handled, and done in weak suds, and may be regulated by comparing the colour with a lemon; which when done, rinse and dry it.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. To Gild Leather. To make Leather shine without Gold. To dress or cover Leather with Silver or Gold.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
To Gild Leather.
Take glair of the whites of egg?, or gum-water, arid with a brush rub over the Leather with either of them, and then lay on the gold or silver; let them be dry, and burnish them.

To make Leather shine without Gold.
Take whites of eggs, gum-water, and powder of antimony; mix them well together by beating, and having the skin well dried, lay the mixture on them, and do it often, till the leather be quite hid; when you have done this, let the mixture dry, and then burnish them over; and if you have not antimony, you may use black-lead.

To dress or cover Leather with Silver or Gold.
Take that which is called brown-red, and grind or move it on a stone with a muller, adding water and chalk; and when the latter is dissolved, rub, or lightly dawb the skins over with it, till they look a little whitish; and then lay on the leaf-silver or gold, before they are quite dry; laying the leaves a little over each other, that there may not be the least part omitted; and when they have well closed with the leather, and are sufficiently dried on and hardened, rub them over with a polisher made of smooth ivory, or of the fore-tooth of a horse, and it will appear very lustrous and bright.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Dying Leather.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
To dye skins of a reddish colour.
First wash the skins in water, and wring them well out, and afterwards wet them with a solution of tartar and bay-salt in fair water, and wring them out again: then to. the former dissolution add ashes of crab-shells, and rub the skins very well with this: after this, wash them in common water, and wring them out; then wash them with tincture of madder in the solution of tartar and alum and the crab-shell ashes; and if they prove not red enough after all, wash them with the tincture of Brazil.

Another way.
First wash the skins, and then lay them in galls for 2 hours, wring them out, and dip them in a tincture made of ligustrum, alum, and verdegrease in water; and in the last place, dye them twice in Brazil boiled in lye.

To dye skins of a pure yellow.
Take of fine aloes two ounces, of linseed-oil 4 pounds; dissolve or melt them, then strain the liquor, and besmear the skins with it, and being dry, varnish them over.

Infuse woad in vinegar, in which boil a little alum: or thus; having dyed them green, as directed, then dye them in a decoction of privet berries, saffron and alum-water.

To dye skins of an orange.
Boil fusick-berries in alumwater: but for a deep orange, use turmerick-root.

To dye them blue.
Boil elder-berries, or dwarf-elder in water, then smear or wash the skins with it; wring them out; then boil the berries as before in a dissolution of alum-water, and wet the skins in the same water once or twice, dry them, and they will be very blue.

Another blue.
Take the best indigo, and steep it in urine a day; then toil it with alum, and it will be good. Or temper the indigo with red-wine, and wash the skins with it.

To dye skins of a pure sky-colour.
For each skin take indigo one ounce, put it into boiling water, let it stand one night, then warm it a little, and with a brush pencil besmear the skin twice over.

To dye them purple.
Dissolve roch-alum 'm warm water, wet the skins with it, dry them; then boil rasped Brazil well in water; let it stand to cool: do this 3 times, and afterwards rub the dye over the skins with your hand, and when they are dry, polish them.

To dye skins green.
Take sap-green and alum-water, of each a sufficient quantity; mix and boil them a little: if you would have the colour darker, add a little indigo.

Another sad green.
Take filings of iron and sal Armoniack, of each a like quantity, steep them in urine till they be soft; stretch out the skin, and besmear it with this; dry it in the shade, and the colour will penetrate, and be green on both sides.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. To Colour Leather...

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
To colour white leather the best way.
Hang the skins in chalk or lime-water, till they are grown supple, that the hair or wool may be stripped off, stretch them on tenters, or by the means of lines, and smooth them over: then brush them over with alum-water, very warm, and colour them with the colour you would have them, and dry them in the sun, or in some warm house, and they will be useful on sundry occasions, without any farther trouble.

To colour black leather the German way.
Take of the bark of elder 2 pounds, of the filings or rust of iron the same quantity; put them into 2 gallons of rain-water, and stop them up close in a cask or vessel, and let them stand for the space of a months: then put to the liquid part a pound of nut-galls, beaten to powder, and a quarter of a pound of copperas, heating them over the fire, and suffering them to stand 24 hours after, and then use the liquor with a brush till the skin has taken a fine black.

To colour leather a fair red.
First rub the Leather well in alum-water, or alum it; boil stale urine, scum it, till half of it is wasted: then put in an ounce of the finest lake, the like quantity of Brazil in powder, one ounce of alum, and half an ounce of sal-armoniack; mix them well, and keep them stirring over a gentle fire about 2 hours, and so use the liquid part to colour or tinge the skin.

To colour leather of a curious French Yellow.
Take one part of Chalk, and another of wood-ashes, and make of them a good lye; then strain out the fine liquor, and set it in a vessel over the fire: and put into it turmerick in powder, and a little saffron; and let it simmer till it becomes pretty thick; then set it a cooling, to be used as occasion requires.

To make white leather blue.
Take a quart of elder berries, strain out the juice, and boil it with an ounce of powder of alum, and half an ounce of indigo, or smalt-blue, and brush over the leather with a fine brush dipped in it 3 times, suffering it to dry between whiles, and the business will be effected.

To colour Spanish leather, &c.
Take that which the Dutch call Pomplemelch, warm it, and rub the leather with it; then take of Venice tot appelen, and having pounded it small, put a quantity of water to it, and let it soften over a gentle fire; then press out the water, and rub or wash out the skin in it; repeating the same several times, and after that, take the finest shoe-makers black, and rub the skin over with it, having in the melting added a little vitriol or copperas, and letting it dry, take goose or hog's grease, and with a woollen cloth rub the skin over for a good while, where there is a good fire to supple it, and afterwards rub it over with your hands, till it disappear; or instead of grease, you may use Unseed or train-oil, and so in case of any other colour, according to the colours you design.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. (Glass of Lead.)

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
The way of making Glass of Lead, commonly called Vitrum Saturni: to calcine Lead, and extract from it the colours of emerald, topaz, sea-green, or azure granate, sapphire, gold, and other colours.

Glass of Lead known to few artists in this way, because they make no use of it by reason of its brittleness, is beyond doubt the fairest anf noblest glass of any other.

In this glass you may imitate all the colours of oriental precious stones; and if this glass was as tough as crystal, it would far surpass it in beauty.

It is true, if you don't work it with great care, no pots or crucibles will hold it, for it will crack them and run out. I will here give all the methods of preparing it; and that so distinctly, that the unexperienced may succeed in it.

The business principally consists in knowing well how to calcine the lead, and re-calcine it again, which is commonly known, notwithstanding it shall be shewn how to do it, for the sake or those that do not know it.

The better the lead is calcined, the less apt it is to turn into lead again, end break the pots in its operation.

We will also shew, that you must alway drop the glass into water, when it is melted, for the least lead remaining in it, breaks out the bottom of the vessels, and so use your matter, which may be avoided, by carefully minding what we have, and which we shall note again in the following articles.

It is highly probable, that that subtilty, whereby the lead so easily in this case pierces the pots, when it is not wholly calcined, comes from a certain unctuous yellow nutter like oil, that is seen to swim on the top sometimes in a violent fusion.

For it has often been observed, that if that unctuous matter be not taken off, as soon as it appears on the top, it will pierce the pot, and so all run out among the coals.

The way to make glass of LEAD.
The beauty of this glass is, that it may be ringed of several colours, as black, white, gieen, and red, which are natural to it, the degrees of the fire only making it take those different colours.

This glass being well made, communicates its beauty to glass, and to tinctures of precious stones, wherein it is employed.

To make vitrum saturni, take 15 pound of calcined lead, and 12 pound of crystal or rochetta frit, according to what colour you would have; mix them well together, put them in a pot in the furnace, where 10 hours afterwards it will be in good fu fion; then cast the whole into water, and take out speedily the remaining lead at bottom of the vessel, for fear it should break; then take it out of the water, and dry and put it into the same pot to melt again: Take care pot to put in the grains of lead (if there be any) which were in the water, and which will be loosened from the matter.

After your matter has been again in fusion 6 hours, you may work it.

You may also make a glass of lead, by taking 3 parts of lead, and one of fine sand, and change them into glass in the furnace, as also of 3 parts of calcined litharge, and one part of calcines flint, melted and vitrified in the furnace together.

The way how to work Glass of Lead.
It is not enough to shew how to make glass of had, if we don't shew how to work it too.

If any one would make a vessel for use, of any figure, he must take a glass-worker's iron they use to take metal out of the pots with, and take what quantity of glass of lead with it he pleases, when it is in fusion: let it a little cool, then work it after the manner used by glass-workers.

You must clean well the marble you make use of, and while the glass is cooling, you must wet the marble with cold water, for otherwise the glass would scale it, and part of the marble would stick to it.

If the marble be hard, you have fb much the less to sear, for it will not break so easily, nor stick to the glass.

To make glass of Lead a fair emerald colour.

The easiness of tinging glass of lead of any colours is the reason you may be sure of giving it an excellent emerald-green, especially because green is natural to it.

Take 20 pound of crystal frit, powdered and searced, and 16 pound of calx of lead also sifted, mix them well together, then put them little by little into a pot heated in the furnace, and 8 or 10 hours afterwards it will be melted, then cast the melted matter into water, and carefully take the remaining lead from it, then putting the matter after it is dried in the same pot again, 7 or 8 hours after it will be again melted.

Reiterate this process, casting the melted matter into water, and separating the lead that sticks to the pot, as before; then this glass will be cleansed and purified from all the foulness and unctuosity the calx and powder would leave in it, and be very re-splendent.

You must put it again in the pot, where it will melt and putrify in little time.

When it is melted, put to it 6 ounces of scales of copper thrice calcined to powder, with 24 grains of crocus martis, made with vinegar also in powder, and mix them together.

This powder must be cast in at 6 times, always mixing well the glass, and taking at each time the interval of saying the creed. Let it rest one hour, and then stir it again, and see if the colour pleases you; if it be as you would have it, let it stand 8 hours, that the whole may well incorporate.

Then stir it well, and let it rest a little, that the fæces may precipitate to the bottom of the pot, tho' it may be wroughr, and the colour can scarce be distinguished from a true emerald.

Another way of making Glass of Lead of a fairer emerald than the former.
For this colour which will be fairer than the precedent, you must change your ingredients, and instead of scales of copper thrice calcined, put the same dose of caput mortuum, of vitriolum veneris prepared, then proceed exactly as in the former article, and you will have a very exquisite green.

To make a Glass of Lead the colour of Topaz.
Topaz is a lighter colour than emerald, and casts rays the colour of gold; wherefore the colour cannot be well imitated except this way.
Take 15 pound of crystal frit in powder, and 10 pound of calx of lead also in powder, mix them well, and searce them very fine; then put them in a pot heated at the furnace, where leave it 8 hours, that it may be melted.
Then cast the matter into water, and take out of the pot all the lead (if there be any) that remains.
Put the matter again in the pot to be melted, and cast it by intervals into the water; and to tiiat matter half its weight of glass tinged of a golden colour, incorporate well, and purify the whole together, and you'll have a glass of the colour of oriental Topaz fit to be wrought.

To make a sky or sea-green in glass of Lead;
As is shewn in several places elsewhere, to tinge glass of a sky-colour or sea-green, this would be needless to repeat here.

That we now shew, which is made in glass of lead, has no less beauty.

Take 16 pound of crystal frit, 10 pound calx of lead, mix them together, and put them gently into a pot heated in the furnace, where they will be in good fusion in 12 hours time, then cast the matter into water, as has been shewn before, take the remaining lead out of the pot, and put your matter to melt again 8 hours, after call it into water again, taking the remaining lead out of the pot, then it will be well purified.

Put it again in, to melt in the same pot, and when it is in good fusion, cast in at different times 4 ounces of small copper-leaves prepared (see article Copper, &c.) and a quarter of an ounce of zaffer prepared, (see the article Zaffer, &c.)

After having mixt these powders well together, and the matter at each casting of it in; 2 hours after stir the matter well in the pot with an iron rod, and make an aflay to see if the colour be full enough; then let it stand 10 hours to purify, and to give the colour time to incorporate with the glass, then it may be wrought to the uses you design it, stirring it well, and letting it rest a little to settle before you work it.

To make a sapphire colour in Glass of Lead.

The beauty of sapphire is no less imitable in of than the colours of other precious stones; and its clear blue transparent colour will have as much splendour.

To make it, mix together 15 pound of crystal frit in powder, and 12 pound of calx of lead, then, searce it, pounding again what does not pass through the sieve; add to that 2 grains ot prepared zaffer, 24 grains of manganese of Piedmont also well prepared, mix the whole well together, put it in a pot heated in a furnace- and let it stand to melt during the space of 12 hours; then cast the vitrified matter into water, and carefully take away the lead that remains in the pot; then put the matter again into the same pot, and let it stand to be re-purified 12 hours.

Then see if the colour pleases you, and you may work it; you'll have a colour like the true oriental sapphire.

The way to make a golden colour in Glass of Lead.

This colour is as fine in glass of lead as crystal, it takes that colour both from the lead and the ingredients mixt with it.

Take 16 ounces of good crystal, frit in powder, to which add the same weight of calx of lead also in powder, and well searced; then add 6 ounces of copper scales thrice calcined, and 48 grains of crocus mar tit made with vinegar, the whole mixed well together, put it into a pot heated in the furnace, 12 hours after cast the glass in water, and take the remaining lead out of the pot, and then put the matter again into the same pot to be well purified during 12 other hours.

After that stir it well, and sec if the colour pleases you; if it chance to be greeniih, add to it some crocus martis, and the greenness will vanish, then you'll have a golden colour very fine, which may be wrought.

These be all the colours that are given to glass of lead alone; we shal' augment the number in a paste of lead, (whereof you will find the preparation in the articles Paste in letter P) because it is useful for imitating precious stones.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. To tinge LEAD of a gold Colour. To make LEAD of a golden colour.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
To tinge LEAD of a gold Colour.
Take of purg'd Lead one pound, sal-armoxiac in powder 1 ounce, salt-pctre half an ounce, Jal-ellebrot z drachms, put all into a crucible, secit in a furnace for 2 days, then add to it sulphur of sol, and it will be thoroughly ting'd.

To make LEAD of a golden colour.
Put an ounce of quicksilver into a crucible, set it over the fire 'till it is hot, then add to it of the best leaf-gold 1 ounce, and take it from the fire, and mingle it with purified Lead melted one pound; mingle all well together with an iron rod, to which put of the filtrated solution of vitriol in fair water 1 ounce, then let it cool, and it will be of a gold colour; dissolve the vitriol in its equal weight of water.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. (Lead.) There are various preparations of Lead...

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
There are various preparations of Lead, serving for various uses; as

Lead-dust is a preparation us'd by potters, made by throwing charcoal-dust on melted Lead, and stirring them a long time together; to separate the coal again, they only wash it in water, and dry it afresh; the use of it is to give a varnish and gloss to their works.

White Lead us'd by painters is only thin plates of Lead, dissolv'd by the fumes of boiling vinegar.

Masticotes of several colours, and the sandix are also preparations of Lead.

Red Lead is a preparation of mineral Lead calcin'd, us;d by painters, posters, &c.

Litharge of gold or silver is only the Lead that has been us'd in purifying copper.

Black-Lead is a kind of mineral stone, of a black colour, but silvered and shining, found in Lead mines, and appears to be nothing else but Lead, not yet arrived at maturity, much us'd as crayons or pencils for designing.
This is melted like the common Lead.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Lapis lazuli.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
LAPIS LAZULI, a mineral stone of a blue colour. Pliny and Ditseorides reckon it a sand; Agricola, a mineral found in the veins of the earth; but in reality it is a mere stone, called by way of excellence Lapis, or Lapis Lazuli.

When this stone is perfect, it is studded with little specks, or stars of gold; and to be good, it should be able to resist the fire and smoak, and to come out of them with new lustre.

It is found in mines of gold, silver, and copper, and also in pits of marble; which last is that now generally in use.

Lapis Lazuli is distinguished into 3 kinds: the first is called old rock, which is pure, smooth, a fine blue, with beautiful yellow streaks, like veins of gold, which yet are frequently no more than veins of pyrites.

The second, which is called the new rock, and is stuffed with common stones; its colour is weaker, and its price lower: These two kinds come to us from Persia and Siam.

The third kind is brought from the mountains of Auvergne in France. This kind is mixed with the common rock whence it is dug, is of a pale blue, and sprinkled with greenish spots, with veins of pyrites.

This, when sufficiently charged with spots of green, is sold for the Armenian stone.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Lake.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
LAKE, comes next after CRIMSON, and is good for shadeing and heightening Carmine. But you must take notice of this, that in laying of carmine upon a print, you must touch your lights only with a very thin teint of it, that can scarcely be discerned; and lay it on strong, just upon that part of the light which enters upon the shade; and afterwards lay some lake on the stronger part of the shade.

Lake is to be had ready prepared in shells for water-colours, and is sold in some colour-pops.

To make a fine LAKE.
Take half a pound of good Brazil, boil it in three pints of lye, made of the ashes of vine-sprigs, till it behalf evaporated, then let it settle, and strain it off.
Then boil it again with fresh Brazil a quarter of a pound, of Cochineal 2 pounds, and terra merit a half an ounce; adding to it a pint of fair water; let it boil till it be half evaporated, as before; then set it by to settle, and strain it. But when you take it off the fire, put in half an ounce of burnt-alum reduced to an impalpable powder; let it dissolve, stirring it with a stick, and add to it a quarter of a dram of arsenick.
In order to give it a body, reduce 2 cuttle-fish bones to a fine powder, and put in the powder, and leave it to dry up at leisure, and then grind it with a good quantity of fair-water, in which leave it to steep; and afterwards strain it through a cloth, and make it up into small tablets or cakes, and set it to dry on a card or paste-board.
If you would have this lake redder, add to it lemon-juice,and if you would have it deeper, add to it oil of tartar.

Another LAKE.
Boil shavings or shearings of scarlet in a lye of the ashes of burnt tartar, or oil of tartar; this lye having the quality of separating the scarlet; when it has boil'd enough, take it off, and add to it cochineal, mastick in powder, and a little roch-alum; then boil them again all together, and while it is hot, strain it 2 or3 times through a jelly-bag; the first: time squeezing the bag from top to bottom with 2 sticks, then take out what remains behind in the bag, and wash it welli then pasi the liquor you expresi'd with the sticks through the bag again, and you will find a paste sticking to the sides of the bag, which you may either spread out upon a paste-board, or divide into small parcels upon paper, and set it by to dry.

To make Columbine LAKE.
Steep half a pound of the finest Brasil wood of Fernambouc, rasp'd in 3 pints of the most subtilly distill'd vinegar, for at least a month; and if it be for 6 weeks, it will be the better. After which, boil all in balueo mariæ, 3 or 4 wabbles up, and leave it for a day or two; after which, put a quarter part of alum powder into a very clean earthen pan, and strain the liquor upon it through a cloth, and so let it remain for a day; then heat the whole 'till it simmers, and leaving it again for 24 hours, reduce 2 cuttle fish-bones into powder, and having warm'd the liquor, pour it in upon them; then keep stirring the whole with a stick 'till it is cool, and leave it again for 24 hours before you strain it. Remember that it must be first strained upon the alum, before it is poured upon the cuttle-fish bone.

The marc or dregs of COLUMBINE LAKE.
To make a fine purple colour, besides the carmine for oil and distemper, take the marc or dregs of the columbine lake, which subsides with the cuttle-fish bone, and dry it and grind it; and there will be no fine Lake so splendid: and if it be mixt with Lake, there will be an addition made to its body.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. To make the common lacker varnish.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
Take rectified spirits of wine 2 pound, shell-lac in powder half a pound, put them into a two-quart bottle, and let them stand till the lac is quite dissolved; then strain it, and add a little common sanguis draconis in fine powder, and a litde turmerick in fine powder, both tied up in a rag; digest them for a day or two, shaking it often, and it is done.
Where take notice, That you may heighten or diminifh the colour by increasing or diminishing the quantity of the colouring ingredients.

Another LACKER.
Take rectified spirits of wine 2 pound, shell-lac half a pound: let it be dissolved, and then strain it; then, instead of common sanguis draconis, take a very little drop of fine sanguis draconis in fine powder, and English saffron dried, which tie up in a fine linnen rag, and put into the varnish, as before.
If you would have the colour deeper, or more like copper, add more sanguis draconis; but if lighter, the more saffron.

A LACKER varnish to be used without fire.
Take of the following varnish (in the next section) 2 pounds, Venice turpentine an ounce or 2 ounces; mix and dissolve it well with the varnish.
With this you may lacker or varnish any thing in the open air, which, altho' it may look dull and cloudy just after varnishing, yet will that quickly vanish, and it will obtain in a short time a pleasing and goodly lustre.

To make the best sort of LACKER varnish now used by gilders.
Take fine seed-lac varnish (which see under the article VARNISH] 6 ounces, with which mix arnotto in fine powder a sufficient quantity; set it over the fire in a gally-pot, and let it dissolve, and keep it in a bottle close stopped.

2. Take fine seed-lac varnish 6 ounces, as much gamboge in powder as it will dissolve in a gentle sand-heat; keep this also in a glass close stopped for use.

3. Take seed-lac varnish one pound, and add to it 2 spoon fuls and a half, or 2 spoonfuls of the first reserved tincture, and 5 or 6 spoonfuls of the second reserved varnish tincture; and add to this 15 grains of saffron tied up in a rag: digest them for 24 hours, having first shaken them well.

4. Then make a trial of this varnish upon a bit of silver; if you find it too yellow, put in more of the arnotto, or first reserved varnish tincture: thus increasing or diminishing the preparation, till you have brought it to the exact golden colour, which is the ultimate or only thing aimed at.

To LACKER oil-painting, sized works, or burnished silver.
Warm your picture-frame or piece of work before the fire; then having put out some lacker into a large gallipot, with a fine large and fast btush of hog's-hair, or camel s-hair, nimbly pass your work over, and be lure that you do not miss any part of it, nor yet wash the same part twice; but take special care to lay it thin, and even, and presently warm it by the fire while it looks bright; for by so doing you may lacker it again in a quarter of an hour, warming it before ana after the operation. Repeat this twice or thrice, and if you find the colour not deep enough, do it again the fourth time; but take care of ma king it too deep; for that is a fault cannot be mended.

To make LACKERING look like burnished gold
If you have before-hand burnished your silver very well, and your lacker is tinged of a true gold-colour, and you lay it on carefully with an even hand, not thicker in one place than another, matting it as you do burnished gold, it will be so exactly like gold-foil, or gilding, that it will be able to deceive the most curious eye, that shall not be before-band acquainted with the fallacy.

Here you are to observe, That in lackering carved works, you must be quick, or strike and job your brush against the hollow parts ofit, to cover them also, matting and varnishing them deeper, and more dull than other parts of the frame and pieces; and this deepening is done with the lacker-varnish, (or with arnotto it self) which being well mixed with the same, all the deep and hollow places and veins of the work are to be touched and deepene with it; by which means the colour is accomplished, and the reflection or a perfect glory.

To LACKER in oil such things as are exposed to the weather.

1. The same method is to be observed here, as in the former, excepting in this, that your priming ought to be whiter than the last, which is effected by mixing a little white-lead which has been ground a long time, with the former gold size.

2. Also your silver uze ought not to be so dry as that of gold, when the leaves are laid on.

To gild carv'd-work in oil, which is not to be exposed to the open air. Melt some size, and put in just so much whiting as will make it of a white colour; do the frame over once with this size. a. Then add more whiting to the size, till it is of a proper thickness; and do it over 3 or 4 times, or more, with this, according as you find the work does require, letting it dry tho roughly between each time.

3. When this is thoroughly dry, rub and smooth the work all over with a piece of fish-skin or Dutch-Rushes, and afterwards water-plane it, with a fine rag, dipp'd in water; rubbing it gently till it is very smooth, and then set it by to dry; and then size it with strong file.

4. Let it stand till it is dry, then lacker over the work twice by a gentle heat, and lay on your gold size, and perform every thing as before directed for laying on leaf-gold.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Lacca.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
Lacca, is a kind of gum, or rather wax, hard, red, brittle, clear and transparent, brought from Malabar, Bengal, and Pegu, and used in dying scarlet, &c.

Authors are not agreed as to the production of this curious wax.

F. Tachard, who was upon the spot, fays, that a kind of little ants, fixing themselves to the branches of several trees, leave behind them a reddish moisture, which lying exposed to the sun and wind, hardens in 5 or 6 days time.

Some again are of opinion, that this is not the production of the ants, but a juice which they draw out of the tree, by making little incisions in it; and indeed the trees where the Lacca is found do yield a gum; but then 'tis of a nature very different from the Lacca.

The ants are as it were a kind of bets, and the Lacca is their honey: they work at it 8 months in the year, and the rest of the time they lie by, because of the rains.

The Method of preparing the Lacca is as follows: the first thing they do, is to separate it from the branches, to which it adheres; pound it in a mortar, and throw it into boiling water, and when the water is well dyed, they pour on fresj, till such time that it will tinge no more.

Then this water is set in the sun to evaporate, and afterwards the liquid tincture is strained through a cloth.

This gum being examined by M. Geoffroy, appeared to be a kind of Comb, such as bees and some other inlects are accustomed to make. Upon breaking it into pieces, it appeared divided into a great number of little cells of an uniform figure, and which plainly shew that it never ouz'd from trees: these cells are not mere excrements, as some take them to be, but are destined for something to be deposited in them, and accordingly are found to contain little bodies, which those Persons who observed it first took for the wings, or other parts of insects which produced the Lacca.

These little bodies are of a beautiful red; and when broke make a powder as fine as cochineal.

It is most probable that these cells are designed for the lodging of the young brood in, as those of bees; and that these little carcasses are the embryo's of the insects, or perhaps their skins. This before mentioned is the natural Lacca.

There are several forts of Lacca, or Lake, or Laque; besides which there are several Lakes used by painters which go by these names, and are called artificial lakes; being coloured substances drawn from several flowers. See the article LAKE.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. To dye Silk a King's colour.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
Put a sufficient quantity of water into a clean kettle or copper, and to every pound of silk take 12 ounces of madder, and the same quantity of galls; boil the silk with them for an hour, then take them out, let them be a little browned, and then dried.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. To extract scarlet colour from Berries of Kermies, for making a fine lake.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
Several ways may be given for extracting the tincture of these grains for making Lake; but I shall only mention two; the first is indifferent tedious; but is very excellent, and produces a tincture whereby is made a most admirable fine lake.

The way of making the Lake in France is very modern, and it is but of late they have had the secret in Paris, which was brought from Venice.

Take a gallon of fair-water, and 4 pound of whearen bran, a drams of oriental Piraster, and as much Fenugreek; set all in a kettle over a fire, till the water is milk-warm; keep your hand in it until you can bear the heat no longer; then take it off, and cover it with a cloth that the beat may continue the longer; let it stand for 24 hours, then run off the lixivium, and keep it for the following purpose.

Put 3 quarts of fair water to half the lixivium into a clean earthen vessel; set it on the fire, and make it boil, which when it begins to do, put in an ounce of the grain pounded to an impalpable powder, in a brass mortar, and searced; then having pounded a little crude tartar, to take off the remaining part of the grains on the bottom and sides of your mortar, and so put it in with the grains; when the water begins to boil again, take it off in an instant, and set it by to cool.

This done, and the water cold, take the shearings of scarlet woollen-drapery, and let them stain therein for about half an hour: afterwards squeeze it into another earthen pot by expression; and after you have thus drawn off all the tincture, put the shearings into the last pot; stirring them about very well with a small stick, that they may stain the sooner. Boil all for about half an hour over a gentle fire, or else the tincture will become black; then take out the shearings, and put them well ting'd into a vessel of cold water: about half an hour after pour off the water gently, and so put fresh on again; then press and spread them to dry in a clean place, where no dust can come at them.

When you have done this, make the following lixivium.

Lay Vine-ashes stalks in a hempen cloth doubled, or ashes of willow, or some other lighter wood; pour on them by degrees cold water, letting it strain through into a vessel set underneath; pour it again on the Ashes, and when it is all run through, set it by to settle for 24 hours, that the ashes which is carried off, may fall to the bottom. When you have done this, pour the lixivium by degrees into another vessel, having warm'd it.

When it begins to be cold, set it over a gentle fire, and let it boil, and it will become red; take a little of the shearings, press them well, and if it remain without colour, take off the kettle immediately; for the lixivium has extracted it entirely.

Then spread a linnen cloth over a free-stone bowl, set the shearings therein, and pour on the lixivium by little and little, to strain and yield the tincture, then squeeze the cloth and shear ings therein, to press out all the colour that remained in them; throw away the cloth; wash the shearings, clean and keep them for the like use another time.

Then put 12 ounces of roch-alum well powdered into a glass body full of cold water, letting it be quite dissolved; when this has been perfectly done, spread a linnen cloth over 2 staves, and set a large free-stone veflel underneath; put all the alum-water into the bottle of tincture, and strain it afterwards through this cloth: the lixivium will go thro' it clear, and leave the colour behind; but if it mould not be coloured; 'tis only straining it through again, and you'll have done.

Now to get the tincture, you must mix all that remains in the cloth, and gather it together, spreading it afterwards over new-made tiles (which have not been allowed time to moisten) on the pieces of linnen, and then mold them into troches to dry suddenly, without mouldying, which would spoil them.

Therefore great care must be taken that the tiles be not at all moist; and if they are, to change them, that it may dry the sooner, and thus you will have a Lake of an admirable colour for painting: you must lessen or improve the colour as you find occasion by a greater or lesser quantity of roch-alum.

A readier way to extract the tincture os KERMES Berries.

Tho' the Menstruum given above, made with shearings of scarlet cloth, be a very good one for this purpose, yet the following is a more easy one, and as effectual:

Take strong-water of the first run or distilling, and put it into a long-necked glass body; dissolve in it a pound os roch-alum, adding an ounce of Kermes Berries finely powdered and searced; let it digest well, shaking the matrass from time to time, and the strong-waters will draw to them all the tincture of the Kermes, and be very finely coloured; then let all settle for 4 days, and afterwards pour it gently into a glazed earthen vessel.

Dissolve jounces ofroch-alum in running-water, and pour this into the strong-waters, or tincture of Kermes to cause a separation: filter it through a linnen-cloth, and the strong-waters will fall through white, leaving the tincture behind. If they be any thing coloured, strain them again and again, till they be clear: take up the Uke or colour with a wooden spoon, and make it into troches; drying them as directed for the former. Thus you may have a quantity of this colour, or lake, as fine and as good as the former.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Kermes.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
KERMES is a kind of husk or excrescence, as it is generally thought, about the bigness of a Juniper-berry, round, smooth, and shining, of a beautiful red, and full of a mucilaginous juice of the same colour.

The name is purely Arabick, for in that country these berries grow on a small tree or shrub; and from that their native soil were transplanted into Spain, Provence, and Languedoc, where they now are plentiful.

It is found sticking to the leaves and bark of a kind of ilex or holm-oak, in Spain, Languedoc, and other hot countries.

It has a vinous smell, a bitter but agreeable taste; and its liquor contains an infinite number of little round or oval eggs.

The origin of the Kermes is suppos'd to be owing to a little worm, which pricking the holm-oak, to draw its nourishment from it, raises a little tumour or vessel, which fills with juice, and as it ripens becomes red.

When the Kermes is dried, there comes out of it an infinite number of little insects and flies, so small, that they are scarce discernible; insomuch that the whole inward substance seems converted into them.

For this reason it is sometimes call'd vermilion, (unless perhaps it be so call'd from its beautiful vermilion colour.)

To prevent that inconvenience, they usually steep the Kermes in vinegar before they dry it.

The manner of preparing it for dying is as follows:

The grain being taken when ripe, it is spread on linnen: and at first, when it abounds most in moisture, it is turned a or 3 times a day, to prevent its heating, till such time as there appears a red powder among it; then it is separated by being pafled through a searce, and afterwards the grain is spread abroad on linnen, till the same redness of powder is perceived, and then the sifting is repeated again; and thus they proceed while they discover a red powder on the surface of the grain, which is still pafled through the scarce till it will yield no more.

In the beginning, when the small red grains are seen to move, as they will do, they are sprinkled over with strong vinegar and rubbed between the hands.

Were not this precaution taken, out of every grain would be formed a little fly, which would skip and fly about for a day or two, and at last, changing its colour, would fall down dead.

The grain being quite emptied of its pulp, or red powder, is washed in wine, and then exposed to the sun; after this, 'tis put up in small bags, putting along with it the proportion of red dust that the grain had afforded.

According to M. Marsilli's experiments made at Montpellier, the grain of Kermes has the effect of galls, when mixed with vitriol, and makes a good ink.

Mix'd with oil of tartar or lime-water, its colour turns from a vermilion to a crimson colour.

In a decoction of turnsol-flowers it retains its proper colour.


Dictionarium Polygraphicum. Containing. Polygraphick Dictionary. I. Indian Red. Indian Wood. Black ivory. To dye ivory white.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum: Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested. Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV. 1735
INDIAN RED, is a colour of a body; yet is useful for a back-ground for flowers, at a distance, being used with gumwater.
There is also an earth brought from the Isle of Wight, which has been found to mix extremely well with gum-water; tho' it being of a viscous nature, it requires less gum than most other colours, and as it is naturally fit for use, without grinding, and is viscous, so' it will, without doubt, mix with oil, as well as with water.
There is one thing very extraordinary in this earth, i. e. that if you rub a deal-board with it, it makes it exactly of the colour of mahogany wood, and stains it so deep, and with so much strength, that it is hard to get it out with washing.
And tho' the earth is very dry, yet it has not been able to be got out of papers, in which it has been carried in a pocket.

INDIAN WOOD, call'd also Jamaica and Campeche wood, is taken out of the heart of a large tree, growing plentifully in the isles of Jamaica, Campeche, &c. Itis used in dying; its decoction is very red: and it has been observ'd, that putting some of this decoction into 2 bottles, and mixing a little powder of Alum with the one, it will become of a very beautiful red, which will hold; the other in a day's time becoming yellow, [] both bottles were stopp'd from the air alike; and if a little of the same decoction were expos'd to the air, it would become as black as ink, in the same space of time.

BLACK IVORY, is only Ivory burnt, and drawn into a leaf when it is become black. It is ground with water, and made up into little cakes, or troches, and is used by the painters.

To dye IVORY white. If Ivory be yellow, spotted or coloured, lay it in quick lime, and pour a little water over it, letting it lie for 24 hours, and it will be fair and white.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. To gild iron...

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
To gild iron or steel.
Take tartar 2 ounces, vermilion 6 ounces, bole-armeniack and aqua-vita, of each 4 ounces, grind them together with linseed-oil, and put to them the quantity of 2 hazle-nuts of lapis calaminaris, and grind therewith in the end a sew drops of varnish; take it off the stone, strain it through a linnen cloth, (for it must be as thick as honey) then strike it over Iron or steel, and let it dry; so lay on your silver or gold, and burnish it.

To gild IRON with water.
Take spring-water 3 pound, as many ounces of roch-alum, Roman vitriol and orpiment of each 1 ounce, verdigrease 24 grains, sal gemma 3 ounces, boil all together, and when it begins to boil, put in tartar and bay-salt, of each half an ounce; continue the boiling a good while, then take it from the fire, and strike the iron over with it, dry it against the fire, and burnish it.

To lay gold on IRON or other metals.
Take of liquid varnish 2 pound, linseed-oil and turpentine, of each 2 ounces, mix them well together, and strike them over Iron or any other metal, and afterward lay on leaf-gold or silver, and when it is dry polish it. A water for gilding Iron, steel, knives, swords, and armour. Reduce fire-stone to powder, put it into a strong red wine vinegar, for 24 hours, boil it in a glaz'd pot, adding more vinegar as it evaporates or boils away, dip iron, steel,&c. into this water, and it will come out black; then polish it, and you will have a gold colour underneath.

Another way.
Take salt-petre, roch-alum burnt, of each an ounce, sal-armoniack 2 ounces, powder them fine, and boil them with strong vinegar in a copper-vessel, with this wet the Iron, and lay on leaf-gold.

Another way.
Grind roch-alum with the urine of a boy, 'till it is well dislblv'd, heat the Iron red-hot, in a fire of woodcoals, and anoint the Iron with the liquor, and it will look like gold.

Another way of gilding Iron.
Take of water a pound and a half, of alum one ounce, sal gemma an ounce and a half, of Roman vitriol, and orpiment, of each half an ounce, of flos æris 12 grains; boil all with tartar and salt, as in the first prescription.

To make Iron of the colour of gold.
Take linseed-oil 6 ounces, tartar 4 ounces, yolks of eggs boil'd hard and beaten 4 ounces, aloes 1 ounce, saffron 10 grains, turmerick 4 grains; boil all together in an earthen vessel, and anoint the Iron with the oil, and it will look like gold.
If there be not linseed-tit enough, you may put in more;

A golden liquor to colour Iron, wood, glass, Or bones.
Take a new-laid egg, make a hole at one end, and take out the white, and fill it up with 2 parts of quicksilver, and one part of sal-armoniac finely powdered, mix all together with a wire or little stick, then stop the hole with melted wax, over which put an half egg-shell, digest them in horse-dung for a month, and it will be a fine golden coloured liquor.

To gild IRON and STEEL.
You must first give to the Iron and steel the colour of brass by the following method.
Polish the Iron or steel, and then rub it with aqua-fortis, in which filings of brass have been dissolv'd: the same is to be done as to silver.

2. An amalgama of gold and mercury, with which silver-gilders gild silver, brass, and copper, will not gild Iron and steel; but by the following method it may be done.
First coat the Iron or steel with copper, by dissolving very good vitriol of copper in warm water, 'till the liquor be satiated with the vitriol; then immerse the Iron or steel several times in the dissolution (but having first secured it bright) and suffering it to dry each time of itself; for by this immersion being often enough repeated, enough of the copperous particles will precipitate upon the Iron to fill the superficial pores of the Iron.

3. By this safe and easy way, having overlaid the Iron with copper, you may gild it as copper, either by the aforesaid amalgama, or by the method of whitening copper or brass artificially, (which see in the articles of COPPER and BRASS.)

To make IRON of a gold colour.
Take alum of melanty in powder, and mix it with sea-water; then heat the Iron red-hot, and quench it with the water.

To make IRON of a silver colour.
Mix powder of sal-armoniack with unflack'd lime in cold water, heat the Iron redhot, and quench it in it, and it will be as white as silver.


To tinge IRON with a gold colour.
Lay plates of Iron and' brimstone in a crucible, layer upon layer, cover it, and lute it weli and calcine it in a furnace; then take out the plates, and they will be brittle; put them into a pot with a large mouth, and put in sharp distilled vinegar, digesting over a gentle heat till they wax red; then decant the vinegar, and add new, doing this till all the iron be dissolved; then evaporate the moisture in a glass retort or vestca, and cast the remaining powd;r on silver or other white metal, and it will look like gold.

To whiten IRON.
First purge the Iron, by heating it redhot, and quenching it in water made of lye and vinegar, boiled with salt and alum, doing this so often till it becomes whitish.
Pound the fragments of iron in a mortar, till the salt is quite changed, and that there is no blackness left in its liquor, and till the iron is cleansed from its dross.
Then amalgamate lead and quicksilver together, and reduce them into a powder: then lay the prepared plates of iron and this powder layer upon layer in a crucible; cover it, and lure it all over very strongly, that the least fume may not issue forth, and set it into the fire for a day; at length increase the fire, so as it may melt the Iron (which will be done very quickly) and repeat this operation till it is white enough.
It is whitened also by melting with lead the marcasite or firestone and arsenick.
If you mix with it a little silver (with which it readily unites) it gives a wonderful whiteness, scarcely ever to be changed any more by any art whatsoever.

To render IRON of a brass colour.
Take flowers of brass, vitriol, and sal armoniac in fine powder, of each a like quantity; boil it half an hour in strong vinegar; take it off, and put in either iron or silver, covering the vessel till it is cold, and the metal will be like to brass, and fit to be gilded; or rub polished iron with aquafortis, in which filings of brass have been dissolved.

To tinge IRON of a brass colour.
Melt the iron in a crucible casting sulphur vivum upon it; then cast it into small rods, and beat it into pieces; (for it will be very brittle:) then dissolve it in aquafortis, and evaporate the menstruum, reducing the powder by a strong fire into a body again, and it will be good brass.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Ink.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
INK, a very good Black for Writing. Take rain water two quarts, nut galls only broken into bits half a pound, copperas 4 ounces, alum 4 ounces; infuse all in a gentle heat for a month, add gum Arabick 4 ounces, which dissolve in it, and keep the mixture for use.

Another black writing INK.
Take rain-water 2 quarts, nut galls broken into little bits 4 ounces; digest them in a sand-heat for a week: then dissolve 2 ounces and a half of vitriol or copperas in a pint of rain water by boiling it gently; adding in the dissolution a little gum Arabick: being dissolved, mix it with the water and galls; digest in a sand-heat for a week; and keep the clear for use.

Another very good INK for writing.
Take ponderous galls, 3 ounces, reduce them to powder, infuse them in 3 pinrs of rain-water, setting it in the sun or a gentle heat for 2 days; then take common or Roman vitriol 3 ounces, powder it, put it in, and set it in the fun for 2 days more, shake it well, and add an ounce of good gum Arabick.

Another good black INK.
Take 3 pints of rain-water, 3 ounces of nut-galls broken into little bits, digest them in a sandheat for a week, then add 2 ounces ot copperas or vitriol to a pint of rain-water, boil it gently till it is dissolved, adding to the dissolution a little gum Arabick, which, when it is dissolved, mix it with the water and galls; digest it for a week in a sand-heat, and keep the clear for use.

Another black writing INK.
Take white wine 2 quarts, log-wood ground, or shavings of it, one pound: boil them till a quart is consumed; then strain the liquor from the wood, and put into it 8 ounces of nut-galls bruised, pomegranate peels 4 ounces; mix and digest in a sand-heat for a week, shaking it 4 or 5 times a day: then add to it 4 ounces, of roman vitriol or green copperas, and digest it 2 days more; after which, add gum Arabick 4 ounces; digest 24 Hours, and strain all out into another vessel, and keep the Ink for use.
Note, 1. That the fæces will serve again for the same quantity of liquor or logwood Infusion.
2. That rain-water seems to be better for this purpose than white wine.
3. That probably the quantity of gum Arabick is too much.

Another very good black writing INK.
Take strong stale beer half a gallon (or white or red wine the same quantity) old nails 3 or 4 pounds; digest in a cold place for 8, 10, or 12 months; then decant off the clear liquor or tincture. Take Catechu in fine powder 3 ounces, common brandy half a pint, mix, and in a sand-heat make a strong tincture, which decant: mix this with the former tincture, and it becomes a black Ink.

Another very excellent black writing INK.
Take water in which a large quantity of old nails has lain for a year or two, a gallon, nut-galls broken into little bits a pound; common vitriol or copperas 4 ounces; infuse all together for a month, stirring or shaking the vessel very well 5 or 6 times every day. Then add gum Arabick cut into bits 2 ounces; dissolve and keep it continually stirring once or twice every day.
Note, When you use it, you may put in a little white sugarcandy, and dissolve it, so will your writing shine; but it ought not to be put in, but as you have occasion for it; for after 3 or 4 days it spoils the Ink.

Another very good black INK.
Take Thames or rain-water 2 quarts, nut-galls only broken into small bits half a pound; copperas 2 ounces; infuse all in a gentle sand-heat for 6 weeks shaking the bottle 4 or 5 times every day; then dissolve in it
4 ounces of gum arabick, (or less may be better) and let it stand upon the fæces for use.

To make the London Powder INK.
Take 10 ounces of the clearest nut-galls, bruise them and sift the powder very fine; then add 2 ounces of white copperas, 4 ounces of Roman vitriol, gum Arabick or sandarach an ounce; pound and sift them very fine, so that though they appear white, a little of it being put into water, it will in a little time turn black; and an ounce of powder will make a pint of very black Ink.

To make Japan, or shining INK.
Take gum Arabick and Roman vitriol of each an ounce, galls well bruised a pound, put them into rape vinegar, or vinegar made of clear small beer; set them in a warm place; stir them often till the liquor be comes black; then add to a gallon an ounce of ivory black, and a quarter of a pint of seed-lac varnish, and it will be a curious black shining Ink.

To make a POWDER INK, to rub on Paper.
Take about 20 nut-galls, reduce them to a very fine powder; take half an ounce of Roman vitriol, and as much gum Arabick and gum sandarach, powder and lift them very fine, then mingle them together, and rub the paper hard with a piece of cotton, and polish it with a piece of ivory; write with water, and in a little time the letters you write will appear a fine black, as if written with the best Ink.

To make China INK.
Take lamp-black purified 8 ounces, indigo 2 ounces, ivory black one ounce, peach-stone black half an ounce: beat all together, and make a mass; make it into a paste with water in which a very little gum Arabick has been dissolved; and so form them into long square tablets.

A shining Japan or China INK.
Take an ounce of lamp black, and clarify it in an earthen pipkin to take out the dross, 2 drams of indigo, half a dram of peach black, one dram of black endive burnt; reduce them to a very fine powder, and then with a moiery of fig-leaf water, and another part of milk, and a very little gum Arabick, when they are well mixed, make them up for use.

To make Indian INK.
Take horse-beans, burn them till they are perfectly black, grind them to a fine powder, and with a weak gum arabick water snake it into a paste, which form into long square cakes.

A black INK which vanishes in 24 hours.
Boil or digest nut-galls 24 hours, in gross powder, in aquafortis, add to them vitriol or copperas and a little sal armoniack, and it is done: what is written with this will vanish in 24 hours.

To make Red writing INK.
Take raspings of Brazil one ounce, white lead and alum of each 2 drams; grind and mingle them, infuse them in urine one pound, with 2 scruples of gum Arabick, or a dram at most.

Another Red INK.
Take wine vinegar a pint, raspings of Brazil 1 ounce, alum half an ounce, infuse all for 10 days; then boil it gently, and add to it 5 drams of gum arabick; dissolve the gum, strain and keep it for use.
Note, that 2 drams of gum in some cases may be enough.

To make Red writing INK with Vermilion.
Grind vermilion well upon a porphyry stone with common water; dry it and put it into a glass vessel, to which put urine; shake it, let it settle, then pour off the urine, and put on more urine: repeat this changing the urine 8 or 10 times; so will the vermilion be well cleansed; to which put glair of eggs to swim on it above a finger's breadth; stir them together, and when well settled, abstract the glair: then put on more glair of eggs, repeating the same operation 8 or 10 times also, to takeaway the scent of the urine; lastly, mix it with fresh glair, and keep it in a glass vessel close stopped for use; and when you use it, mix it with water or vinegar.

To make Red Printing INK.
Grind vermilion very well with liquid varnish or linseed oil.

To make a Blue INK.
Grind Indigo with honey mixed with glair of eggs, or glue- water made of ismg-glass, dissolved in water and strained.

To make Green INK to write withal.
Make fine Verdigrease into paste with strong vinegar, and infusion of green galls, in which a little gum arabick has been dissolved; let it dry, and when you would write with it, temper it with infusion of green galls, &c.

Another Green INK.
Dissolve verdigrease in vinegar, then strain it, and grind it with a little honey and mucilage of gum tragacanth upon a porphyry stone.

Another Green INK.
Boil verdigrease with argol in fair water, and then dissolve in it a little gum Arabick, and it will be good.

A Green Printing INK.
Grind Spanish green with liquid varnish, or linseed oil; and after the same manner you may make a Printer's Blue, by grinding azure with linseed oil.

An INK to write upon black paper.
Dissolve Tin-glass, or spelter, in aqua fortis made of nitre and alum; precipitate with oil of tartar; edulcorate perfectly with fair water, and dry it in a glass Bason; mix this powder with gum water, and it will be white, with which you may write on black paper: and with pure white flowers of antimony you may do the same.

To take INK out of printed books or pictures.
Wet a little aquafortis upon it, and it will be speedily out; then wash it over with a little alum water or vinegar, and it will kill the aqua fortis, which otherwise will either eat the paper, or make it yellow. Spirt of vitriol will do the same.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. To prepare for the Indigo Dye.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
You must first have the ground of a dye, which is to be put into the kettle, and made as Warm as you can bear it; and afterwards prepare a lye of pot-ashes.

The kettle must be first fill'd with water and made to boil, then the pot-ashes are to be put in; boil them, and then put in a bowl-full of bran, and three handfulsof madder; boil them all fora quarter of an hour; then remove the fire, and pound the Indigo in a mortar to an impalpable powder, and pour some of the lye upon it. Let it stand to settle, and then pour some of the Indigo dye into the blue dye copper, and proceed thus, till the proper quantity of Indigo is turn'd into the dye; then beat what remains a second time, and let it stand to settle, and pour the lye into the blue copper, repeating this till you have turn'd a proper quantity of Indigo to lye, which must all bepoured into the copper, then you must proceed to dye your stuffs, &c.

The Indigo dye. Allow to every quarter of a pound of Indigo a pound and a half of pot-ashes, and a quarter of a pound of madder, 3 handfuls of wheaten bran, boil these for 7 or 8 minutes, and then let it stand to settle; pour off the clear part of the suds or liquor, and pound the Indigo very fine, and mix it with a sufficient quantity of fresh woad, or stale Indigo, and then pour the fads upon it, and let it boil for 24 hours, and it will be ready to dye withal.

To prepare the dye copper. First throw in a pint of wheaten tran, next to that the woad, and after that, 2 pound of madder, then fill the copper with water, and make it boil for 3 hours; then pour it off into the vat, and let it stand till it is of a due consistence; then boil the copper full of water, and pour it into the dye suds, and cover it up warm; let it stand 2 hours to settle, and look upon it every hour, till it becomes blue.

Then, according to the quantity of stuffs to he dyed, put in 3 or 4 pound of Indigo, and 3 pound of pot-ashes, let it stand to settle and dye with this liquor; taking care always to stir it; cover it close, and let it stand 2 hours after every time you have dyed with it: after which time you may dye with it again, adding a sufficient quantity of lime, if you use it often, always let ting it stand 2 hours, and then adding lime and stirririg it.

How to prepare the INDIGO dye for the lye, in conjunction with the Provence BLUE, and make it lasting for stuffs, silks, woollen, and linnen.

If the ware is to have a deep dye, you must first prepare it in tartar and vitriol; but if of a light dye, in alum and tartar.

Boil 3 pound of brown wood in a bag, in a kettle of water, for half an hour, then take it out and dry it, and let the dye grow cool enough for you to bear your hand in it; then make use of your Indigo and Ashes (as in the direction for the blue dye) with all the rest of the useful and remedying drugs, from beginning to the end, as there directed.

When the blue dye has stood 24 hours, and the Indigo his come to its perfect strength, and begins to be blue, first dye what you would have of a deep blue, and the lightest last: and having work'd the dye half an hour, let it rest for an hour, and so on as lone as you work it.

If the lye be too weak, you may strengthen it at pleasure.

The way of mixing the Provence blue with woad for silk, woollen, and linnen ware; and to improve the BLUE.

It requires 3 waters to prepare the woad, and if you would use the Provence blue with woad and indigo, no brown wood is to be put in the first water, and then you must consider how the woad comes from the lye.

For the second water; boil a pound of brown wood in a bag; to be sure taking care that there be no bran in the water.

For the third water, use 2 pound of brown wood, but if you would have the dye deeper, then make your dye deeper in the first operation.

To dye linnen thread BLUE.

For every 6 pound of thread, take half a pound of Alum, 5 ounces of tartar, 2 quarts of sharp lye, set it over in the fire, and as soon as it boils, put in the thread, and let it soak there for 4 hours; then rinse or pass it through fresh water.

And afterwards dye it blue.

Take a pound of boiled brown wood, 3 quarters of an ounce of verdigrease powdered, one quart of sharp lye, the galls of 2 oxen or cows, half an ounce of calcin'd tartar, half an ounce of calcin'd white vitriol; put in the thread af twice, so that you may dye it light or deep at pleasure; and then the thread having first lain two hours in the woad lye, must be rinsed clean out.

If it be put into this lye when it is cold, it becomes much brighter and bluer, than if put in when boiling hot; but the most lasting dye for thread is perform'd with woad.

But if you would dye in the Indigo copper, you are not to use the same preparation suds, as in this dye, and the colour will be durable.

And lastly, the thread dyed with Indigo, ought to be rinsed through warm water, in order to give it the better lustre.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Indigo.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
INDIGO, a drug of a deep blue colour, brought hither from the West-Indies.

It is made of the leaves of a plant, call'd by the spaniards Anil, and by us Indigo.

The method of preparing it is as follows;

When the plant has grown to a certain height, and its leaves are in a good condition, they cut down, and throw it into a kind of vat, putting to them as much water as will cover them.

These are boil'd together for the space of 24 hours; and at the top swims a scum, with all the different colours of the rainbow.

Then the water is let off into another vessel, where they agitate it, and stir it about laboriously, with five or six poles fitted for that purpose. This they do till the water becomes of a deep green, and till the grain (as they call it) forms itself; which they discover, by taking a little of it out into another vessel, and spitting in it; for if then they perceive a blueish dreg subsiding, they cease beating it. The matter then precipitates of itself, to the bottom of the vessel; and when it is well settled, they pour off the water.

After this, they takeoff the Indigo, and put it into little linnen bags, and let it drain; this done, they put it into shallow wooden boxes, and when it begins to dry, they cut it into slices, and sec them to dry and harden in the sun.

here are several sorts of Indigo, the best is that call'd Serquisse, after the name of a village where it is prepar'd.

We chuse it in flat pieces of a moderate thickness, pretty hard, clean, light enough to swim in the water, inflammable, of a fine blue colour, marked a little on the inside with silver streaks, and appearing reddish when rubb'd on the nail.

Indigo is us'd by Painters, who grind and mix it with white to make a blue colour; for without that mixture, it would paint blackish.

It is also mix'd with yellow, to make a green colour. It is also us'd by dyers.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. How to draw with Indian ink.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
This is to be done after the manner of washing, or instead of Indian, you may temper lamp-black or burnt bread.

Temper either of these in fair water, in a shell, or upon your hand; and the out-lines having been first drawn with a coal or black lead, dip the point of an indifferent sharp pencil into fair water, and then into the indian ink, and draw all the oudines of your picture very faintly.

2. Take notice, that all the temperature of Indian Ink must be very thin, waterish, and not too black.

3. When it is dry, rub out the out-lines, which you drew with the coal, with a bit of stale white bread; if too black, then dash on your shadows very faintly, and deepen by degrees, at pleasure; and finish it with stipples, it being most advantageous to any one who shall practise limning.

4. Be sure not to take too much ink in your pencil, which you may prevent by drawing it thro' your lips.

5. Never lay your shadows on too deep, but deepen them down by degrees; for if they are too deep, they cannot be heightened again.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Jeat

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
Jeat, sometimes called black amber, is a mineral, or a fossilc stone, extremely black, formed of a lapidific, or bituminous juice in the earth, in the manner of coal: it works like amber, and has most of its qualities.

It abounds in Dauphins; but the best in the world, is said to be produc'd in some of the northern parts of England.

There is also a factitious jeat made of glass, in imitation of the mineral jeat.

This is drawn out into long hollow strings, which are cut, and form'd at pleasure. It is much us'd in embroideries, and in the trimmings of mourning, and may be made of any colour, tho' they are usually black and white.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. To japan brass...

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
To japan brass, such as is us'd to gild brass buttons, or make them look like gold.

This may be us'd upon leaf-gold, or upon what is called the German leaf-gold, or upon brass, or upon Bath metal, which, are design'd to imitate gold.

Take a pint of spirit os wine, and put it into a retort-glass, then add a quarter of an ounce of gamboge, half an ounce of lake, and half an ounce of gum-mastick; let this in a sand-heat for 6 days, or near the fire, or put the body of the retort frequently in warm water, shaking it twice or thrice a day; then let it over a pan of warm small-coal dust; and having first well-clean'd the metal, do it over thinly with this varnish, and it will appear of the colour of gold; it may be dried in a de clining oven, and it will not rub off.

N. B. This is a gcod varnish to mix with any colours that incline to red, and the white varnish to mix with those colours, that are pale, or of any other sort.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. Of japanning metals with gum-water.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
You are to take notice, that it is only to be done with these colours, which have a body; not with transparent colours.

1. Take gum-water, put it into a muscle. Shell, with which mix so much of your metal or colour, as may make it neither too thick nor too thin, but that it may run fine and smooth from the pencil.

2. Mix no more at a time than is sufficient for your present use; for they will spoil by being kept mixt.

3. And for your colours, your shells must be often shifted and changed; for otherwise the colours and gums will become knobby, thick, and out of order.

4. Having prepar'd and well-mixt your metals and colours, lay on your design with a hog's-brush pencil, with a smooth and even hand, drawing the pencil on the side of the shell, that it may not be overcharg'd with the colour or metal, when you are about to draw small lines or strokes.

5. But where you draw broad things, as leaves or other large works, then you may charge your pencil-full, but yet not so as to drop.

6. Now here it is to be noted;
- 1. That the practice of gum-water is useless and unnecessary in the use of gold iize.
- 2. That your gum-work being thoroughly dry'd, you are to run it over 8 or 10 times with your fine seed-lac varnish, or best white varnish; and afterwards polish it and clear it.

7. The black or ground on which your draught is to be made, when clear'd up, will be sq glossy, as if it were greasy, so that the metal or colour will not easily stick on; and for this reason you ought to rub it with a Tripoli cloth, and suffer it to dry; and so will the draught of the pencil be smooth, and stick on as you would have it.

8. If your work with gum-water should not succeed to your satisfaction, as not being even and regular, or the lines at a true distance, (as it may sometimes happen to young beginners) you may with the Tripoli cloth wipe out all, or any part of that, which you think unhandsome, or unfit to stand, and then immediately make a new draught.

9. And so by this method you may mend, alter, add, take from, blot out, change, and varioutly contribute to your design, 'till the whole piece is as perfect as you would have it.


Dictionarium polygraphicum. The way of Japanning wood or paper.

Dictionarium Polygraphicum:
Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested.
Vol II.
London: Printed for C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church Yard. MDCCXXXV.
The people of Japan have a method of making plates, bowls, and other vessels of brown paper, and sometimes of fine saw-dust.

These vessels are very light and strong, after they have been varnished.

The method os making them is as follows:

Boil a good quantity of flips or pieces of brown-paper in common water; mashing them with a stick, while it is boiling, till it is almost become a paste; then take it out of the water, and pound it well in a mortar, till it is come to a Pumice, like rags pounded in the trough of a paper-mill.

Then take gum-arabtek, and make very strong gum-water with common water, a quantity sufficient to cover the paper paste an inch thick: put these together into a large glaz'd pipkin and let them boil, stirring them very well together, 'till you think the paper paste is impregnated with the gum; then having a mould ready to give the paste the form or shape you design it, put it into it.

The mould is made as follows:

As for example, suppose you design to make a thing in the form of a pewter or earthen plate, you must procure a hard piece of wood to be turn'd by a Turner, on one lide of such a form, (i. e. like the back of a plate) and a hole or two made in the middle quite through the wood.

And besides this, another hard piece of wood must be turned, much of the same figure, about the eighth part of an inch less than the former; and, if you please, you may have some little ornament carved or engraven on the wood. Oil these Moulds very well on the sides that are turn'd, continuing to oil them, 'till they are well soaked with oil, then they will be sit for use.

When you are about to make a plate of the paper-paste, take that mould that has the hole in it, and having oil'd it again, set it even upon a strong table, and spread over it some of your paste, as equally as possible, so as to be every where a quarter of an inch thick; then oil the other upper mould very well, and set it as exactly a; may be on your paste, and press it hard down; then set a great weight upon it, and let it stand for 24 hours.

N. B. The hole at the bottom is for the water to pass through, that is press'd or squeez'd out of the paste; and the oiling of the moulds is to prevent the gummed paste from sticking to the wood.

When the paste is dry, it will be as hard as a board, and be sit to lay a ground upon, made with strong size and lamp-black; then let it stand to dry leisurely, and when it is thoroughly dry, then mix ivory black finely ground with the following varnish.

To make the strong JAPAN varnish.
Take an ounce of colophony, and having melted it in a glaz'd pipkin, and having ready 3 ounces of amber, redue'd to a fine powder, sprinkle by little and little into it, adding now and then some spirit of turpentine; when this is melted, sprinkle in 3 ounces of sarcocolla finely powdered, stirring it all the while, and putting in frequently more spirit of turpentine, 'till all is melted; then pour it through a coarse hair-bag, placed between 2 hot boards, and press it gently 'till the clear is receiv'd into a warm glaz'd vessel. Mix ground ivory black with this varnish, and having first warm'd your paper plate, print it in a warm room before the fire, as equally as you can, and let it into a gentle oven, and the next day put it into a hotter oven, and on the third day into one very hot, and let it stand in it 'till the oven is quite cold, and then it will be fit for any use, either for containing liquors cold or hot, and will never change; nor can these sort of vessels be broke without great difficulty.
It is highly probable, that if the moulds were cast of any bard metal, they might do better than if turn'd in wood.

The method of making them of the colour of gold.

Having prepared plates, bowls, or any other vessels, according to the method before directed, or according to this that follows;

Take fine saw-dust, and having dry'd it well, pour on it some turpentine, mix'd with an equal quantity of rosin, and half as much bees-wax: mix them well, and put them to your dry sawfost, stirring all together, 'till the mixture becomes as thick as a paste; then take it off the fire, and having warmed the moulds, spread some of your mixture on that which has a hole in the middle, as equally as possibly can be, and press down the tipper mould upon it; then set it by, let it stand 'till it is cold, and the vessel will be fit for painting.

You may, when the turpentine is melted, put in some sarcocolla finely powdered, to the quantity of half the turpentine, stirring it well, and this will harden it. This composition ought to be made in the open air; because being apt to take fire, it will endanger the house.

But which-ever of the mixtures you make use of, if you would have them look like gold, do them over with size; and when that begins to stick a little to the finger, lay on leaf-gold, tidier pure or the German sort; do this as is directed for GILDing, &c., which see.

But the German gold indeed is apt to turn green, as most of preparations of brass will do; such as those of Bath-metal, and others of the like sort, which look like gold when they are fresh polished, or clean'd every day.

But as they being expos'd to the air, will change or alter to an ugly colour, gold is rather to be chosen; and is durable, 'ever changing, and of a much finer colour than any of the former for a continuance.

And altho' the leaf-gold is tender, and may be subject to rub off; yet the varnish; with which it is covered, will keep it bright and entire.

After the gold has been laid on, and the gold size is dry, and the loose flying pieces brush'd off, then lay on the following varnish to brighten the gold, and preserve it from rubbing.

Varnish for gold and such leaf of metals as imitates gold.

Melt some colophony, and then put in 2 ounces of amber well-pulveriz'd, with some turpentine, as the amber thickens, stirring 't well; then add an ounce of gum-elemi well-powdcred, and some more spirit of turpentine; still keeping the liquor stirring, 'till it is all well mix'd: but take care to use as little spirit of turpentine as you can, because the thicker the varnish is, the harder will it be.

Let this operation be perform'd over a sand-heat in an open glass, and strain it as directed tor the former varnish.

Use this varnish alone, first warming your vessels, made of the paper paste, and lay it on with a painting-brush before the fire; and afterwards harden it by degrees at 3 several times in ovens 1 the first being a flow heat, the next a warmer oven, and the third a very hot one: and these vessels will look like polish'd gold.

You must observe, that those vessels, that are made with saw-dust and the gums, you may for them use a varnish, made of the same ingredients as above, excepting only the gum elemi; and this will dry in the fun, or in a very gentle warmth.

To make these paper, &c. vessels of a red colour with gilded figures on them.

The vessels being prepared as before directed, with broun-paper paste, and after they are dried, &c. as directed for the first, mix some vermilion with the varnish first directed, and use it warm; then stove it, or harden it by degrees in an oven, and it will be extremely bright; or else lay on the first ground with size and vermilion, and with gum-arabick water stick on in proper places some figures, cut out of prints, as little sprigs of flowers, or such like; and when they are dry, do them over with gold size, and let them remain 'till it is a little sticking to the touch. Then lay on the gold, and let that be well clos'd to the gold size, and dried; then if you have a mind to shade any part of the flower, trace over the shady parts on the leaf gold with a fine camel's-hair pencil, and some ox-gall, and then paint upon that with deep Dutch pink; and when that is dry, use the varnish in a warm place, (i. e. that varnish directed for the covering of gold) and when you have done, set it to harden by degrees in an oven.This varnish will secure the leaf gold, or German metal from changing, by keeping the air from it.

The method of silvering these JAPAN vessels.

After the vessels have been made, and are thoroughly dried, do them over with size, and with ground chalk or whiting; let them stand by 'till they are very dry, and then paint them over again with the brightest gold size you can get, (for there is a'great deal of difference in the colour of it; some of it is almost white, and other yellow; the latter is proper for gold, and the former for silver.) When this size is almost dry, lay on the leaf silver, and close it well to the size, brushing off the loose parts, when 'tis dry, with some cotton.

When you lay on your leaf-silver or leaf-gold, keep it free from the air; for the least motion of the air will rumple the leaves, and they will not lie smooth, then use the following varnish to cover the silver.

To make the varnish to cover the silver.

Melt some fine turpentine in a well-glaz'd pipkin, then take an ounce and half of white amber well-pulverizd, put it by degrees into the turpentiie, stirring it well, 'till the amber is all dislblv'd, then put to it half an ounce of sarcocolla powdered, and half an ounce of gum elemi well levigated; pouring in at times more of the turpentine spirit, 'till all is dissolved. Let it be done over a gentle fire, and keep stirring the mixture continually, while it is on the fire.

This varnish will be as white and strong as the former, and must be us'd warm, and is as strong as that which is laid upon gold; and is to be afterwards hardened by degrees in an oven, is the gold varnish, and the vessel will look like polished silver.

Directions in colouring draughts or prints of birds, flowers, &c. in japanning these vessels.

If the prints or drawings of flowers be in black and white, if the center of the flower is rising, you must touch the edges of the lights with a thin tincture of gamboge, and lay on some Dutch pink or gall-stone, over the shades, so as to run into the lights a very little.

This is to be done because the thrums in the middle of flowers are generally yellow; but if of any other colour, as sometimes blue, &c. Sometimes lighter, and sometimes darker; then touch the verges of the lights with a little ultramarine blue, and over the shades either some sanders blue, to run a little into the ultramarine, or else shade with indigo; and some of the white of the print being left void of colour, will then give life and spirit to the colours so dispos'd.

All flowers should be tenderly touch'd in the light, just to give a little glare into the light parts of the colour you would give to the flower-leaves; and if you paint by a natural flower, you will presently see, that on the shady side, you must lay on the most shady part, such a colour as will force the rest to appear forward: but do not daub over the shades with too heavy a colour; let it be such as may be transparent, if possible, and scumble it into the light colour, that was laid on before. On this occasion the pencil must be us'd but lightly, with a very little gum-water in it, and it must be us'd before the colours are quite dry.

In painting the leaves of plants and herbs, regard must be had to the colours of the greens; that sometimes being the chief distinguishing character.

Of greens, verdigrease is the lightest; therefore that colour should be touch'd into the light parts of the leaf, from the place where the lighter parts of the shades end: and then on the shady parts, lay on some sap-green, so as to unite with the verdigrease green; and if the natural leaf should be of a darkish colour, touch the lighter sides of the leaves with a little verdigrease green, and Dutch yellow pink, mixt together, or with a tincture of French berries, but so as to let the verdigrease shine more than the pink.

The leaving the lights in colouring a print, has two advantages, viz.

If the lights be left on this occasion, the whiteness of the paper serves instead of the use of white paint, which is an heavy colour, and would rather confound those that have been prescrib'd to be laid on, than do them any service; but the colours before directed, where there is no white laid on, will shine agree ably into the white of the paper.

I am the more particular in this, because some persons will lay a blue flower, all over with one colour, tho' it be thick enough to hide both the lights and the shades; and then it will look like a penny picture, where there is nothing but a jumble of reds, blues, and greens.

In such pieces of work, be sure to scumble the lights into the shades of every colour, and leave the middle of the lights open on the papers; for as the paper is white of itself, it makes a light.