30.9.16

Ehdottoman varmaa.

Nykyaika 8, 15.6.1921

Nainen: (kangaskaupassa): "Onko tämä väri sitten varmasti pysyvää laatua?"
Kauppamies: "Yhtä varmasti pysyvää laatua kuin rouvan poskilla ruusun väri."
Nainen. "Olkaa sitte hyvä ja antakaa nähdä jotain muuta väriä."

29.9.16

Villatavaroista.

Osuuskauppalehti 3, 1915

Pohjoisessa maassamme on ainoastaan vuoden pari kuukautta sellaista aikaa, jolloin ei ruumiimme lämmön säilyttämiseksi tarvita villaisia pukimia, vaan jolloin ohuet ja vähemmän lämpöä säilyttävistä aineista valmistetut vaatteemmekin tuntuvat olevan liikaa. Kevään ja syksyn riittävät vielä ohuet villavaatteet, mutta kylmät talvikuukaudet pakottavat meitä kutakin varojen mukaan varaamaan runsaammin lämpimiä villaisia vaatteita. Niinpä ovat villa ja siitä valmistetut erilaiset tuotteet syksy- ja talvikuukausina kysyttyjä tavaroita.

Suurin osa villatavaroittemme raaka-aineista on kotoisin Austraaliasta, etelä-Amerikasta, etelä- Afrikasta ja Venäjältä. Ainoastaan pieni osa saadaanoman maanlampaista, joiden hoito vuosi vuodelta on vähentynyt ja sitä mukaa villojen saanti kotimaasta myös ehtynyt. Englannin villamarkkinoilla ostavat kotimaiset tehtaamme raakatavaransa joko villoina tai hienommat laadut lankoina ja valmistavat niistä erilaisia tuotteitaan: lankoja ja kankaita. Tässäkin tavarassa, kuten niin monessa muussakin olemme siis riippuvaisia mailmanmarkkinoista ja siellä vallitsevista hinnoista. Jos villakeskuksessa hinnat nousevat, saamme sen seuraukset tuntea täällä heti.

Näin säännöllisissä oloissa. Nykyään, jolloin villan ja villalankojen vienti on kokonaan kielletty eri maissa, olemme joutuneet aivan erikoisasemaan. Ne pienet raaka-ainevarastot, jotka maassamme tähän asti ovat olleet ja sodan alkuaikoina saatiin, ovat loppumassa. Tosin saadaan Venäjältä jokunen määrä karkeita villoja, muutenhan villatavaratehtaamme jo aikoja sitten olisivat saaneet seisoa, mutta ne eivät riitä tyydyttämään kysyntää. Villalangoista ja villatavaroista on siis maassamme yleinen puute ja hinnat ovat nousseet huimaavasti. Esimerkkinä mainittakoon, että kotimaisista villoista, joiden hinta ennen oli 1:80 — 2:— pesemättöminä, nyt kilvan maksetaan 4:- - 4:50 kilo ja pestyistä 7:— kilolta. Villalumputkin ovat päässeet arvoonsa. Vanhoista sukista, villapaidoista y. m. jätteistä maksetaan 1:60 kilo. Lisäksi on värien puute aivan yleinen, jaennenkuulumattomia hintoja on maksettu saatavina olleista pienistä värimääristä.

Ne päätavaralajit, jotka meillä villavalmisteina esiintyvät kaupassa ovat villalangat, villakankaat ja kutomateokset.

Koetamme seuraavassa esittää, miten niiden saantiin ja hintoihin villamarkkinoitten nykyinen tila on vaikuttanut javerratanykyisiä hintoja aikaisempiin.


Villalangat.

Säännöllisissä oloissa määräsivät vuoden alussa olevat markkinat hinnat seuraavaksi myyntikaudeksi, joten jo helmi- ja maaliskuussa voitiin päättää lankakaupat sekä kotimaisissa että ulkolaisissa tehtaissa. Nyt elokuulla ei vielä ole mitään varmuutta, saadaanko ollenkaan kauppalankoja. Missään tapauksessa ei voida tyydyttää koko kysyntää, vaikka hintojen ollessa korkeat kysyntäkin on tavallista paljon pienempi. Laaduissa ei myös ole valitsemisen varaa. Kun raaka-aineena käytetään yksinomaan karkeita villoja, on lankakin sen mukaista, joten sukkalangaksi ja karkeaan konekudontaan se vielä sopii. Kankaankudelankoihin ja hienompiin konekutomotöihin sopivaa lankaa ei ole kuin nimeksi.

Kesällä 1914 maksoivat huokeimmat sukkalangat noin 6:50 — 7:— kilo ja kohosivat vuoden varrella parin markan verran kilolta. Nyt mahdollisesti saatavana olevan laadun voimme pitää suunnilleen samanarvoisena, mutta on sen hinta 11:- - 12:— kilo. Viime vuonna oli harmaan ja mustan värin hintaero —:20 kilo, nykyään lasketaan se 1:— 2:—:ksi kilo. Pehmeän lanvastaava hinta viime vuonna 10:- - 12:—. Voimme siis todeta villalankojen hinnat olevan 50—80 % korkeammat viimevuotisia hintoja.


Villakankaat.

Säännöllisissä oloissa on maassamme ollut villakankaitten valmistuksessa liikatuotantoa. Lisäksi on ulkoa tuotu suuret määrät etupäässä naisten villakankaita, mutta myös hienompia miesten pukukankaita. Kuluttajat ovat siis olleet verrattain hyvässä asemassa, kun kilpailu on pitänyt hinnat huokeina. Villakankaita myydään ympäri vuoden, joten tehtailla sodan puhjetessa oli varattuna runsaanpuoleisesti raaka-aineita ja saivat lisäksi tuotettua ulkoa jonkun verran. Kankaitten hintojen kohoaminen on ollutkin paljon tasaisempaa, ja vielä keväällä oli hinnannousu 10—20%. Mutta jo alkukesästä, kun alettiin varata syksyksi varastoja alkoivat hinnat kohota ja pian olivat tehtaat myyneet valmiit varastot ja suurelta osalta valmistuvankin tavaran. Alempana olevassa taulukossa on merkitty muutamien villakangaslajien hinnat eri aikoina, josta käy selville hintojen nousu.

Kankaan laatu | l5/9 14  | 1/1 15 | 30/4 15 | 30/6 15 | 15/8 15
Sarsi  | 1:30 |  1:30 |  1:40  | 1:50  | 1:80
Naistenhuokeam. kaksilev.  | 2:20  | 2:50  | 3:—  | 3:20  | -
" Keskilaji |  3:20 |  3:60  | 5:-  | — |  —
" mustat & siniset |  4:50 |  5:50 |  6:50 |  8:— | 11:—
Sarka  | 5:—  | 2:50  | 5:50  | 6:50  | 8:-
Huokea trikoo  | 2:60  | 2:80  | 3:60  | —  | —
Keskilaji  | 5:—  | 5:50 |  6:50 |  7:50 |  9: —
Parempi laatu trikoota | 10:50 |  11:50 |  12:— |  14:— |  16:50
" "  must. & sin. |  12:50 | 14:— | 16:—  | 18:— | 20:—
Ulsteri  | 6:— |  7:—  | 8:—  | 9:— | 10:50

 Hinnat ovat siis nousseet 40—140 %. Eniten ovat nousseet mustat ja tummansiniset sekä naisten että miesten kankaat, ja johtuu nousu suureksi osaksi näiden värien nykyisistä kalleista hinnoista. Huomattava on myös, että halvemmat laadut käyvät hyvin vähiin ja loppuvat tuossa tuokiossa.

Osuuskaupoilla on nyt hyvä tilaisuus saada myydyksi hyvällä hinnalla kaikki tavallisissa oloissa vähemmän kaupaksi käyneet lajit. Nykyhetkenä ei kysytä niin tarkasti, onko kangas muotiväriä; pääasia on, että se on kestävää ja huokeaa. Uutta kangastavaraa on ostettava mahdollisimman varovasti.


Kutomateokset.

Nämä valmisteet ovat kokonaan riippuvaisia villalankojen hinnasta ja niiden saannista. Hienompia lankoja ei tehtailla sotatilan alkaessa ollut varastoissa suurempia määriä, joten parempien kutomateosten saanti on supistunut hyvin vähään. Vanhaa valmista varastoa ei myöskään ollut, sillä tämän alan tehtaat valmistavat tuotteitaan sen mukaan, kun ovat saaneet tilauksia. Ensi käyttökauden uutuudet ovat siis valmistetut karkeista langoista ja ovat värien puutteessa etupäässä harmaita. Ainoastaan koristeena on käytetty värillisiä lankoja. Vaikkakin vanhat varastot maaseudultakin viime käyttökautena vähenivät hyvin pieniksi jakysyntää siis on, saanevat tehtaat valmistettua riittävästi paitoja, housuja ja muita pienempiä esineitä. Sensijaan on jo tuntuva puute villatakeista sekä miesten että naisten ja paremmista sukista. Näihin laatuihin käytetään juuri hienompia lankoja.

Hinnat ovat nousseet samassa suhteessa kun villalankojenkin. Vertailua ei voi kuitenkaan tehdä muussa kuin hienommista langoista valmistetuissa tavaroissa, jotka ovat nousseet noin 30%. Karkeasta villasta valmistettuja teoksia ei aikaisemmin ole ollut kaupassa, mutta lähentelee niiden hinta nyt viime vuoden keskilajien hintoja. Nämä vertailut perustuvat hintoihin keväällä, jolloin syksyostokset tehtaista tehtiin. Senjälkeen ovat tehtaat vielä nostaneet hintojaan jonkun verran.

Osuuskaupat ovat kuitenkin suureksi osaksi varanneet talvitarpeensa kevätostosta ja voivat siis myydä edullisesti.

J. A.

28.9.16

Keinotekoisista väriaineista eli tervaväreistä. II

Osuuskauppalehti 3, 1915

Olemme jo sivumennen huomauttaneet, että keinotekoiset väriaineet valmistetaan kivihiilitervan tislaustuloksista. Kuinka sitten syntyy kivihiiliterva? Kaupungeissa käytetty polttoynnä valokaasu valmistetaan kivihiiliä kuivatislaamalla. Tästä kuivatislauksesta jää jälelle koksi sekä kivihiiliterva. 2,000 kilosta kivilhiiltä saadaan noin 100kg tervaa, ja tämä terva sisältää pienempiä tai suurempia määriä erilaisia kemiallisia yhdistyksiä, jotka sitten sangen monimutkaisesti ja taidokkaasti tislaamalla eroitetaan tervasta ynnä toisistaan. Pääasiallisimmat ja eritoten myös keinotekoisten värien valmistamiseen soveltuvat lähtöaineet, jotka 100 kilosta tervaa saadaan ovat: noin 2 kg benzolia, 0,5 kg toluolia, 5—6 kg naftalinia, 0,6 kg antracenia ja 0,5 kg fenolia. Neljä ensin mainittua ovat aromaattisia hiilivetyjä, joista benzoli ja toluoli ovat nestemäisiä ja naftalini ja antraceni kiinteitä yhdistyksiä. Fenoli on benzolin hapellinen yhdistys, jonka hajun jokainen tuntee karbolihaposta.

Näitä yhdistyksiä käsitellään erilaisilla kemiallisilla menettelytavoilla, muodostelemalla uusia kemiallisia yhdistyksiä, johdannaisia ja päästään vihdoin aineisiin, joilla on tuo merkillinen värjäämiskyky. Väriaineiden kemiallinen kokoumus on sangen monimutkainen. Se vaatii monasti kemistin monivuotisen ahertelun, kuten jo indigo-tutkimuksista olemme huomauttaneet. Emme rupea selittelemäänkään näiden "kaavojen", kemiallista merkitystä tai niitä atomiryhmiä, jotka antavat näille aineille väriaineen luonteen, ominaisuuden. Ne jääkööt kemistin "salaisuudeksi", kemistin "maailmaan".

Keinotekoisia väriaineita löytyy lukumäärältään tuhansia, joskohta tärkeimmät käytännössä olevat rajoittuvat noin 600:aan. Nimet ovat useimmiten fantasianimiä, monasti sangen "runollisia" rai komealta kajahtavia: timanttimusta, briljantti-vihreä, mikado-keltainen. Ne ovat useimmiten jauhomaisia aineita, joista saattaa eroittaa selvemmän tai epäselvelvemmän kidemuodon. Sitäpaitsi löytyy myöskin tahmean taikinan tilassa olevia, tavallisesti veteen liukenemattomia väriaineita.

Väriaineet luokitellaan sen mukaan, miten ne suhtautuvat värjätessä. Erotetaan pääasiallisesti kolme luokkaa: 1. väriaineet, jotka happamessa tai emäksisessä liuoksessa värjäävät "käsittelemättömiä" pumpuli- tai villalankoja, n. s. substantiviset väriaineet, 2. sellaiset väriaineet, jotka vaativat langalle vissin käsittelyn, "peittaamisen", ennen kuin värikiintyy lankoihin, "peittaväriaineet" 3. väriaineet, joiden väri kehitetään näkyviin erilaisilla menettelyillä vasta kuidin pinnalla, n. s. "kehitys"-väri aineet. Löytyy tietysti useampia ala-luokkia, ottamalla eritoten huomioon sen seikan, ettei sama väriaine monastikaan sovellu samaan aikaan sekä pumpuli-, villa- että silkkilankojen värjäykseen, riippuen mainittujen kuitujen erilaisesta rakenteesta ja suhtautumis-luonteesta.

Kotivärjäykseen eivät väriaineet koskaan tule puhtaina, vaan on niihin sekoitettu valmiiksi aineita jotka ovat joko välttämättömiä värjäykseen, riippuen väriaineen luonteesta tai edistävät värin laskeutumista värjättävään kuituun. Jälkimäisinä aineina käytetään useimmiten ruokasuolaa tai glaubersuolaa. Monta kertaa sisältävät nuo n. s. "lippuvärit" suuret määrät "tehottomia" aineita, joilla ei ole mitään tekemista värjäyksen kanssa. Näitä aineita käytetään sitä varten, ettei kallis väriaine kaupassa tai taloudessa käsitellessä hupenisi hukkaan.

Kauppateknillisessä väritutkimuksessa ei kiinnitetä erikoisesti huomiota siihen, minkälainen kemiallinen kokoumus on väriaineella. On luonnollisesti saman tekevää, mistä lähtöaineista väriaine on valmistettu ja minkälainen molekylirakenne sillä on, kunhan vain väriaine käytännössä osottautuu kelvolliseksi värjäykseen. Ennen kaikkea on tutkittava väriaineiden suhteellinen värjäämiskyky, kun on kysymyksessä samaa väriä värjääviä aineita. Ja tämä tapahtuu siten, että punnitaan eri väriaineita sama määrä ja tehdään koevärjäys samalle määrälle lankoja. Tottunut silmä voi heti arvostella, millä väriaineella on suurempi värjäyskyky. Samasta koevärjäyksesta arvostellaan myöskin värivivahdus, nyanssi. Yksilöllinen maku määrää, minkä värin pitää kauniimpana, minkä rumempana, mutta tämänkin seikan voi tottunut värituntija ratkaista tyydyttävästi. Ei riitä, että kankaan tai langan väri on silmää hivelevän kaunis. Sen täytyy myös olla pysyvän sekä pesussa että auringon valossa. Nämä seikat ratkaisee kvantitatiivinen pesukoe javiikko- jopakuukausmääräinen valotuskoe. Värjätyt villalangat kestävät tavallisesti paremmin valotuskokeen kuin värjätyt pumpulilangat.

Keinotekoisia väriaineita käytetään, paitsi lankojen kankaiden, paperin, nahkan y. m. värjäykseen myöskin ravinto- ja nautintoaineiden kaunistamiskeinona. Halvemmat viinilajit, keinotekoiset sokeroidut marjamehut, limonaadit, marmelaadit, jopa lihamakkaratkin saavat usein hemaisevan kauniista ulkomuodostaan olla kiitollisia tervaväreille. On luonnollista, etteivät mitkä vaan keinotekoiset väriaineet viimemainituissa tapauksissa saata tulla kysymykseen, sillä paitsi vissiä omaa luontoista myrkyllisyyttään, sisältävät tervavärit usein käsittelyaineiden myrkyllisiä epäpuhtauksia kuten esimerkiksi arsenikkia. Onneksi kuitenkin löytyy juuri näitäkin tarkoituksia varten tieteellisesti tutkittuja, ihmiselimistölle verrattain vaarattomia väriaineita.

K. P.

27.9.16

Suomen Käsityön Ystävät 40-vuotias.

Otava 11, 1919

Kirjoittanut Toivo Tarvas.

Kansojen sivistystasoa määrättäessä on tavaksi tullut käyttää mittapuuna muunmuassa sitä seikkaa, kuinka korkealle tieteet ja taiteet niiden keskuudessa ovat kohonneet.

Olemme tottuneet ajattelemaan useimmista inhimillisistä saavutuksista, että luonto on ihmistaidon opettaja, ja ainakin taiteen syntyyn nähden se osaksi pitää paikkansa. Alkeellisimmat taideteokset ovat syntyneet halusta jäljitellä luontoa, mutta samalla kun ne ovat tyydyttäneet ihmisten kauneudenkaipuuta, ovat ne myöskin liittyneet läheisesti palvelemaan elämän käytännöllisiä vaatimuksia.

Se taidelaji, jonka hyväksi Suomen Käsityön Ystävät neljänkymmenen vuoden ajan on työskennellyt, on etupäässä tarkoitettu palvelemaan kauneutta käytännöllisessä elämässä. Ja suuriarvoinen onkin se työ, minkä Suomen Käsityön Ystävät ovat suorittaneet meillä käsityö- ja koristelutaiteen palveluksessa.

Monet hyvät aatteet ja yritykset ovat meillä alkuaanlähteneet nuorten ylioppilaiden intomielisistä aivoista. Niinpä tieteellinen etnografia meillä alkoi v. 1874 Viipurilaisen osakunnan keskuudesta, jolloin sen silloisen kuraattorin, sittemmin professori Otto Donnerin,ehdoituksesta alettiin kerätä ympäri maata kansanpukuja ja muita kansatieteellisiä esineitä. Innostus oli suuri, maaseudulla toimivien komiteojen kautta koottiin aluksi tarkoitusta varten lyhyessä ajassa 20,000 markkaa, joilla varoilla sitten lähetettiin retkikuntia keräysmatkoille. Tuloksena olikin, että puolen vuoden kuluttua saatettiin asettaa näytteille yhteensä kahdeksan tuvan sisustaa tai erilaista ryhmää, jotka edustivat eri maakuntia.

Näyttely herätti suurta huomiota, yleisö osoitti sitä kohtaan harrastustaan, ja näyttelyesineet joutuivat "Suomen Ylioppilaskuntien kansatieteeliselle museolle" sen pohjaperustukseksi. Tästä museosta mainitut esineet joutuivat vuorostaan valtion omistamien kansatieteellisten kokoelmien perusainehistoksi.

Sama harrastus kotimaiseen etnografiaan yleisössä ei jaksanut kuitenkaan pysyä kauan vireillä, ylioppilaspiireissä se kuitenkin vielä jonkin aikaa eli herättäen varsinaisen tieteellisen etnografian tutkimuksen. Vasta v. 1879 tänä harrastus heräsi uuteen eloon taiteilijatar Fanny Churbergin "Morgonbladet"issa julkilausumien Suomen Käsityön Ystävät-yhdistyksen syntysanojen kautta. Tässä kirjoituksessa hän ei ainoastaan käsitellyt kysymyksen aatteellista puolta, vaan myöskin käytännöllisiä keinoja sen toteuttamiseksi.

Fanny Churbergillä oli jo silloin huomattava taiteellinen työ takanaan. Laajoilla ulkomaalaisilla taideopintomatkoillaan hän oli tullut huomaamaan, kuinka Euroopan monissa sivistysmaissa oli väsytty kuluneisiin, jokapäiväisiin muoteihin ja malleihin ja että niissä oli ryhdytty jalostanaan yleistä makua etsimällä muotoja kansojen varhaisemmilta ajoilta. Samalla kun koetettiin henkiinherättää jo unhoitettuja kansallisia traditsiooneja, etsittiin uusia malleja varsinkin itämaiden muotorikkaasta ja värikylläisestä kotiteollisuudesta.

Varsinkin Skandinavianmaissa ja Venäjällä kansallisten traditsioonien henkiinherättäminen tällä alalla on kiinnittänyt Fanny Churbergin huomiota, ja käytännöllisenä tuloksena hänen asiaaymmärtävästä ja innostuneesta kirjoituksestaan olikin, että asetettiin valmistava toimikunta, johon valittiin neidit Churberg, Minette Munck (nykyään prof. rouva Donner) ja Hanna Snellman sekä herrat M. v. Wright, E. Nordström ja J. Ahrenberg kutsumaan asiasta innostuneita kansalaisia huhtikuun 23 päivänä Seurahuoneella pidettävään kokorkseen.

Toimikunta oli saanut myöskin tehtäväkseen järjestää samaan tilaisuuteen käsityönäyttelyn. Kokoukseen saapui runsaasti osanottajia ja päätettiin toimeenpanna arpajaiset perustettavan yhdistyksen hyväksi. Valmistavaan toimikuntaan valittiin lisäksi rouva A. Winter, neiti Malvina Weckman ja herra Th. Schwindt.

Marraskuussa pidetyt arpajaiset onnistuivat hyvin tuottaen rahallisena tuloksena Smk. 5,400. Paitsi rahallista voittoa oli arpajaisilla vielä sekin etu, että ne uudestaan kiinnittivät suuren yleisön huomion kotimaiseen käsityöteollisuuteen, sillä nähtävänä oli suuri joukko kansallismallisia käsitöitä. Näiltä ajoilta juontavat Suomen Käsityön Ystävät toimintansa, vaikka yhdistyksen säännöt hyväksyttiin lopullisesti vasta tammikuussa 1880.

Tilanpuute ei salli yhdistyksen perustamispuuhien jälkeistä aikaakuvata yksityiskohtaisemmin, vaan on tyydyttävä jatkamaan kertomusta yleisin piirtein.

Yhdistyksen toiminnan ensimäistä jaksoa voisi kutsua "Etnografiseksi". Silloin keräiltiin vanhoja käsitöitä ja malleja, joita uskollisesti kopioitiin ja käytettiin mitä erilaisimpiin tarkoituksiin. Tunnussanana oli "suomalainen tyyli", joka kuitenkaan ei aina voinut vastata korkeimpia kauneudellisiavaatimuksia, pääasia oli, että kaikki mallit olivat "kansallisia".

Tätä kansallisen renessanssin aikaa kesti noin vuoteen 1899, jonka jälkeen luovuttiin etnografisesta jäljittelystä ja ryhdyttiin valmistamaan käsitöitä varsinaisten taiteilijain piirtämien mallien mukaan. Järjestettiin mallikilpailuja, joissa taiteilijoilla oli suhteellisen suuri vapaus aiheittensa valinnassa,mutta edelleenkin pidettiin parhaimpina niitä malleja, joita voitiin pitää "kansallisina."

Monet etevimmät taiteilijammekin osoittivat harrastustaan yhdistyksen puuhille. Albert Edelfeltin tekemän mallin mukaan valmistettiin kuvakudonta "Oihonnan kosijat", joka nykyään on säilytettävänä ent. keisarillisessa linnassa. Myöskin yliopiston juhlasalia varten suunniteltiin saman taiteilijan avustuksella suuria kuvakudontoja, joiden suorittamisesta ei kuitenkaan tullut mitään.

Gallen-Kallelan piirustaman mallin mukaan kudottiin näytteiksi pieni osa "Sammon ryöstö" nimisestä kuvakudonnasta, jota kokonaisuudessaan ei kuitenkaan vielä tähän mennessä ole suoritettu, sillä kudonnan hinnaksi arvioidaan 60,000 markkaa.

Taiteilija Väinö Blomstedfin harrastus yhdistystä kohtaan on ollut erittäin suuri ja arvokas. Hänen malliensa mukaan on kudottu mm.kuvakudonnat "Uhri", "Vene" (suuruus 75 x 250 cm), "Poro" (suuruus 150x80cm).

Muista suoritetuista töistä voisi vielä mainita Sigrid Wickström-Paaerin kuvakudoksen "Kehrääjät" (suuruus 129X 137 cm) ja rouva Hammarsten-Janssonin ryijyn "Kilpikonna". Suurimmat ryijyt, joita on kudottu,ovat kooltaan 463x574 cm, hinta 19 000 markkaa, 404X506 cm, hinta 11,200 markkaa, sekä 321 x 223 cm, hinta 5,500 markkaa. Suurin valmistettu ryijy on 5x8 metriä.

Yhdistyksen mainetta ja tunnetuksitulemista niin koti- kuin ulkomailla ovat edistäneet onnistuneet esiintymiset ulkomaisissa näyttelyissä. Vuonna 1888 esiintyi yhdistys Kööpenhaminan Pohjoismaisessa näyttelyssä herättäen suurta huomiota.

Pysyvä merkkitapaus yhdistyksen historiassa on sen onnistunut osaanotto Parisin maailmannäyttelyyn v. 1900. Yhdistys pani siellä näytteille "Suomen paviljongissa" ovi-, seinä, ja ikkunaverhoja, mattoja, alkuperäisiä rahvaan kirjailutöitä, kankaita y. m. Yhdistys sai näyttelyn kultamitalin sekä möi runsaasti näyttelyesineitä sekä yksityisille että julkisiin kokoelmiin. Moinen tunnustus oli omiansa vaikuttamaan innostavasti ja kehottavasti yhdistyksen jatkuvaan toimintaan.

Vuosien kuluessa on yhdistyksen toiminta yhä laajentunut ja käy suunnaltaankin vapaamielisemmäksi. Orjallinen etnografisten mallien kopioiminen onsaanut väistyä lukuisienmallikilpailujen antamien tuloksien kautta. Ne ovat suuresti vilkastuttaneet käsiteollisuustaidettamme ja vieneet sitä huomattavasti eteenpäin.

Vaatimattomasta alusta on Suomen Käsityön Ystävien lattia-, penkki- ja rekiryijyjen kudonta kehittynyt huomattavaksi teollisuuden haaraksi, niin että nykyään on yhdistyksellä maalla 39 kutojaa ja 53 neulojaa kaupungissa.

Talonpoikaistytöt kutovat maalla varakkaissa taloissa emäntien johdolla kaikkia mainittuja kudontalajeja. Työ on kuitenkin siksi vaivalloista ja hidasta, ettei se voisi ainakaan kaupungissa elättää tekijäänsä. Tarvitaan kahdeksan päivää yhden neliömetrin kutomiseen, jos työpäiväon kahdeksan tuntinen. Siksipä voikin työ parhaiten menestyä maalaistaloissa, joissa työntekijät saavat elatuksensa kotoaan.

Erikoista mainitsemista ansaitsee rouva Aline Hellén, joka on ollut kolmekymmentä vuotta yhdistyksen palveluksessa. Paitsi sitä, että hän on esiintynyt erinomaisena taidekudonnan neuvojana on hän pannut alulle kotimaisen lankojen värjäämisen. Oltuansa valtion stipendillä opintomatkalla Norjassa ryhtyi hän v. 1902 johtamaan Helsinkiin perustettua värjäyslaitosta. Tässä värjäätrössä käytetään yksinomaan kasvikunnasta saatuja väriaineita, kuten koivinlehtiä, suopursuja, kanervia, nokkosia, kivijäkäliä y. m.

Rouva Hellén on työskennellyt uupumatta henkiinherättääkseen kansan keskuudessa ennen tunnetun, mutta jo unhoonjääneen kotivärjäämistaidon, ja on silläkin alalla tehty suuria edistysaskeleita.

Esimerkkinä siitä, kuinka laajaksi yhdistyksen toiminta on vuosien kuluessa kehittynyt, mainittakoon, että myynti v. 1916 oli 175.000 markkaa, ja vuonna 1918 oli kassavaihto 1,705,942:14 markkaa. Myynti käsittää nykyään pääasiallisesti erilaisia ryijyjä, huonekalupäällisiä, ovi- ja ikkunaverhoja. Viimeaikoina on mjöskin vanhojen mattojen ia ryijyjen korjaaminen muodostunut sangen huomattavaksi työalaksi.

Hienommista silkkiompelutöistä mainittakoon monet alttarivaatteet, joista Kouvolan kirkkoon tehdyt ovat huomattavimmat. Myöskin on yhdistys valmistanut 126 Suojeluskuntalippua.

Se laajakantoinen työ, jonka Suomen Käsityön Ystävä tneljänkymmenenvuoden kuluessa on suorittanut Suomen kirjotaiteen hyväksi, on siksi laaja, että selostus siitä nyt jo voisi muodostua kokonaiseksi kirjaksi, suuremmaksi kuin E. Aspelinin toimittama julkaisu yhdistyksen 25-vuotisesta toiminnasta.

Luettelo henkilöistä, jotka ovat uhranneet työnsäjaharrastuksensa tämän yhdistyksen hyväksi, on myöskin varsin pitkä. Riittää, jos mainitaan, että yhdistyksen nykyisenä puheenjohtajana toimii neiti Aina Bergman, varapuheenjohtajana rouva Elin Holmberg, rahastonhoitajana neiti Aini Nevander sekä toimeenpanevana johtajana ja sihteerinä rouva Hertta Airio.

Kun historia ja jälkimaailma kerran arvioivat tämän aikakautemme sivistystasoa, niin varmaan silloin ne taiteelliset muistomerkit, jotka ovat säilyneet Suomen Käsityön Ystävien töistä, osaltansa puhuvat kaunista kirjokieltään siitäkauneudenkaipuusta, ja kansallisesta innostuksesta, joka oli ominaista tälle aikakaudelle.

26.9.16

Lukijain osasto. 6224. Kalanpyydysten värjääminen.

Pellervo 21-22, 24.5.1928

Minulla on uusia rysä- ja aitaverkkoja tilattu ensi kesän kalastusta varten. Ne ovat  kudotut 15- ja 18- säikeisestä pumpulilangasta, valkoiset ja helposti mätänevät. Millä  aineella tai värillä saisin rysät kestävämmiksi? Olen kuullut käytettävän kotitervaa, tervavettä, tavallista puotiväriä y. m. Ovatko nämä soveliaita, vai onko joitain sopivampia värejä ja miten niillä värjätään?
- Nuori kalastaja.

Vastaus.
Myöskin rysäverkkojen lujittamiseen on suositeltava ennenkaikkea kateku-nimistä kasvipihkaa, jota on saatavissa jo nykyisin paremmin varustetuista rautakaupoista tai ainakin kalastustarpeiden liikkeistä. Noudattamalla niitä neuvoja ja menetelmiä, jotka ovat julkaistuina kirjoituksessa "Kalanpyydysten lujittaminen värjäämällä" Pellervon 19. vihossa v. 1927 tulette itse ennenpitkää havaitsemaan tämän värjäysedut. Värjäys on toimitettava ennen verkkojen vanteille panoa. — Ei tule liian usein jos tässäkin yhteydessä mainitsen, että rysiä ei pitäisi, niinkuin yleisesti näkee tehtävän, pyyntikauden päätyttyä jättää loikomaan rannoille pitkiksi ajoiksi päivän poltettavaksi. Korjatkaa lankapyydykset ajoissa ilmavaan suojaan!

V. J:nen.

25.9.16

Amerika tarvitsee saksalaisia värejä.

Pohjolan Sanomat 8, 14.1.1919

Englannissa samoin kuin Yhdysvalloissakin väitetään, että näiden maiden väriaineteollisuus on sodan  aikana siinä määrin kehittynyt, että tulevaisuudessa tullaan toimeen ilman saksalaisiakin tavaroita. Puolueettomat asiantuntijat kuitenkin esittävät tilanteen toisin. New-Yorkin kemiallisen teollisuuden näyttelyn johdosta kirjoittaa eräs tunnettu ammattimies: Näytteillepantujen erilaisten väriaineiden perinpohjainen tarkastelu ei johda ilahduttaviin tuloksiin. Väriaineteollisuutemme vuosina 1916 ja 1917 saavuttama menestys voi tyydyttää vain pintapuolista katselijaa. Meidän ei pidä olla liiaksi toivorikkaita ja luulla, ette me nyt jo vastedes tulisimme toimeen ilman Saksaa. Näyttää siltä, kuin ensi innostuksen  laimennuttua väriaineen teollisuus olisi pysähtynyt kehityksessään. Yhtä ainoastaan käyttökelpoista väriainetta lukuunottamatta ovat kaikki kyyppivärit vielä tulevaisuudenhaaveita ja monet etenkin loistavat värit ovat vielä täyttymättömiä lupauksia, vaikkakin teollisuutemme kipeästi kaipaa näitä väriaineita. Väriaineen käyttäjämme valittavat vielä, että vientikauppaa suositaan kotimaisten markkinain kustannuksella. Olemme kuuluttaneet kaikelle maailmalle, että me nykyään viemme ulkomaille yhtä paljon väriaineita kuin ennen tuotimme Saksasta. Mutta tällöin valjetaan siitä, että tehtailijamme värejä tilatessaan usein saavat odottaa kolme, neljä kuukautta, tai että tilaukset muitta mutkitta hylätään "mahdottomina suorittaa". Tämä herättää mielipahaa suurissa toiminimissä eivätkä ne enää usko uuteen väriteollisuuteemme. Kärsivällisyyttä ei enlä riitä pitkälti ja luullaan; että kaikesta isänmaallisuudesta huolimatta taas ilolla tervehditään vanhoja tunnettuja värejä, joita on käytetty jo 40 vuotta. Tosin ei enää tuotettane tänne Saksassa valmistettuja värejä, mutta saksalaisia tavaralajeja, täällä meillä valmistettuja ilmestynee markkinoille ja välillisiä teitä kulkenevat väriteollisuuden voitot jälleen saksalaisiin taskuihin, kuten Bayer-yhtiön tapaus jo on osoittanut.

24.9.16

Millä lailla ja minkä avulla voipi hävittää omenamatoja.

Puutarha 10, 1902

Slingerland on tarkastellessaan huomannut, että useimmat perhot monta päivää kukkalehtien varisemisen jälkeen tulevat esiin kotelosta. Ne valmistautuvat moniaan päivän muniakseen ja viikkoa jälkeen tahi hiukkasen myöhemmin, sen jälkeen kun kukkalehdet ovat varisseet, tavataan ensimäiset munat kasvavan hedelmän päältä. Vielä viikkoa myöhemmin syntyy niistä toukkia, joka siis tapahtuu noin pari viikkoa kukkalehtien varisemisen jälkeen. Ennen pyydettiin omenamatoja puun ympäri pannulla poimutetulla vyöllä, ja liimavyöllä, joita vieläkin käytetään. Siten voitiin niitä pyytää ainoasti noin 44 prosenttia, nekin, sitte kun ensimmäisen munimisen madot jo aikaisemmin olivat tehneet hävityksen työtä, siksi täytyy meidän nyt tulla avuksi suihkuttamalla.

Le Baron käytti jo 1872 Parisin vihreätä (myrkyllistä väriainetta) omenamatojen hävittämiseksi ja huomasi sen tehokkaaksi. Siihen aikaan käyttivät monet hedelmäpuun kasvattajat puhdasta myrkkyä mainitun värin asemasta, kunnes eräs heistä hedelmäpuun viljelijäseuralle ilmoitti, että myrkyllä ruiskuttaminen oli kadottanut omenamadot, niin etteivät ne enää tee niin suurta vahinkoa kuin ennen. Vielä monta vuotta kului ennenkuin myrkyllä suihkuttaminen tuli yleiseen tunnetuksi. Professori Forbes ja Goff ilmoittavat, että keväisellä kahdenkertaisella ruiskuttamisella voidaan hävittää noin 70 prosenttia noita tuhoeläimiä. Tuon nesteen valmistamiseksi käytetään 3/4 kiloa puhdasta Parisin viheriätä, 800 litraa vettä, ja 1 kilo sammumatonta kalkkia. Viimemainittu vaikuttaa sen, etteivät lehdet vioitu. Niin pian kuin kukkaterät varisevat, niinkuin nähdään kolmannessa kuvassa, tulee ensimmäinen suihkutus yhden viikon kuluella toimittaa.

Jos sattuu suihkutuksen jälkeen satamaan, niin tulee kohta uudestaan suihkuttaa. Sen jälkeen tulee vielä suihkuttaa bordooliuoksella, mikä valmistetaan seuraavasti. Ämpärin täyteen liuosta käytetään 200 gr. kuparivihtrilliä liuotettuna 5:teen litraan vettä. Hyvä on jos voidaan käyttää lämmintä vettä, sillä siinä vihtrilli vapaammin sulaa, mutta pitää silloin antaa liuoksen jähtyä, ennenkun siihen seottaa sammumatonta kalkkia. Toiseen astiaan pannaan 8 litr. vettä ja harvaan pussiin 200 gr. sammuttamatonta kalkkia. Kalkkipussi kastetaan muutamia kertoja yhtämittaa veteen, jolloin kalkki kuumenee ja alkaa valua. Sitte lasketaan pussi niin kauaksi veteen, kunnes se käy kylmäksi, vihdoin puristetaan siitä vielä viimeinen kalkki ulos. Siten on siis kalkkimaito valmis. Sora ja pienet kiviset ovat jääneet pussiin, mitkä muuten haittaisivat ruiskuttamista.

Sen lisäksi sulatetaan 3 litraan vettä 25 gr. sokeria ja se vesi kaadetaan lisäksi kuparivihtrilliveteen. Kun se kaikki on niin tehty ja kalkkivesi täydellisesti jäähtynyt, niin kaadetaan kalkkimaito hitaasti sinne joukkoon, missä sitä yhteenmittaan liikutetaan. Nyt voipi suihkutusta alkaa. Miksi tulee juuri silloin suihkuttaa, miksi ei varemmin eikä myöhemmin?

Siksi että mato tarvitsee auennutta kukkaa laitumekseen, joten on paras aika tyrkyttää sille muuta ruokaa. Jos hedelmät kukkimisen jälkeen jo ovat kiinni sulkeutuneet, kuten nähdään neljännestä kuvasta, niin ei ole suihkuttamisesta ensinkään sitä hyötyä, mitä aikaisemmin oli.

Myrkkyjen suihkuttamisen ruiskuilla ja liimavöiden käyttämisen tulee käydä käsi kädessä. Suihkuttaminen hävittää puun yläosasta nuoria matoja 75—85 prosenttia, jotka juuri aikovat alkaa pahinta hävitystyötä ja liimavyö tuhoaa pahantekijoitä 44 prosenttia, niitä jotka altapäin aikovat mennä puun latvaan.

Tätä paitsi tulee hedelmien suojelemiseksi vielä talletusvajassa hävittää vahingontekijät ja maahan pudonneet hedelmät poistaa ja hävittää, ja silloin on hedelmäpuun viljelijä sen tehnyt, mikä oli mahdollista ja mitä tiede tähän aikaan opettaa.

23.9.16

Tulewaisuuden lippumme - millainen sen muoto, mitkä wärit? (Ehdotus.)

Raahe 22, 27.2.1918



Nyt, kun senaatti on päättänyt, että leijonalippua on käytettäwä Suomen kauppalippuna siksi kunnes lippuasia on saatu lopullisesti ratkaistuksi, lienee paikallaan muun tärkeämmän lomassa kiinnittää hetkiseksi huomiota lippukysymykseemmekin, joka nykyisen tilanteen wuoksi on tajunnassamme saanut wäistyä hieman kuin lepäämään. -

Jota kerran kun wiime aikoina olen kuullut puhuttaman "Suomen lipusta", tarkoittaen punakeltaista leijona- lippua, olen tehnyt itselleni murheellisen kysymyksen: jätettäisiinkö punakeltaisen ohella siniwalkoinen, tuo suomalaisuuden taistelun wanha wärisymboli jo nyt tuo wapauden-liikkeemme urhejen samanwärinen rauhoittawa tunnus - jätettäisiinkö se tulewaisuuden lipussamme edustamatta?

Kaikkien wäärinkäsitysten wälttämiseksi riennän kohta aluksi selittämään, etten suinkaan kuulu niihin, jotka muitta mutkitta ja umpimähkään tahtowat wirkaatekewän uljaan leijonalipun waltaanpyrkimystä alas huutaa.

Päinwastoin: kunnia sille wanhalle waakunnallemme ja woitto tyranneista!

Mutta ratkaisisiko tämä seikka yksin määräämästi tulewiin aikoihin sen kansallisen lipun muodon ja wärit?

Se olisi monesta syystä walittawaa.

Millainen olisi siis tämä kahleensa katkoneen heimomme tunnuskuwa, tämä wapaan Suomen lippu olewa, lippu, joka pohjoiselta nimeltämme on tulewiin aikoihin ja nousewille kansasta, jonka kuntoa ja uskoa oikeuden woittoon eiwät wieraat tyrannit eiwätkä kotoiset kawaltajat ole woineet saada järkkymään? Millainen nimenomaan juuri tämä rauhan töissä kohotettawa lippu? - siitä nyt on kysymys.

Jos toiwomme kysymykselle onnellista ratkaisua, niin että kaikki kansalaiset woiwat siitä yhtyä, lienee jo werrattain selwää, että mitä ensinnäkin wäreihin tulee, on kaikista kaksiwäriehdotelmista tinkimättä luowuttawa. Ei siis yksinomaan punakeltainen eikä myöskään yksinomaan siniwalkoinen saata olla Suomen uusi lippu. Ken jommastakummasta wäriyhdistelmästä tahtoo itsepintaisesti kiinni pitää, hän ei tule saamaan jakamatonta kannatusta puhukoon "minkä ryhmän tai "lippukomiteanpa auktoriteetilla tahansa sellainen yksipuolisuuden ja wärittömyyden harrastus on "ymmärtämistä wain puolittain ja profetoimista puolittain". -

Mutta ennenkuin käymme lähemmin wäreietä puhumaan, on selwitettäwä itse lipun aatteellinen ydin, sille muodonantama wertauskuwallinen sommittelu.

Millainen se on olewa? Sotaisa jalopeurako miekkoineen keskittäwänä aatteena?

Eräskirjoittaja Wilho Setälä, on tuonut ilmoille tässä suhteessa mielestäni sangen onnistuneen ajatuksen ehdottamalla, että liian monimutkaisen waikeapiirteinen jalopeurakuwio lipussamme korwattaisiin wanhalla kalewalaisella mielikoristeella: hakaristillä.

Omaksuen tämän muodollisessa - waikka ei wärisommitelmallisessa - suhteessa käsittääkseni oikeaa ratkaisua kohti wiitottawan ajatuksen, rohkenen ehdottaa lippumme yleismuodolle kirjoituksemme otsikossa kuwatun lopullisen hahmoittelun.

Siinä näkyisi keskessä kokoawana supisuomalaisena aiheena tuo mainittu, yhtä yksinkertainen kuin wiehättäwäkin, ikiwanha pyhä koriste, jota warmaankin jo itse seppo Ilmarinen lienee käyttänyt somistustarkoituksiin Samponsa kantta kalkuttellessaan. On nim. wähemmän todennäkoistä, puhuaksemme edelleen tuon kotoisen taitomiehemme mielikuwista, että tuo seppojemme wanha hallipartainen päämestari olisi tällöin tullut ajatelleeksi jotain etioopiolaista jalopeuraa tai muuta sikäläistä metsänotusta mallinaan - tai jos onkin ajatellut, niin on hän taitawana takojana osannut antaa aiheelleen mahdollisimman rohkean jopa suorastaan "kubistisen" tyylittelyn, käyttääkseni nykypäiwäisten esteetikkojen wiljelemää määritystä. Ja merkillistä kyllä: tuo siro ormamentti mielikuwituksen silmillä tarkattuna aikalailla muistuttaakin hyökkäysasentoon kohonnutta nuorta leijonaa!

Mahdollista woipi olla myöskin - wiipyäksemme wielä hetkisen Ilmarin pajassa - että mainitsemamme seppo owelankekseliäällä monogrammillaan on saattanut tarkoittaa warsin yksinkertaisesti wain kahta ristikkäin asetettua S:ää leimamerkiksi suomalaisen takomataiteen tuotteelle yleensä, jossa tapauksessa kuwio olisi tulkittawa: Suomen Sampo! Tai jos hän ajatteli piirustamansa merkin ulottomista myöskin Suomen kutomataiteen tuotteisiin esim. siniwalkoisin wärein kiinnitettäwäksi jokaisen hänen Sampoa puolustajan takinhihaan, silloin kuwio luonnollisesti merkitseisi: Sammon Suojelukuntalainen!

Mutta olkoonpa nyt waikka niinkin, että lippumme wertauskuwallisena ydinajatksena tulee mielissä wälkkymään tuo ylwäs jalopeura-aate uudessa Suomen lipussa tulee sen ehdottomasti saada mainittu yksinkertaisempi kalewalaisen hengen kiteyttämä ilmaisumuoto. Wanha kunnianarwoisa leijonawaakunamme ei ajanpitkään täytä niitä käytännöllisyyden ja kotoperätuntuisuuden waatimuksia, jotka hywällä syyllä woidaan asettaa lipulle, jonka pitäisi tulla koko kansan omaksumaksi ja joka samalla olisi yksinkertaisuudestaan huolimatta mieliinpainuwan erikoinen kaiken maailman lippujen wilinässä.

Mutta sellainen juuri olisi ehdottamamme hakaristilippu. Sen muotoa antama kokoonpano ei tuntuisi wieraista maista haetulta, waan waikuitaisi kotoisella koruttomuudellaan, tyydyttäen kumminkin samalla täydelleen sekä kauneudellisuuden että käytännöllisyyden waatimukset - uskoakseni!

Kunnes tämä on ennättänyt itsekullekin selwetä ja jokaisessa majassa matalimmassakin ryhdytty toimenpiteisiin, jotta tämä Suomen tulewaisuuden wärikäs, kalewalaishenkinen kansallisen täysi-ikäisyyden symbooli oikean hetken tullen olisi walmis kohotettawaksi kotien harjalle - niin kauan liehukoon puolestamme wain tuo wanha jalopeuratunnuskuwamme edelleenkin kaikkialla, missä se tänään ankarana liehuneekin - kunnia sille kaksipäisen mustan korpikotkan woittajalle! Mutta uuden Suomen warsinainen lippu saakoon rauhantöitä paremman kuwastelewan muodon, samalla kun se wäreihin nähden tulkoon rikkaammaksi ja wastakkaisia makusuuntia tasapuolisesti tyydyttäwäksi, niin että kukin löytää siitä omat mieliwärinsä.

Olkoon lippumme siis olewa punasiniwalkokeltainen, edistäen kehittyneen ihmissilmän waatimaa wärikolmisointua, joiden tehoa waloa kuwaawa walkoinen on lisäämässä. Siinä ei ole mitään liikaa, eikä siitä myöskään mitään puutu, kuten silmää tyydyttämättömistä punakelta- ja siniwalkolipuista.

Yhtykööt siis kalewalais-aiheisessa kansallislipussamme ne wärit, joiden tunnusmerkeissä wapaudentaistoamme paraillaan suoritetaan ja pystyttäkööt urhomme ennen pitkää työn päätettyään tämän uuden rauhanlippumme woittoisan leijonalipun kera kilwan liehumaan Utsjoelta Inkerin etelärajoille sekä Auran rannoilta Wienanmeren äärille, merkitsi siitä, että Suomelle on uusi, waloisampi päiwä koittanut!

Jonas Heiska.

22.9.16

Muotinaisten oikut.

Sattuma 19, 5.10.1926

Nizzassa tuli muutama aika sitten muotiin värjätyt koirat. Sateenkaaren kaikissa väreissä nähtiin tällöin naisväen taluttamina koiria. Nyt ovat poliisit tämän kuitenkin kieltäneet. Sikäläiset muotinaiset  voivat olla tyytyväisiä, että kielto ei koske itse koirien taluttajia.

21.9.16

$20,000,000 Dyestuff Consolidation to Meet Foreign Competition After War


The Aniline Color, Dyestuff and Chemical Conditions
from
August 1st, 1914,
to
April 1st, 1917.
A series of Addresses and Articles
Compiled by:
I. F. Stone
1917
National Aniline and Chemical Company, Inc., to Include Schoellkopf Aniline and Chemical Works, Inc., the W. Beckers Aniline and Chemical Works and Benzol Products Company, With Sections of Barrett, Semet-Solvay and General Chemical Company Plants.

(Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter, April 16, 1917.)

The first step has been taken toward the mobilization of all the factors entering into the creation of an American dyestuffs industry to insure its permanency and to meet upon more approximately even terms the business competition with foreign dyestuffs manufacturers, which must result inevitably at the close of the present war.

Just as the outbreak of European hostilities cut off from this country the so-called intermediates from which a few American producers made aniline colors in this country, so will the cessation of hostilities open the way to a flood of finished colors from those countries, which have been, in the interim, utilizing their dye plants for the manufacture of high explosives.

The coal-tar color and chemical industries of this country have now agreed upon a form of amalgamation, not by any means a trust or combination in the accepted sense of the word, but a centralization of productive effort and of capital, utilizing the sources of supply, the mines, coke oven by-product plants, manufacture of intermediates and acids, etc., with the sole purpose of meeting the post-bellum competition with a united front and with the strength of resource which can be found alone in such industrial cooperation.

The Amalgamated company which will be known as the National Aniline and Chemical Company, Inc. will have among its executives J. F. and C. P. Hugo Schoellkopf , of the Schoellkopf Aniline and Chemical Works; I. Frank Stone, president National Aniline and Chemical Company, and Dr. William Beckers, of the W. Beckers Aniline and Chemical Works, and will control the entire works of the Schoellkopf Aniline and Chemical Works, Inc., of Buffalo, the W. Beckers Aniline and Chemical Works of Brooklyn, the Benzol Products Company, of Marcus Hook, Pa., and such sections of the plants of the Semet-Solvay Company of Syracuse, the Barrett Company works at Frankfort, Pa., the General Chemical Company of New York, and other factories, which produce those coal-tar intermediates entering into the manufacture of the finished colors.

The entire business of this new amalgamation will be under the control and known by the name of the National Aniline and Chemical Company, Inc., and the present company bearing that name of which Mr. Stone has been president since its formation will be reorganized. The executives will include those already associated with the companies entering into the new productive alliance, together with such new research and manufacturing chemists and other experts as shall be necessary to the carrying out of the plans for such a nationalization of dyestuff production as is contemplated.

A study of the output of the several companies entering into the new association shows that the Schoellkopf and Beckers companies are manufacturers of dyestuffs, the Benzol company aniline oils, salts and certain intermediates, while the General Chemical, Semet-Solvay and the Barrett company production entering into the plans of the new organization is in the line of coal, coke oven by-products and intermediates. 221

At the present time the Schoellkopf Aniline and Chemical Company is the largest manufacturer of coal-tar dyestuffs in this country. Prior to the war this company made about 10 per cent, of the colors used here from German-produced intermediates, about 140 out of 900 to 1,000 of the finished aniline colors of commerce.

Prior to the war, also, there were four other makers of colors in the United States, using the German intermediates as bases, and they produced about 10 per cent, of the colors of commerce. Since the war the Schoellkopf business has increased marvelously with the manufacture in this country of certain intermediates, and from their normal output before the war the business has grown to approximately ten times the ante-bellum production.

The Beckers business was inaugurated on a small scale in 1912 two years before the war. In January, 1915, the present company was formed, and since that time the business has increased largely and is now second in size in the country. In other words, the combined output of the Schoellkopf and the Beckers concerns is about 75 per cent, of the aniline color production of the country. It is interesting to note, however, that the lines are not competitives to any extent, since the Beckers colors are successfully employed in the woolen trade, while the Schoellkopf Company has specialized more in cotton, silk, leather, paper colors, etc.

The Beckers company bought the Standard Aniline Company recently, the second producers of sulphur black in the country in point of output. The Schoellkopf company leads the country in sulphur black production and the combined output of both concerns totals about 75 per cent, of the total production today. The competition from other makers in this line is increasing steadily, however.

There is another interesting factor in the color production of the Schoellkopf and Beckers companies. While the number of such colors produced prior to the war was about 150, this has now been considerably reduced, primarily because of a lack of those intermediates not yet made in this country. The Beckers company produces about 50 colors, and it will be noted that the total by the two companies is but 115, or about 50 per cent, of the 250 or so colors of commerce which will re-enter American consumption soon after the close of hostilities.

The Benzol company is the only branch of the new organization manufacturing aniline oils and salts, of which it is the principal producer in this country. With the expansion of its modern plant on the Delaware River it has increased its output to a large extent and has now begun the manufacture of various intermediates and is experimenting with the production of others. This business had its inception before the war and was the result of antebellum demands. It is owned equally by the General Chemical Company, the Semet-Solvay Company and The Barrett Company, makers of acids and of benzol and other coaltar distillates, respectively. There is marked competition in these lines of production, for there are many makers of acids in quantity, and there are other producers of large quantities of coal-tar distillates.

As an indication of the policy of the new organization, it is stated that no agreements have been entered into with the three concerns last mentioned for the supplies of raw materials produced, since the amalgation will be free to buy supplies in the open market just as the other companies will be free to sell to other color makers.

One of the best evidences that the new association will not enjoy a monopoly the first cry raised whenever the exigencies of business demand a conservation of supply and productive effort, although in this instance the conservation is for the interests of the dye industry as a whole against the united effort of foreign competitors when the war-time embargo shall again be lifted is the fact that some 35 manufacturers of aniline colors in this country, many of whom are among the best-known among the concerns coming to the fore with the demand for increased production following war-time scarcity of coal-tar colors.

In addition to its purpose of placing the color industry of this country upon a more permanent basis, this proposed $20,000,000 consolidation offers the opportunity through plant production possibilities, the availability of acids, bases and intermediates, the laboratory facilities to be provided and the economic advantages due to centralization of production and marketing effort for the rapid development of production until they shall be prepared to market all the colors necessary to meet the demands, instead of about onehalf the varieties as at present. In addition the organization will also produce pharmaceutical and photographic chemicals and explosives, as a natural development of their production of coal-tar products.

This possible development can be attained only through some such co-operative effort, and in itself will assure a welcome to the new enterprise.

20.9.16

Taking the First Steps Toward the Establishment of a Permanent American Dyestuff Industry


The Aniline Color, Dyestuff and Chemical Conditions
from
August 1st, 1914,
to
April 1st, 1917.
A series of Addresses and Articles
Compiled by:
I. F. Stone
1917
Supplement.

Culmination.

Amalgamation of Coal Tar Chemical and Dyestuff Manufacturers in One Great Company Working as a Unit

National Aniline and Chemical Company, Inc.

EDITORIAL

(Oil Paint and Drug Reporter, April 16, 1917)

When Director Ralph of the Federal Bureau of Engraving and Printing expressed his anxiety to obtain from American manufacturers of coal-tar colors a supply to carry on the work of his bureau, sufficient interest was aroused among the chemists of the country, and particularly at the convention of the American Chemical Society, then in session, to consider the matter of co-operating with the government in the provision of such dyes.

At this meeting the establishment of the American dyestuff industry upon a permanent basis was thoroughly discussed, and in it, consideration of the Norton dyestuff census, first published in essential detail in the Reporter, took no small part.

Yet, valuable time has been allowed to elapse without concerted action on the part of the chemists, and the country in the meantime has passed from the category of neutrals to that of the active combatants. In its issue of November 27 the Reporter asked: -

"Are not the chemists and dyemakers of this country interested in supplying the demands of this government bureau?

"Are they content to allow a still further continuance of a state of affairs which necessitate the petitioning of a foreign power for permission to import needed materials for government use?

"With an increase in production in this country to a present-day total of 27,000 tons of aniline colors it would seem within the bounds of possibility that some steps should be taken at once to do away with such humiliating conditions as Director Ralph's action in turning to Germany fully bear out."

The first step toward the unification of the dyestuffs industry of this country was taken during the past week an effort to establish upon a permanent footing a self-contained productive industry, from the coal base to the finished coal-tar color, through the production of coke-oven by-products, acids and intermediates, without recourse to foreign laboratories. The concerns thus co-operating are not competitive, but each produces one or more of the components entering into coal-tar color manufacture, or the finished aniline colors complete. The weight of the consolidation, for combination it is not, is such that it already produces about 50 per cent, of the coal-tar colors of commerce ordinarily used in this country, including 75 per cent, of the sulphur black.

With the capital available, and with the economic centralization of laboratory and productive effort possible in such an amalgamation as that proposed, there is a distinct promise of permanent achievement on the part of the American dye maker which augurs well, not alone for the production of the complete list of commercial colors demanded by American industries, but for the erection of a trade bulwark against the encroachments of foreign color manufacturers when the war shall end as eventually it must.

If the present war has taught any single lesson to the American producer and consumer in any line of commercial endeavor it has been that of preparedness the necessity of providing sources of supply within our own borders, of developing our productive capacity, or of creating new methods and new production.

The first steps toward an adequate American dyestuff industry have been taken by one group of producers. Subsequent similar steps by other groups will, no doubt, follow. And, in this business preparedness measure by business men there is  more of hope and more of certain achievement than in all the resolutions of all the organizations which have considered the problem.

This is true business preparedness the completion of a definite program of action for intensive production in a competitive field during a period of temporary inactivity on the part of competitors outside the nation, that the world competition sure to come may be met systematically, economically, completely, when the temporary bars to destructive rivalry by foreign producers of similar lines shall have been removed.

19.9.16

Addenda. (To The Aniline Color, Dyestuff and Chemical Conditions)


The Aniline Color, Dyestuff and Chemical Conditions
from
August 1st, 1914,
to
April 1st, 1917.
A series of Addresses and Articles
Compiled by:
I. F. Stone
1917
To conclude this book up to the present date, April 1st, 1917, it will be, perhaps, interesting to extract in a brief article the principal points in the various articles and addresses contained herein.

It will be observed that at the beginning of the war, about August 1st, 1914, the manufacture of aniline dyes from coal-tar products was not of great importance, there being at that time only five factories actively engaged in their manufacture, and only one engaged in the manufacture of an intermediate product, viz., aniline oil, and the production of these five factories was not nearly enough to furnish the American consumers sufficient quantities for their consumption.

It will be noted, after a careful reading of these articles and addresses, that at the present time, say April 1st, 1917, there has been so large an increase in the manufacture of coal-tar products in the United States that I now have a list of nearly 120 firms engaged in the manufacture of or dealing in coal-tar products, including derivatives, intermediate products anci aniline colors, and the combined production of these factories equal the full consumption of these products in the United States, for all of what I might call necessary colors. The only exception to this statement are a few specialties which have not yet been produced by American manufacturers for the reason that the consumption of the individual products was not large enough to warrant taking them up until the more largely consumed colors had been produced, and now that this has been accomplished, it is only a question of a short time before all the colors which will be needed or desired here will be manufactured here, and this is a statement made with the positive knowledge of what is still in contemplation as to the manufacture of colors which have not been made here.

To accomplish the remarkable results as mentioned above, viz., to reach the point where sufficient colors are produced here, both as to quality and quantity, to furnish the total consumption, it is first necessary to recover from the coal tar such derivatives as benzol and naphthaline, which are practically the main raw materials for all colors, in enough quantities to provide for the manufacture of the so-called intermediates, from which the finished colors are made, and this has been done, in that the production of benzol and naphthaline is now enough to meet every demand.

It being now admitted that the production and manufacture of coal-tar products is being successfully carried on on a large scale, the next question is whether or not this will be a permanent industry, or whether Europe will again recover a large part of the consumption here, and again have practically a monopoly of the American business, and I can again state, to my best belief and almost positively, that the industry will be permanent; briefly for the reasons mentioned in my address before the Textile Club on March 3rd, 1917, viz.: First, the sufficient production of benzol, naphthaline and other necessary raw materials; second, the additional tariff protection afforded after the war by the United States Government; third, the almost complete manufacture of intermediates made from benzol, naphthaline, etc.; and fourth, the necessity which American consumers have found since the war of having this industry in the United States, and their willingness to work with us and give us their preference for the colors used in their consumption, which is in itself one of the most valuable points in the permanency of the industry.

18.9.16

Permanence of the American Dyestuff Industry


The Aniline Color, Dyestuff and Chemical Conditions
from
August 1st, 1914,
to
April 1st, 1917.
A series of Addresses and Articles
Compiled by:
I. F. Stone
1917
Written for the Textile Club Presented at a Meeting at the Hotel Martinique, March 3rd, 1917.

I. F. Stone

In considering this question there must first.be taken into consideration the conditions before the present European War when the dyestuff industry in this country was not at all successful and European manufacturers, especially the Germans, had a practical monopoly on the business. The five American factories then in existence were struggling along under very adverse conditions, but even at that they managed to produce from fifteen to twenty per cent of the normal consumption in this country, although they did so at a very small profit on the capital employed and hard effort on the part of the gentlemen engaged in this manufacture.

The adverse conditions under which these American factories worked were, briefly: First, the fact that their raw materials, known as intermediates, were not then produced in this country, but were manufactured in Europe, and they therefore had to depend upon Europe for their supplies; second, the tariff protection extended to them by the United States Government was not sufficient and they could not compete, therefore, with European manufacturers owing to the higher costs of manufacture in this country due to labor conditions and perhaps, also, to the lack of thoroughly experienced chemists; and, third, the policy of the European manufacturers, particularly the Germans, to make such prices on the colors which were being manufactured here so that the American manufacturers could not sell at a profit.

Immediately after the beginning of the present war, however, conditions changed in that it was no longer possible for the German manufacturers to export their colors to this country, neither was it possible for American manufacturers to obtain from Europe their intermediates (raw materials) which they needed to manufacture colors; therefore, it became necessary, in order to manufacture in this country the necessary quantities of finished colors, to provide for the manufacture of these intermediates, and during the war the manufacture of such intermediates has been so well established that there is now a liberal supply of these materials and the American manufacturers of colors are therefore able to manufacture practically all of the necessary colors consumed in this country. When I say all, I do not mean every color which was manufactured in Europe and which was formerly consumed in this country, as there are many specialties which had not yet been made here, but these specialties are not actually necessary in that the colors now produced here are those of which there is the largest consumption, like blacks, blues, browns, reds, greens, violets, orange, yellows and other suitable colors used for woolens, cottons, silks, leather and all other materials on which colors are needed.

It being a fact that the American manufacturers are now able to produce all of the necessary colors needed, the question then is whether this will be a permanent industry or whether the conditions which prevailed before the present war will again be the same, in that the European manufacturers may be able to flood the country with their colors at prices with which the American manufacturere cannot compete. It gives me much pleasure to be able to answer this question very definitely in the affirmative, viz., the dyestuff industry of this country is now on a permanent basis for the following reasons:

First -  The production of coal tar derivatives, like benzol and naphthaline, has been increased to such an extent that the quantities produced are now from five to ten times more than before the war, and the manufacturers of intermediates, depending on these products, will continue to be able to get a fully supply at prices which will compare favorably to European prices on account of the largely increased production, it being well known that the United States has practically inexhaustible supplies of coal, which is the base product and from which will be derived the benzol and naphthaline and other products necessary for the manufacture of the intermediates and from them the manufacture of the finished colors.

Second - The United States Government has finally discovered that in order to make this industry permanent it is necessary to give more adequate tariff protection, therefore a tariff bill, known as H. R. 16763, was passed in 1916, giving a protection of 30 per cent ad valorem and 5 cents per pound specific duty on finished colors, and 15 per cent ad valorem and 2J^ cents per pound specific duty on intermediates, the addition to the old tariff being the 5 cents and 2^ cents per pound specific duties just mentioned, and this additional protection gives the American manufacturers a very much better opportunity to operate, although, even at that, a higher protection would be still more important if it could be obtained. The exception to the above protection is that on indigo and what is known as indigoids and alizarine colors, no specific duty was imposed although they were given the 30 per cent ad valorem duty as against the fact that they were free before this bill was passed. There is no specific reason why these colors should not also have this specific duty, and why they were excepted in the passing of this bill is a question for those who passed it to answer, and I believe that upon mature condition this exception will be cancelled and all of the colors now manufactured in this country will have the same protection, which they certainly should have.

Third - The manufacturers of intermediates and colors have, during the war, been able to obtain, owing to abnormal conditions, an abnormal rate of profit, and out of this abnormal profit they have been able to build and pay for their factories as well as accumulate a surplus profit which they can use for the further increase of their present production and the working out of the special colors not now manufactured here.

Fourth - The American consumers have realized, due to the conditions prevailing since the war, the importance of having an aniline industry in this country which will in the future prevent any repetition of the conditions which prevailed just after the war, when it was for some time impossible to secure enough colors for the consumption of the country, as a consequence of which many consumers were obliged either to run their mills or factories only a part of the time, or, as in some cases, close down entirely. With this realization, therefore, they will undoubtedly give the preference to American-made products, which in itself would help in the competition against European manufacturers after the war.

To sum up briefly the whole question of the permanency of the American dyestuff industry, it is apparent from the above that with factories capable of producing the colors necessary for consumption, an adequate tariff protection by the Government, a strong financial condition established during the war, and the preference of American consumers for American products, we have certainly insured the permanence of the American dyestuff industry.

The Development of the Aniline Color Manufacturing Industry in America


The Aniline Color, Dyestuff and Chemical Conditions
from
August 1st, 1914,
to
April 1st, 1917.
A series of Addresses and Articles
Compiled by:
I. F. Stone
1917
Article in Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter, Special Annual Review Edition, February 9th, 1917.

I. F. Stone

In writing on this subject it may be interesting to briefly sketch in the beginning, a history of this industry from its first inception in this country, and I beg to say in this connection that the first American aniline factories were established about 1875. By about 1880 there were some ten factories engaged in the manufacture of these products, and it looked as though it would be a very successful industry, as tariff conditions at that time were favorable to such enterprise.

Unfortunately, however, in 1883 a new tariff law was passed, reducing the tariff protection on colors to such an extent that the industry was no longer possible, and consequently most of the factories dropped out until at one time there were only three engaged in this manufacture, and these three were carried on more or less by the ambition of their owners that some day conditions would be changed, rather than at a profit. One of these factories, particularly, lost a large amount of money up to the time it finally reached success in about 1900.

About 1898 another factory was established, and then along about 1914 still another was established, so that in 1914, at the beginning of the present European war, there were five factories actively engaged in this industry. Owing, however, to the intense competition of the European manufacturers, especially the Germans, none of these factories were successful enough to make a complete line of colors, and were restricted to only a few of those which could be made to advantage in this country, therefore the industry was not a large one and was not running to any considerable extent. One reason why the industry could not operate successfully was the lack of what we call intermediate products, that is, products made from benzole and naphthaline (coal tar derivatives) which are the bases of the manufacturing of practically all aniline colors, as none of these intermediate products were manufactured in this country up to 1914, when the war commenced, with one exception which I will mention later. The American manufacturers were therefore obliged to rely entirely upon European factories for their raw materials; in other words, the intermediate products, and naturally, the European manufacturers charged them such a price that they could not successfully compete with the finished colors of Europe, which were made from the same intermediate products, but which were secured by the European manufacturers naturally at a lower price than they could be secured by the American manufacturers who imported them.

The single exception to this statement is that in 1910 a factory for the manufacture of one of the intermediates, viz., aniline oil, was established, but had not been at all successful up to the time of the war, owing to European competition, the European manufacturers, by the way, having reduced their price immediately upon the establishment of this American factory.

The situation was then, in 1914, when the war began, that no intermediate raw materials were manufactured here with the exception of this comparatively small amount of aniline oil, and then the supplies of these intermediate products from European factories, that is, German factories, were immediately cut off, just as were the supplies of the finished aniline colors, and the American manufacturers therefore were not able to relieve the situation except to the extent of using up what raw materials they had on hand, which of course were not nearly enough to be of any perceptible help to the consumers of aniline dyes. The situation therefore a few months after the war started, say about January 1st, 1915, had become very acute, as practically all the stocks of imported colors which were here at the beginning of the war had been consumed, as had also the raw materials employed by the American factories in their manufacture of colors, the one exception being a factory which had previously been securing its aniline oil from the American manufacturer, and therefore they were enabled to continue this manufacture of colors without any particular interruption, except the interruption of the lack of foreign intermediates, of which, however, they fortunately had a large stock.

I am not mentioning the names of any of these factories in this article, as I wish to be absolutely impersonal, but there is no question but that the position of this factory just mentioned, with its supply of raw materials, was a great relief to the consumers of dyes in this country, and it was very fortunate for them that a factory had been established for the manufacture of aniline oil and that as American manufacturers of colors they had taken the precaution to secure their supply from this American factory, even though they were obliged to pay a higher price than they could have imported the oil for at the time. They preferred, however, to do this in order to encourage the American manufacturers of these intermediate products.

Very soon after the war, however, it became apparent that there would be a great necessity for the manufacture of these intermediate products in this country, and as the basic material, that is, coal tar, is of course a large domestic product, it was then only necessary to recover its derivatives, such as benzole and naphthaline, and benzole particularly being needed for explosives and other war purposes, was the first product which had the attention of the American producers. The production was increased gradually until it has reached at the present time something like thirty million gallons annually and against about three million gallons prior to the war, and the production of naphthaline has also increased largely owing to its demand for use as a raw material in the manufacture of these intermediates, although not so much an extent as benzole.

The manufacture of intermediates gradually increased to such an extent that there are now being manufactured a large variety, such as alpha naphtylamine, beta naphthol, benzaldehyde, benzyl acetate, chlor-benzole, dimethylamine, di-nitro-benzole, di-nitro-phenol, nitro benzole, paranitraniline, paraphenylenediamine, toluidine, and others too numerous to mention, so that American manufacturers of colors are now able to get a fair supply of these intermediates, and are therefore enabled to make a more complete line of colors than was possible at the beginning of the war, viz., 1914.

As I have previously mentioned, the first large intermediate to be manufactured, however, was aniline oil, the factory which originally manufactured it before the war, immediately increasing its production, and many other concerns starting in later on, until it came to a point where the production was fully, if not more, than equal to the demand, and the fact is, that factories making this product are in such a strong position that it is doubtful whether it will ever again be imported from Europe to advantage.

Another intermediately, the manufacture of which was commenced largely, was chlor-benzole, which is used in the manufacture of sulphur black, a very important color for cotton goods, and for which there is a large sale. The manufacture of this color, by the way, is now so large that it is fully equal to the consumption, and is again another product which will probably never be imported again to advantage. Other intermediates followed, until as I have said, at present we are able to obtain a sufficient variety to manufacture a line of colors which will probably take care of the necessary shades, which includes blacks, blues, browns, reds, yellows, greens, orange, violet; the seven primary colors, from mixtures of which practically every shade can be obtained for all materials such as woll, cotton and silk.

It has been stated that American manufacturers were not on a firm basis, in that they had followed the lines of least resistance in making colors, that is, making colors which were easiest to manufacture, and that when the war was over and competition came again from Europe they would not be able to stand against the competition. This opinion is not true, in that while it is true that they did follow the lines of least resistance, it so happened that the colors manufactured were the ones most largely consumed, for instance blacks. This is by far the color most largely consumed, being practically half of the entire color consumption of the country, and this was the first color to receive attention of the American manufacturers, it being obvious that a color which could be manufactured in large quantities would mean a less cost for overhead expenses. Therefore there is now an abundance of blacks made for all purposes, sufficient to take care of the whole consumption of the country, for instance: direct blacks for cotton, union, wool and silk, azo black or acid black for wool and silk, sulphur black for cotton (already mentioned), chrome blacks for wool, and nigrosine for leather, inks, etc., so that this particular color is well taken care of. Consumers can get the necessary quantities for consumption next year if they were careful to contract for same in time to allow the American manufacturers to arrange their facilities and buy the raw material necessary to take care of such contracts for 1917.

The next color in importance, which had their attention, was blue, this being next to black in the proportion of consumption. They are now producing blues for the same textiles, viz., wool, cotton and silk, to a very satisfactory extent.

To show the development of this business, would say when we consider that there were only five factories making aniline dyes in the country prior to the fall of 1914 when the war began, I will say that we now have a list of about one hundred and twenty making intermediates and anilines, and as I have stated above, their whole production will take care of the entire country as far as the necessary colors are concerned.

Special colors which are not made here are being imported from Switzerland and occasionally on the submarine "Deutschland," so that consumers are able to get quite a varied line, and there is therefore no real shortage of these products.

Practically the only colors which are not now made in this country of any consequence, are indigo and anthracene derivatives, known as vat colors, for the dyeing of ginghams, shirtings, etc. (although at this time there is one factory being erected for the manufacture of indigo), but it is possible to secure natural products like indigo, logwood, fustic, cutch, flavine, etc., which can be substituted until the artificial colors are either manufactured or again imported. And then alizarine colors, for which there is as far as I know no plan to manufacture, are easily replaced by the so-called chrome colors, which are practically as fast and available for men's wear, sweaters, heavy woolen, etc., in black, blue, brown, green, yellow and red therefore the shortage of these alizarines is really not so serious, and then, there are some colors for lakes called the para colors which are not made here, but the lake manufacturers can easily get what they want by making their own lakes from paranitraniline and beta naphthol, which are made here. A few other colors not made here are such specialties as rhodamine, auramine, patent blue, etc., but some are being brought over from Switzerland and England, and from Germany on the "Deutschland," in fair quantities, so that they are obtainable, and can be used in connection with American colors for blending shades and making mixtures.

In speaking of the increase to some one hundred twenty factories, I must emphasize the fact that the first five already established before the war are the ones who have made the most progress, and are the ones turning out the most staple and satisfactory colors as to quality, etc., and they are the ones who will continue to hold the most of the business after the war, as due to their experience, capital, etc., they are in a better position to do so than the newer manufacturers who have largely depended on inexperienced chemists and on outside capital to take up the manufacture. This is emphasized by the fact that none of the older factories are advertising their stock for sale in the newspapers, nor are they soliciting subscriptions for bonds or in any other way asking for capital, as all of them seem to be in position to capitalize themselves. This being true, they certainly are in a strong position to meet competition after the war, with the advantage they have gained in the meantime through their development and increased production, which will reduce overhead expenses of their factories, as it is obvious that it will not cost as much per pound to manufacture say one million pounds as it would to manufacture one hundred thousand pounds, the increase in the manufacture of colors being at least ten times more than it was before the war.

The principal point to continue the successful manufacture is the question of the manufacture of the intermediates, on which they depend as their raw materials, and it is the intermediate manufacturers who will need the most help to maintain their position. If they cannot do so through protection granted them by Congress in the last tariff bill, then they should be supported in some other way, by the Government for instance, as I have stated in an address made last year, the Government could establish factories for the manufacture of these intermediates, which would be very desirable because these same factories could be used for the manufacture of ammunition supplies, in case of war, as it is a fact that the raw materials for the manufacture of aniline products are much the same as those used for explosives, so that in making such a move the Government would be protecting itself in case of war, for its supply of explosives, as well as strengthening the position of the aniline color manufacturers by giving them intermediates at necessary prices. This could be easily done by the Government as it is a fact, as I have stated, that the production of the original raw material, coal tar derivatives, viz., benzole and naphthaline, are now in sufficient supply for the production of all necessary intermediates.

There is some criticism as to the quality of the coal tar products made in the United States since the war, but to this I can say that they are identically the same in every respect as the European products, as they are made from the same chemical formulae, and there is no reason therefore why they should not be fully as good in every way if they are properly manufactured, which they are by the competent factories. The trouble is that people in comparing colors do not compare the same colors, but take some color which is especially adapted for certain purposes and compare it with colors which may be used for the purpose but are not so well adapted, due usually to the ignorance of the people who use colors, but they could get the necessary information as to what colors to use if they would confer with some more experienced manufacturers of colors who would know just for which purpose colors are adapted and what colors could be replaced, in comparison with the European colors.

In regard to the high prices charged by American manufacturers of colors, many consumers are under the impression that these are caused by scarcity, owing to the inability of European manufacturers to deliver their products here, but while this may be true to some extent, the real reason is that owing to the fact, as I have said, th'at the raw materials for the manufacture of aniline colors are much the same as those used for explosives, the war demands for explosives are so great that it creates a scarcity in the raw materials, and consequently prices are high, and color manufacturers are obliged to pay abnormal prices for their raw material, so that the prices for the manufactured colors are correspondingly high. Not only that, but the cost of labor in the past two years has advanced to such an extent that it is almost double what it was in the normal times. However, the price of American colors in any event, is not as high in proportion, as the European colors, as those colors which are imported are sold for many times more their normal value in this country than are the American colors; for instance, a color known as patent blue, on which the normal price is about $1.00, is being sold as high as $13 per pound for a type which is only half strength, so in reality the full strength type would be selling at $26, or about twenty-six times its normal price, while I know of no American color which is sold at more than about ten times its normal price, and most of the staples are sold at about only five times for instance, direct and sulphur black, which are consumed in the largest quantities. It is usually the smaller colors which are higher in proportion, due to the fact that the cost of manufacture is more for small quantities than it is for large quantities. In mentioning patent blue, it is only one of many colors, like rhodamine, auramine, the vat colors already mentioned, etc., which come over from time to time, and which are sold at very high prices, much more in proportion than the American colors. The point is that the prices in Europe are evidently quite as high or higher than they are in the United States, therefore, the United States consumer is under no disadvantage as compared to consumers in other parts of the world. As to when products will be back to their normal prices, would say this will come in due course, after the war, and when things get more normal, that is, when materials and labor once more resumes normal conditions, although as far as labor is concerned, it is very difficult to say whether this will again in this country go back to what is was before the war, our laboring people having been educated now to a higher schedule of living, and it is doubtful if conditions will change much in this respect, as it would be difficult to return to a different or former standard. I believe, however, that American consumers will be only too glad to pay labor everything it is worth and consequently a higher price for colors than ruled before the war will be cheerfully paid by our consumers, if they are within reason, which they will be.

To sum up what is now being manufactured, would say that practically a full line of basic, acid, chrome and sulphur colors are being made, and people in criticizing the development of the color manufacture should not forget that it would be impossible for us to do in two years since the war what it has taken Germany over fifty years to accomplish; in other words, make a complete line of colors for every purpose, but in making the staple colors such as we have been able to do and getting them to a point where we can supply the whole consumption of the country, I think we have accomplished wonders in the short period since the war, or a little over two years.

The definite answer in connection with the manufacture of dyestuffs in America is therefore, as I have already stated, that the present conditions of the dyestuff supply are very satisfactory, and the future outlook is still more satisfactory in that we will make more colors, and everything indicates that the larger part of the business will remain in the hands of American manufacturers even after the war, instead of the hands of the European manufacturers who in former years have had a practical monopoly of this business.

17.9.16

Should a Protective Tariff Be Enacted for the Dyestuff Industry?


The Aniline Color, Dyestuff and Chemical Conditions
from
August 1st, 1914,
to
April 1st, 1917.
A series of Addresses and Articles
Compiled by:
I. F. Stone
1917
Article in The Journal of Commerce, Special Annual Edition, February 5, 1917.

I. F. Stone

The answer to this question is very simple, viz., "Yes," for on looking over the experience of the dyestuff manufacturers of aniline colors was first established in the United States it will be found that about 1880 there was some ten factories enaged in the manufacture of these products, and it looked as though it would be a very successful industry, as tariff conditions at that time were favorable to such enterprises. Unfortunately, however, in 1883 a new tariff law was passed, reducing the tariff protection on colors to such an extent that the industry was no longer possible and consequently most of these factories dropped out until at one time there were only three engaged in this manufacture. These were carried on more or less by the ambition of their owners that some day conditions would be changed rather than at a profit. One of these factories particularly lost a large amount of money up until the time it finally reached some success, about 1900. About 1898 another factory was established, and then about 1914 still another was established, so that in 1914, at the beginning of the present European War there were five factories engaged in this industry, but none of them on a large scale and none of them were successful enough to make a complete line of colors and were restricted to only a few of these which might be made to advantage in this country, therefore the industry was not a large one up to the beginning of the present European War, viz., about August 1, 1914.

The reason for this condition was that since 1883 no favorable Tariff Bill was passed to encourage this industry, consequently no particular progress was made. Upon the beginning of the European War however, when it was impossible to import colors and dyestuffs from Germany, a great shortage in the dyestuff supply was the consequence and it then became evident that the dyestuff industry in this country were in existence in the beginning 01 the war could never occur again and American consumers could rely on American manufacturers for their supply.

As about 80 per cent of the aniline colors and other coal tar dyes were exported into this country by Germany when Germany was prevented from this exportation by the war, a great development in the industry in this country began, until at the present time there are some one hundred and twenty factories engaged in the manufacture of various products which are necessary for American consumption and the supply for 1917 is therefore ample for all necessary colors.

This development was entirely due to the European War and not to a protective tariff, so that the point is now that if this industry is to be continued in this country on a large scale a sufficient protective tariff must be given it or the bulk of the business will again return to Germany after the present war is over. To meet this emergency a bill was recently passed (H. R. 16763), increasing the duty on aniline colors from 30 per cent ad valorem to the same duty ad valorem, plus 5c per pound specific duty, and on what we call intermediate products to 15 per cent ad valorem, plus 2^c per pound specific duty. On such coal tar products such as indigo, alizarine and anthracine derivatives, known as vat colors, where no protection was formerly given, an ad valorem duty of 30 per cent was given, so that the industry as it now stands, has this additional protection, for the time being. The disadvantage is that this 5c per pound specific duty is only for a period of a few years, that is, is reduced automatically each year Ic per pound for five years, so that at the end of five years the original duty goes into effect again.

A committee appointed October 9th, 1914, by the American Chemical Society (New York Section) to investigate the subject in the fall of 1914, made a very careful report on November 6, 1914, recommending that in addition to the 30 per cent ad valorem duty then in effect, a specific duty of 7½c per pound should be given on aniline colors, and in addition to the 15 per cent ad valorem duty on intermediates, a specific duty of 3¾c should be given, but Congress in passing the present bill seemed to disregard the opinion of these experts and only gave the above mentioned 5c per pound on aniline colors and 2½c on intermediate, atlhough they did also add the 30 per cent ad valorem duty to the other products, viz., indigo, alizarine and anthracine derivatives, which were formerly on the free list.

Whether the bill recently passed will then give enough protection to insure the continuance of the present rate development in the coal tar industry is a serious question, and in my opinion the matter is so important to American consumers of these products that the matter should be gone into very carefully again by the Government, and if it is found that the present protection is not sufficient then a new bill should be passed which would protect this industry to its full extent, as after the war it is evident the European manufacturers will make every effort to regain the business they have lost during the war and even with the present tariff against them will probably be able to make prices which will make it impossible for the American manufacturers to compete, as the American manufacturers are at a disadvantage on account of the extremely high prices of labor and raw materials in this country, and to some extent to their lack of fifty years' experience which the European manufacturers have had; then again the great German factories are now in one great convention or combination and will accordingly fight as a unit to regain the American business, and this great unit is obviously able to do what individual manufacturers could not afford to do, in that their combined production and consequent lessening of selling expenses might easily overcome the present tariff.

In conclusion, I will repeat that it is imperative that the Government of the United States should give this matter immediate and careful attention and in the end, give this industry a protection which will insure its development and stability in the years to come.

16.9.16

Expansion of the American Dyestuff Industry


The Aniline Color, Dyestuff and Chemical Conditions
from
August 1st, 1914,
to
April 1st, 1917.
A series of Addresses and Articles
Compiled by:
I. F. Stone
1917

---

Article appearing in N. Y. Journal of Commerce, Feb. 5, 1917.

*Chemical Expert of the United States Department of Commerce.
Pressure of Necessity Put American Practical Scientists on Their Mettle and Produced Astonishing Results.

T. H. NORTON, Ph.D., Sc.D.*

Among the economic results in this land, consequent upon the existence of the world conflict across the water, none has equalled in permanent importance and in dramatic interest the swift evolution of a distinctly American artificial dyestuff industry.

Prior to the war there was such an industry in name. In some six establishments less than 400 operatives manufactured so-called "American coal tar colors" to the extent of 3,300 short tons annually. As a matter of fact, the manufacture consisted in the "assembling" of coal tar intermediates, made almost entirely in Europe, chiefly in Germany. Nine-tenths of the work involved in producing a pound of these "American" dyes had been performed on the banks of the Rhine, or the Main, or the Spree. The bulk of the artificial colors regularly consumed by our textile, paper, ink, varnish, pigment and allied branches was imported directly from Europe. Of the 26,000 tons thus brought over 22,000 were of German origin.

To-day we are fast approaching the point at which nearly all of the staple synthetic dyes normally needed in the nation's industrial activities will be regularly produced in American factories from American coal tar and by American chemists and operatives. This has meant a marvellous joint effort on the part of all concerned capital, technical and executive staffs and skilled labor. The annals of our industrial evolution present no similar example of the swift creation of a new form of productive mechanism, the most complex probably on our planet.

In the first place, it has been necessary to vastly enlarge the output of our coal tar industry so as to furnish in abundance the few "crudes" from which an army of useful products are systematically derived. Benzol, toluol, naphthalene, phenol and their homologues are now produced on a scale adequate for the world's needs under normal conditions.

Next came the manufacture on a generous scale from these crudes of the various intermediates required to make not only dyestuffs but synthetic medicinals, high explosives, photographic chemicals, artificial perfumes, etc. The only intermediate manufactured here before the war was aniline. There was a modest annual output of 800 tons. To-day the yearly production is 25,000 tons. A host ot> other intermediates, none of which were regularly made in the United States three years ago, are now currently produced in American works. Before the close of 1917 there will be few, if any, coal tar intermediates not regularly made on our soil.

Finally we witness twoscore establishments systematically turning out finished artificial colors on a vast scale, constantly increasing in variety and total amount. The output is now at the annual rate of about 27,000 short tons. With the advent of 1918 it will probably exceed 30,000 tons.

The efforts of those engaged in building up this new industry have been chiefly concentrated, at the outset, upon the manufacture in great quantities of a few important staple dyes, enough to meet the more pressing needs for an adequate gamut of color in the case of each of the leading textile fibers, of paper, ink, leather, etc. At present over 100 such synthetic dyes are regularly made.

The total number of distinct dyes and modifications of dyes, as enumerated in the "Census of Dyestuffs," published at the close of 1916 by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, is 5,675. Many of these are consumed in quantities ranging annually from 100 pounds to 5,000 pounds. The necessary arrangements for producing all of these minor tinctorial forms will be made in due time, but at present circumstances dictate the concentration of effort and equipment upon a few of the leading types.

We are thus fairly on the way to witness the creation on American soil at a very early date of a symmetrical, well rounded, comprehensive American synthetic color industry, emancipating us very soon from all dependence upon foreign sources of such dyes as we use in tolerably large amounts.

A very few colors of recent invention and of pronounced permanent value, notably in the anthracene, indanthrene and carbazole groups, will continue to enjoy patent protection for periods ranging from one to eight years. Prospectively we may look forward to 1925 as a date when, at the present rate of expansion, the American production of synthetic colors should cover the entire American demand.

Two typical cases may serve to illustrate the rapidity and the resolute determination with which American enterprise is tackling the big problem.

Artificial indigo is the most important synthetic coal tar derivative consumed in this land. The importation for the fiscal year 1913-1914 was 8,500,000 pounds, consisting chiefly of the 20 per cent paste. The great "Badische" works on the Rhine expended $5,000,000 in perfecting the manufacture of this dyestuff before a single pound was placed upon the market.

Late in 1915 a strong American chemical company began the construction of the requisite plant for the production of artificial indigo. Over $500,000 has been invested in this plant, which is now about to furnish two and one-quarter short tons daily of the 20 per cent paste, or about 750,000 pounds annually. It will cover about 9 per cent of the domestic consumption. When construction was begun in 1915 indigo was on the free list. Since September 8, 1916, there is a protective duty of 30 per cent.

Next to indigo comes sulphur black in point of importance. The annual consumption in the United States was 5,600,000 pounds during the fiscal year 1913-1914. The entire amount came from Europe. About twenty American companies have entered upon the manufacture of this color, and the point has now been nearly reached when the production is fully equal to the normal domestic consumption.

A general review of the situation is incomplete without some reference to the role played by natural organic colors. The pinch of a genuine "dyestuff famine" at the close of 1915 was largely alleviated by a vastly augmented output in American factories of the staple, old-fashioned colors, such as logwood, fustic, quercitron, cutch, hypernic, etc. This has led to a more generous and general recognition of the actual value of the natural dyes in any well-balanced scheme for tinctorial practice. In the future under normal conditions intelligent American dyers will use this category of colors far more freely and much more effectively than has been the case for a generation past.

In this connection we may well be proud of what has been done by the combined efforts of the Forest Service and of private enterprise in adding the beautiful yellow of the osage orange to the series of natural dyes of recognized commercial and tinctorial value.

Of possibly equal promise is the delicate "golden leaf" color, the manufacture of which has been perfected during the past few months a product of our Northern forests.

All in all, 1916 is a memorable year in the annals of American chemical technology; and the most brilliant page is that devoted to the achievements of the men creating our new, national, artificial color industry.

15.9.16

The Domestic Dyestuff Industry


The Aniline Color, Dyestuff and Chemical Conditions
from
August 1st, 1914,
to
April 1st, 1917.
A series of Addresses and Articles
Compiled by:
I. F. Stone
1917
Article in American Wool and Cotton Reporter, January 18, 1917.

I. F. Stone

The manufacture of aniline dyes in the United States began in the 1870's, and our factory, now known as the Schoellkopf Aniline & Chemical Works, Inc., was established in Buffalo in 1879, by two brothers, J. F. Schoellkopf and C. P. Hugo Schoellkopf, both of whom are still actively identified with the factory and have consequently had a continued experience of over 36 years in the manufacture of coal tar products.

In about 1880 there were ten factories in the United States engaged in the manufacture of aniline colors, but owing to adverse tariff legislation in 1883, most of them dropped out, until, in about 1890, there were only three left in operation. In 1898 there was a new factory started, and in 1914 another new one, so that at the beginning of the present European War there were five factories actively engaged in this industry. The Schoellkopf factory, however, from its inception, and up to the present time, has been the largest of the American factories; and since the European War it has developed the most rapidly, I think I can truthfully say, of any other American factory, so that it still holds its position as the leading industry of its kind in the United States. It now has many buildings covering some forty acres of land and an investment of several millions of dollars, employs upward of two thousand people, and its

PRODUCTION OF COLORS

is many times larger than at the beginning of the European War. With this increase of production it is now able to serve the American consumers with enough of such dyes as direct colors for cotton, wool and union goods; acid colors for woolen and silk goods; chrome colors for woolen goods; sulphur colors for cotton goods; basic colors for paper, silk and leather; and nigrosines for general purposes, so that the shortage of supply of these colors, occasioned by the war, has now been overcome by our factory until we are at present in a position to furnish consumers with sufficient to meet reasonable demands, and those who took the precaution of contracting with us last year (1916) for their estimated supplies for this year (1917) will have all of the colors for which they have consumption, and, consequently, there is no question of shortage as far as our works are concerned.

The other factories have also developed rapidly and new factories have been established, so that instead of the five original factories there are now some

120 FACTORIES

engaged in the manufacture of coal tar products aniline dyes and intermediate products, but aside from those manufacturing the intermediate products the original five factories are still by the far the largest and most prominent in the production of finished colors, and all of these factories, together with our own, are now producing all the necessary colors to meet the reasonable demands of American consumers. The only important colors not now manufactured in the United States are indigo, indigo and indanthrene derivatives, known as vat colors and alizarine colors, although there is now being erected a factory for the manufacture of indigo, and should the present conditions continue for a sufficient length of time, no doubt the vat colors and alizarine colors will eventually be produced.

The final result of the advance in the manufacture of coal tar products is that this industry is now so well established in the United States that there is no question but that they will in the future control the bulk of the American business and will be able to compete successfully with European factories after the war is ended, if the United States Government will continue to give them 

PROPER TARIFF PROTECTION

with an inclusion of what is known as the anti-dumping clause, viz.: the preventing of dumping into this country by European factories colors at lower prices than they are sold for in other countries, for the purpose of preventing the success of the American factories.

I repeat that the Schoellkopf Aniline & Chemical Works, Inc., and its selling agents, the National Aniline & Chemical Company, the largest concerns of their kind in the United States, and the successful increase in their production during the war has been of great benefit to American consumers, so much of a benefit, in fact, that I do not know what the American consumers would have done if we had not been able to take care of them.