5.9.15

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: X, Y, Z (väriin liittyvät sanat)


The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.
1872.

Xanthic-acid,
a yellow acid obtained in combination with potassa, by agitating sulphuret of carbon, mixed with solutions of pure potassa, in strong alcohol.

Yellow,
a painter's colour of which some of the chief varieties are, spruce-orchre, Oxford-stone, common chrome, and G B S T Chrome.

Yellow-arsenic,
an oxide of arsenic.

Yellow-Berries,
the dried unripe berries of the Rhamnus infectorius, imported in large quantities from the South of Europe and the Levant, for the use of dyers. The yare also known as Persian berries, and Avignon berries.

Yellow-candle,
a description of Russian tallow, obtained from the fat of oxen of which there are two kinds, the best being known under the mark of P. Y. C., prime yellow candle.

Yellow-flag,
a flag hoisted at the mast-head of a ship, denoting sickness, or that she is under quarantine regylations.

Yellow-metal,
a composition metal of two-thirds copper and one-third zinc, for sheathing the bottoms of vessels with: 8,000 to 10,000 tons a -year made at Birmingham.

Yellow-ochre,
an argillaceous earth, coloured by an admixture of iron, which, when finely ground, is used as a pigment. It may be rendered red or reddish brown, by calcination in a reverberatory oven, which peroxidizes the iron.

Zaffres,
a regulus of cobalt imported for resmelting to form smalt: 625 cwts. were imported in 1856.

Zante-wood,
a name for the Rhus cotinus and for the Chloroxylon Swielenia

Zinc-white,
the oxide of zinc, a pigment now largely used for the same purposes as white lead. It is more permanent, and not poisonous as lead is.



----------------- Supplement

Zaccatella,
a commercial name for the black female cochineal insect of Mexico, which has died naturally after the deposition of her eggs.

Zephyr yarn,
a name for dyed yarn or worsted, usually called in England, Berlin wool.

4.9.15

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: U, V, W (väriin liittyvät sanat)


The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.
1872.


Ultramarine,
a beautiful blue pigment, formerly very expensive, and obtained from the variegated blue mineral called lazulite, but now artificially compounded, and greatly reduced in price.

Umber,
a massive mineral pigment, used by painters as a brown colour, and to make varnish dry quickly. It is used ether in its nautral state, or burnt.

Umriti, Userekee,
vernacular names for the myrobalan of the Emblica officinalis, used for tanning leather, and as a remedy in diarroea.

Urchilla,
(Spanish), orchilla-weed; archil.

Vandyke-brown,
a colour so named.

Velvet-moss,
a name for the Gyrophora murina, a lichen used in dyeing, obtained in Dovrefeldt mountains of Norway.

Venetian-red,
a scarlet ore when pure, but the colours usually sold under this name are prepared from sulphate of iron. Venetian red is sold either in lumps or in powder.

Verdigris,
the acetate of copper, obtained by exposing thin plates of copper, for some time, to the actgion of the cake or marc of the wine-presses in the South of France. Besides the French verdigris, there are green ditilled, common, and crystallized verdigris.

Verditer,
a name for varieties of a blue pigment; a hydrated percarbonate of copper. It is generally prepapared by decomposing the solution of nitrate of copper by the addition of chalk. There are refined blue, and green verditers.

Vermeil,
(French), silver gilt, or gilt bronze.

Vermilion,
the bisulphuret of mercury in powder, a delicate bright red colour, which is pale or deep. The Chinese vermilion is sold in packets.

Violet-dye,
a dye produced by a mixture of red and blue colouring matters which are applied in succession.

Vitriol,
white vitriol is a combination of sulphuric-acid and oxide of zinc. For the other vitriols, see Blue-vitriol, Green-vitriol, and Red-vitriol.

Vivianite,
a blue phosphate of iron, occasionally used as a pigment.

Waksa,
(Russian), show-blacking.

Water-colours,
cakes of pigment for drawing, that can be rubbed down with water.

Waxing,
the process of stopping out colours in calico-printing; rubbing thread with wax to strengthen it; polishing tables with bees-wax.

Weld,
an annual herbaceous plant, the Reseda luteola, a native of Europe, the stemps and leaves of which dye yellow. The whole plant is cropped when in seed, at which time its dyeing power is greatest; and, after being simply dried, it is brought to marked.

White,
a painter's negative colour; ceruse; the albumen of a n egg; a mark in a tar get for an arrow.

White-lead,
a carbonate of lead; a zinc paint; the painters' principal white colour.

Whitener,
a name in the United States for a colourer or white-washer.

White-vitriol,
an old name for sulphate of zinc.

White-wash,
a mixture of whiting, size, and water for whitening ceilings and walls; a slang term for getting rid of importunate creditors by passing through the Insolvent court.

Whiting,
ground chalk washed in alum-water, to cleanse it from sand and other impurities, and dried in lumps; it is used as a polishing amterial, and for making putty and white-wash. A small delicate sea-fish, the Merlangus vulgaris.

Whiting-merchant,
one who grinds and levigates chalk, and makes it up into small oblong cakes.

Woad,
a dye plant, the Isatis tinctoria.

Woollen-dyer,
a person who dyes wool in the piece or in the yarn.

Woollen-printer,
an operative who impresses patterns or colours on woollen or mixed fabrics.

Wurrus,
a brick-red powder somewhat resembling dragon's-blood, collected from the seed-vessels of an euphorbiaceous tree, Rottlera tinctoria, and used in Eastern Africa and the East Indies, as a dye for silk, and also medicinally.



----------------- Supplement

Uva ursi,
the leaves of Arctostaphylos Uva ursi which are used in many places medicinally; in Russia, and by the Indias of North America, for tanning.

Vine-black,
See Blacks in Dictionary.

Woniwoi,
a name for the medicinal root of Pareira medica, in Ceylon; a yellow dyestuff obtained in India from the dried leaves and roots of Menispermum fenestratum.

Wool-dyer,
one who prepares wool for working up into faqbrics.

3.9.15

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: T (väriin liittyvät sanat)


The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.
1872.



Talc,
a beautiful and useful mineral found in India, which readily splits into transparent elastic flakes. It consists of silica and magnesia and a small proportion of lime: combined with alkaline salt it is fusible, and forms a greenish-yellow glass. The Chnese make splendid lanterns, shades, and ornaments of it; they also use it, when calcined, in medicine. Powdered it makes a silver sand for writing.

Tan, Tanners'-ooze,
spent or waste oak or other bark, exhausted of the tanning principle, by being steeped in water. When dry it is sold to gardeners for procuding artificial heat, by fermentation, in pits or beds, and in bark stoves.

Tanner's-bark,
oak and other barks containing tannin, used for forming a speet for the conversion of skins into leather. The foreign barks imported for the use of tanners and dyers, averaged in the three years ending with 1856, 19,500 tons a-year. The spent bark is sold to lead manufacturers, to be used in the process of making white-lead.

Tannin,
an astringent vegetable principle met with in several barks and other parts of plabnts, but especially concentrated in nut-galls.

Tanning-substabces,
oack and larch bark, vallonia, sumach, divi-divi, gambier, cutch, and other astringent matters containing tannin.

Tartar, cream of,
pure bitartrate of potash; purified argol, the concretion which forms on the inside of wine casks.

Tartaric-acid,
the acid obtained from the acidulous salt of tartar or argol, occuring in powder of crystals. It is commonly vended for the same purposes as citric acid, and is largely used for making effervescing powders, and as a discharge in calico-printing.

Teinturier,
(French), a dyer.

Terra-Japonica,
an old trade misnomer, still retained, for gambier, and inspissated vegetable juice, obtained from the Ungaria Gambir of Roxburgh. The imports of Terra Japonica, in 1856, were 6847 tons. See Gambier.

Turkey-red,
a valuable dye prepared from madder.

Turmeric,
a name for the rubers of the Curcuma longa, which are bitter and aromatic, and largely used in the East as an ingredient in curries. Turmeric is imported into this country as a dye-stuff, and used to colour butter. The colouring matter of the dried root is bright yellow. White paper, dyed by an alcoholic turmeric, is a very sensitive test for alkalies.

Tyrian-purple,
a beautiful animal dye, formerly obtained from certain molluscs, species of Murex and Purpura.



----------------- Supplement

Tamarisk galls,
small wrinkled galls formed on Tamarisk Furas, &c. which enter into commerce for the tannin they contain.

Tanekaha bark,
the bark of Phyllocladus trichomoides, which is used for tanning in New Zealand.

Tanghadi,
a name for Cassia auriculata, the bark of which is used tanning in India.

Tannic acid,
the principle of astringency in vegetable substances which converts raw hides into leather. See Tannin in Dictionary.

Tawai-bark,
the bark of Weinmannia racemosa, used for tanning in New Zealand.

Teesoo,
a yellow dye obtained in India from the flowers of Butea frondosa.

Thitnee,
a beautiful red dye-wood from Burmah.

Thitsee,
the varnish tree of Burmah, Melanorrhoea uritatissima.

Tormentil,
the Potentilla Tormentilla, the root of which is used in medicine as a powerful astringent and tonic. In the Orkneys it is employed for tanning,a nd in Lapland for dyeing red.

Trokne,
a name in Egypt for privet-berries used for colouring wine.

Turnsole,
a dye obtained from Chrozophora tinctoria, a native of the South of Europe; a stiff paste, in squares of a blue colour, the concentrated dye of lichens, thickened with chalk, &c.

2.9.15

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: R, S (väriin liittyvät sanat)


The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.
1872.


Realgar,
one of the names of bisulphide of arsenic; red orpiment.

Red,
one of the primitive colours, of which the chief commercial varieties are fine Venetian, red lead, orange, Indian red, and vermilion.

Red-chalk, Reddle,
a soft form of sesquioxide of iron used as a crayon in draqing.

Reddle,
see Red-chalk.

Red-lead,
a pigment. See Minium.

Red Ochre,
see Red-Chalk.

Red-Root,
see Blood-root.

Red Sanders-wood,
an East Indian dye-wood, the procude of the Pterocarpus santalinus, a hard heavy wood imported from Madras and Calcutta. In 1856 117,901 Indian maunds (86 426 tons) of this wood were shipped from Madras. Besides its use as a dye-wood it is employed as the basis of various dentifrise mixtures.

Red-stuff,
a name among watchmakers for some kinds of crocus, or the prepared powder from oxide of iron.

Red-vitriol,
sulphate of iron.

Resins,
various alkaline bases, or oxides of essential oils. The acid resins comprise rosin, dammar, gamboge, sandarac, benzoin, lac, &c.; the neutral resins elemi, guaiacum, dragon's-blood, and storax. They will be found described under their special heads.

Resist,
a sort of paste or mixture used in print-dyeing, to keep the portions white, when the fabric is dipped in the dye-vat.

Roucou, Roucouyer,
Spanish names for arnotto, the Bixa orellana.

Rouge,
a scarlet powder made from crystals of sulphate or iron, and used for polishing hold or silver; a colouring substance used by females for painting their faces, consisting of carthamine, the colouring principle of safflower, mixed with powdered talc. See Crocus.

Rouge and Carmine Maker,
a preparer of those colours.

Ruby-wood,
a name for red sanders.wood.

Ruddle,
red ochre.

Russia-leather,
fine curried leather, which has a peculiar smell, from being impregnated with an empyreumatic oil obtained from birch bark. The tanned hides of young oxen, coloured red, white, or black, are imported from Russia in rolls of about 10 hides. About 20,000 lbs. were imported in 1855.

Safflower,
the bastard saffron, the produce of the florets of the Carthamus tinctorius, largely imported as a dye-stuff. The seeds, yielding an abundance of fixed oil, are also imported for crushing.

Saddron,
a commercial name for the dried stigmata of the flowers of the Crocus sativus. These are picked out, dried on paper in a kiln, or by the sun, and sold either compressed into cakes, or as hay saffron. Cake saffron, as now met with, contains none of the real article, being prepared from the florets of the saffron made into a paste with gum-water. Saffron is used as a colouring principle, and an ingredient in several culinary preparations. We imported 11,000 lbs. in 1855.

Sakur,
an Indian name for small rounded astringent galls, formed on some species of Tamarix, which are used in medicine and dyeing.

Sandal-wood,
an odoriferous wood, the produce of several species of Santalum, in India and the Pacific Islands, of which there are two commercial kinds, the white, probably the outer layers of the wood, and the yellow, or citron, the inner wood. The odour is very strong, rose-like,a nd enduring. The essential oil, to which this odour is due, is extensively used for the adulteration of attar of roses. Sandalwood is very hard, heavy, and susceptible of a fine polish, and extensively used by cabinet-makers, in the fabrication of various articles of ornamental furniture. Sandal-wood is also a name among the Russians for the red wood of the Rhamnus dahurscus, used for dyeing leather.

Sanders-wood,
a red dye-wood obtained from Pterocarpus santalinus. See Red Sanders-wood.

Sand-dragon (French); Sanguis Draconis,
the Latin and pharmaneutical names for dragon's-blood.

Sapan-wood,
a dye-wood obtained in Malabar, and the islands of the Eastern seas, from the Cæsalpinia sappan, C. coriaria, and pulcherima. A decoction of the wood is used by calico-printers for red dyes.

Sap-green,
a vegetable pigment composed of the colouring matter of the berries of the Rhamnus carharticus, and lime.

Saxon-blue,
the sulphate of indigo.

Scarlet,
a bright red colour, so named.

Sealing-wax,
an adhesive resinous substance, made for sealing letters and documents, and covering the corks of bottles. The chief components of sealing-wax are shell-lac resin, and turpentine. In making red-wax, cinnabar is added, and for black wax, levigated ivory black.

Seaside-grape,
the Coccoloba unifera: the leaves, wood, and bark, are extremely astringent, and afford an extract termed Jamaica kino. The wood gives red dye.

Seed-lac,
small fragments of lac-resin, from which the colouring matter has been removed by boiling.

Sepia,
a brown colour originally obtained from the ink-bag of a species of cuttle-fish.

Sepia Draqing, a neutral tinted picture coloured with sepia.

Shellac,
crude lac resin melted into plates. See lac.

Silwerweed,
the popular name of the Potentilla anserina, a roadside weed, the roots of which, being extremely astringent, are sometimes used for tanning, and the distilled water is employed as a cosmetic.

Smalts,
a vitreous substance obtained by melting together zaffres, a regulus of cobalt, potash and siliceous matter, and grinding the produce to a fine powder, commercially known as powder-blue. It is employed to give a blue tinge to writing-paper, linen, and starch, and, not being affected by fire, is much employed in painting earthenware. Some is made in this country, but the bulk used, about 60 tons a-year, comes from Holland.

Smoke-black,
a substance prepared by the combustion of different resinous bodies, especially of pitch in large pans under a dome or chimney; within this cloths are suspended to which the soot becomes attached. This pecies of carbon is employed only in the arts; in the manufacture of printers' ink, or blacking for shoes, &c.

Soorma,
a sulphuret of antimony, with which Indian women anoint the eyelids.

Spanish black
a powder obtained by burning cork in close vessels.

Sumach, shumac,
the dried and chopped leaves and shoots of the Rhus coriaria, a shrub growing in Southern Europe. When ground to powder in a mill, sumach is largely used for dyeing and tanning. The colouring matter is yellow. Our imports, average about 18,000 tons per annum.



----------------- Supplement

Relbum,
a name for the roots of Calceolaria arachnoidea which are largely collected in Chili for dyeing woollen cloths crimson.

Roum,
a blue dye-stuff of Assam, obtained from a species of Ruellia.

Sahtian,
a yellow dyed leather made from goat skins in Roumelia.

Salampores,
dyed long.cloths, generally blue, made in pieces of about 18 yards.

Sienna,
a brown pigment; a brown mottled marble.

Sileslas,
dyed calicoes.

Sindoor,
a name for vermilion in Bengal.

Suringes,
the flower buds of Calysaccion longifolium, collected in India for dyeing silk yellow.



1.9.15

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: O, P, Q (väriin liittyvät sanat)


The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.
1872.


Oak-bark,
the bark of the oak which is largely used for tanning; the inner cortical of young trees being preferred, as containing a larger proportion of tannin. Besides our home supplies of oak-bark, estimated at 200,000 to 800,000 tons per annum, 4000 to 5000 tons more are imported from the Continent for use in the tanneries. See Flittern-bark.

Ochre,
an argillaceous earth of different colours, which, when finely ground, is used as a pigment: a name given to the oxides of various metals. Red ochre is a form of specular iron ore; brown ochre a variety of hematite.

Oil-colours,
painters' colours or pigments, formed of mineral substances worked up with oil, for ornamenting and preserwing wood, stone, &c., Besides the large quantity used at home, painters' colours, to the value of nearly half a million sterling, are exported.

Oozem
soft mud or slime; a tanner's name for a solution of oak-bark, or other tanning material, in a cistern, in which the hide or skin is immersed.

Orange,
a colour composed of equal parts of red and yellow; a fruit.

Orcanett.
See Alkanet,

Orchal,
see Orchilla, and Archil.

Orchilla,
a name of various dye-lichens, varieties of Roccella and Lecanora; R. fuciformis and tinctoria, imported from the Canary and Cape de Verde islands, Angola and Lima.

Orpiment,
yellow sulphuret of arsenic.

Orseille,
See Archil.

Oxides or iron,
the rust on iron from which various pigments and polishing powders are prepared by chemists, bearing special commercial names.

Paint,
a popular general name for all colouring substances used as pigments; to lay on colours.

Paint-box,
a child's box containing cakes of water-colours.

Pala,
a name in India for the Wrightia tinctoria, from which a species of Indigo is obtained; in Italy, a wooden shovel of any kind; a battledore; the blade of an oar.

Peach-wood,
a name for the Nicaraqua-wood (Cæsalpinia echibata), a concentrated decoction of which is largely used as a dye-stuff. See Nicaragua-wood.

Pen,
a shaped quill or metal instrument for writing with; a coop for poultry; a fold for cattle; a reservoir of water; a name in Scotland for the dung of towls.

Pencil,
a black lead, slate, or other instrument, or brush, for writing or drawing.

Perch,
a linear-measure of 5½ yards; a square perch is equivalent to the 160th of an acre, or the 40th of a rood; a term applied to the French decametre. Also the name of a fish, one species, the Sander (Perca Lucio-perca), is very common in the rivers which empty themselves into the Black sea. It is cured like cod, and might readily supply the place of it. The roe is much in request in the Levant; the oil is also more in esteem than that of other fish, and might very well be used for burning; for purposes of tanning; for the manufacture of soap; for the preparation of common colours, &c.

Perelle,
a name for the crab's-eye lichen, the Lecanora Parella, found on rocks in mountainous countries, which yields a purple dye equal to that of archil.

Pernambyca-wood,
a name for the Cæsalpinia echinata. See Brazil-wood, and Peach-wood.

Persio,
a colouring matter prepared from lichens, the mass being of a drier character than archil. See Cudbear.

Philadelphia Bark,
see Quercitron.

Pigment,
a paint; any colour used by painters.

Pink,
a painter's colour, a yellowish or pale red, or light crimson, of which the chief varieties are rose-pink, Dutch, and English-pink; a garden-flower; a vessel with a round setern and bulging sides, capable of carrying a large cargo; to slash cloth: to work in eyelet holes.

Pink-saucer,
a little saucer, containing safflower prepared with a small portion of soda, and used for giving a flesh tint to silk stockings, &c.

Pink-stern,
a ship with a high, narrow stern.

Pi-pi,
the legumes of Cæsalpinia Papan used as a tanning material, but inferior to Divi-divi.

Plaster-of-Paris,
a comon name for sulphate of lime or gypsum, from its occurrence in the Paris formation.

Plumbago,
a carburet of iron commonly known as black lead, and also called graphite, used for making crucibles and leads for pencils; we import large quantities from Ceylon. A genus of plants with acrid, caustic properties. See Lead-word.

Polishing-paste,
a kind of blacking or paste for harness and leather; a substance compounded in oil, beeswax, and spirit varnish, for giving a polish to articles of household furniture.

Pomegranate-Bark,
a name for the rind of the pomegranate fruit, which is used in medicine, and in dyeing, on account of its astringency. It is also said to be employed for tanning Morocco leather. The bark of the root is emetic and purgative, and administered for worms.

Potash,
such constituents on burned vegetables as are very soluble in water, and fixed in the fire; the lixivium of the ashes of wood fuel evaporated in iron pots. Thesea ashes are principally used in the manufacture of flint glass, prussiate of potash, and soft soap. The imports of pot and pearl ash range from 4000 to 9000 tons a-year.

Potelot,
(French), black lead.

Powder-blue,
a name for smalts.

Prickle yellow,
a very common Wst Indian wood, the procude of Xanthoxylon clava Herculis, used for furniture, flooring and inlaying, and said to afford a dye., and to possess medicinal properties. See Yellow-Wood.

Prussian-blue,
a well known fugitive colour, used in dyeing, for tinting paper, and by weatherwomen. It is obtained by mixing a solution of sulphate of iron and yellow prussiate of potash.

Prussian-bue Manufacturer,
a manufacturing chemist who prepares this pigment, which is chiefly made at Newcastle, Birmingham, Hull, and London.

Pulas,
a name in India for the Butea frondosa, and B. superba. Their fibre is used for cordage, or beaten to a kind of oakum, for caulking boats. It is also called dhak. The flowers are used for dyeing.

Purpurine,
a substance extracted from Garancine by alum.

Purree,
a yellow pigment obtained from India. See Indian yellow.


Quercitron,
a name for the black oak (Quercus tinctoria) of the United States, the wood of which is caluable for building, and for cutting into staves: the bark is used for tanning, while the cellular integument is extensively employed in dyeing wood, silk, and paper hangings, and forms an important article of export from Philadelphia.



----------------- Supplement

Pink-boat,
a Dutch vessel.

Pitch pink,
the Pinus resinosa (Aiton) of North America; the name is also given to P. rigida.

Pohutu kawa,
a useful New Zealand timber tree, the Metrosideros tomentosa; the bark is used for tanning.

Poland starch,
a technical name in the trade for blue starch.