5.9.15

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: X, Y, Z (väriin liittyvät sanat)


The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.
1872.

Xanthic-acid,
a yellow acid obtained in combination with potassa, by agitating sulphuret of carbon, mixed with solutions of pure potassa, in strong alcohol.

Yellow,
a painter's colour of which some of the chief varieties are, spruce-orchre, Oxford-stone, common chrome, and G B S T Chrome.

Yellow-arsenic,
an oxide of arsenic.

Yellow-Berries,
the dried unripe berries of the Rhamnus infectorius, imported in large quantities from the South of Europe and the Levant, for the use of dyers. The yare also known as Persian berries, and Avignon berries.

Yellow-candle,
a description of Russian tallow, obtained from the fat of oxen of which there are two kinds, the best being known under the mark of P. Y. C., prime yellow candle.

Yellow-flag,
a flag hoisted at the mast-head of a ship, denoting sickness, or that she is under quarantine regylations.

Yellow-metal,
a composition metal of two-thirds copper and one-third zinc, for sheathing the bottoms of vessels with: 8,000 to 10,000 tons a -year made at Birmingham.

Yellow-ochre,
an argillaceous earth, coloured by an admixture of iron, which, when finely ground, is used as a pigment. It may be rendered red or reddish brown, by calcination in a reverberatory oven, which peroxidizes the iron.

Zaffres,
a regulus of cobalt imported for resmelting to form smalt: 625 cwts. were imported in 1856.

Zante-wood,
a name for the Rhus cotinus and for the Chloroxylon Swielenia

Zinc-white,
the oxide of zinc, a pigment now largely used for the same purposes as white lead. It is more permanent, and not poisonous as lead is.



----------------- Supplement

Zaccatella,
a commercial name for the black female cochineal insect of Mexico, which has died naturally after the deposition of her eggs.

Zephyr yarn,
a name for dyed yarn or worsted, usually called in England, Berlin wool.

4.9.15

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: U, V, W (väriin liittyvät sanat)


The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.
1872.


Ultramarine,
a beautiful blue pigment, formerly very expensive, and obtained from the variegated blue mineral called lazulite, but now artificially compounded, and greatly reduced in price.

Umber,
a massive mineral pigment, used by painters as a brown colour, and to make varnish dry quickly. It is used ether in its nautral state, or burnt.

Umriti, Userekee,
vernacular names for the myrobalan of the Emblica officinalis, used for tanning leather, and as a remedy in diarroea.

Urchilla,
(Spanish), orchilla-weed; archil.

Vandyke-brown,
a colour so named.

Velvet-moss,
a name for the Gyrophora murina, a lichen used in dyeing, obtained in Dovrefeldt mountains of Norway.

Venetian-red,
a scarlet ore when pure, but the colours usually sold under this name are prepared from sulphate of iron. Venetian red is sold either in lumps or in powder.

Verdigris,
the acetate of copper, obtained by exposing thin plates of copper, for some time, to the actgion of the cake or marc of the wine-presses in the South of France. Besides the French verdigris, there are green ditilled, common, and crystallized verdigris.

Verditer,
a name for varieties of a blue pigment; a hydrated percarbonate of copper. It is generally prepapared by decomposing the solution of nitrate of copper by the addition of chalk. There are refined blue, and green verditers.

Vermeil,
(French), silver gilt, or gilt bronze.

Vermilion,
the bisulphuret of mercury in powder, a delicate bright red colour, which is pale or deep. The Chinese vermilion is sold in packets.

Violet-dye,
a dye produced by a mixture of red and blue colouring matters which are applied in succession.

Vitriol,
white vitriol is a combination of sulphuric-acid and oxide of zinc. For the other vitriols, see Blue-vitriol, Green-vitriol, and Red-vitriol.

Vivianite,
a blue phosphate of iron, occasionally used as a pigment.

Waksa,
(Russian), show-blacking.

Water-colours,
cakes of pigment for drawing, that can be rubbed down with water.

Waxing,
the process of stopping out colours in calico-printing; rubbing thread with wax to strengthen it; polishing tables with bees-wax.

Weld,
an annual herbaceous plant, the Reseda luteola, a native of Europe, the stemps and leaves of which dye yellow. The whole plant is cropped when in seed, at which time its dyeing power is greatest; and, after being simply dried, it is brought to marked.

White,
a painter's negative colour; ceruse; the albumen of a n egg; a mark in a tar get for an arrow.

White-lead,
a carbonate of lead; a zinc paint; the painters' principal white colour.

Whitener,
a name in the United States for a colourer or white-washer.

White-vitriol,
an old name for sulphate of zinc.

White-wash,
a mixture of whiting, size, and water for whitening ceilings and walls; a slang term for getting rid of importunate creditors by passing through the Insolvent court.

Whiting,
ground chalk washed in alum-water, to cleanse it from sand and other impurities, and dried in lumps; it is used as a polishing amterial, and for making putty and white-wash. A small delicate sea-fish, the Merlangus vulgaris.

Whiting-merchant,
one who grinds and levigates chalk, and makes it up into small oblong cakes.

Woad,
a dye plant, the Isatis tinctoria.

Woollen-dyer,
a person who dyes wool in the piece or in the yarn.

Woollen-printer,
an operative who impresses patterns or colours on woollen or mixed fabrics.

Wurrus,
a brick-red powder somewhat resembling dragon's-blood, collected from the seed-vessels of an euphorbiaceous tree, Rottlera tinctoria, and used in Eastern Africa and the East Indies, as a dye for silk, and also medicinally.



----------------- Supplement

Uva ursi,
the leaves of Arctostaphylos Uva ursi which are used in many places medicinally; in Russia, and by the Indias of North America, for tanning.

Vine-black,
See Blacks in Dictionary.

Woniwoi,
a name for the medicinal root of Pareira medica, in Ceylon; a yellow dyestuff obtained in India from the dried leaves and roots of Menispermum fenestratum.

Wool-dyer,
one who prepares wool for working up into faqbrics.

3.9.15

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: T (väriin liittyvät sanat)


The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.
1872.



Talc,
a beautiful and useful mineral found in India, which readily splits into transparent elastic flakes. It consists of silica and magnesia and a small proportion of lime: combined with alkaline salt it is fusible, and forms a greenish-yellow glass. The Chnese make splendid lanterns, shades, and ornaments of it; they also use it, when calcined, in medicine. Powdered it makes a silver sand for writing.

Tan, Tanners'-ooze,
spent or waste oak or other bark, exhausted of the tanning principle, by being steeped in water. When dry it is sold to gardeners for procuding artificial heat, by fermentation, in pits or beds, and in bark stoves.

Tanner's-bark,
oak and other barks containing tannin, used for forming a speet for the conversion of skins into leather. The foreign barks imported for the use of tanners and dyers, averaged in the three years ending with 1856, 19,500 tons a-year. The spent bark is sold to lead manufacturers, to be used in the process of making white-lead.

Tannin,
an astringent vegetable principle met with in several barks and other parts of plabnts, but especially concentrated in nut-galls.

Tanning-substabces,
oack and larch bark, vallonia, sumach, divi-divi, gambier, cutch, and other astringent matters containing tannin.

Tartar, cream of,
pure bitartrate of potash; purified argol, the concretion which forms on the inside of wine casks.

Tartaric-acid,
the acid obtained from the acidulous salt of tartar or argol, occuring in powder of crystals. It is commonly vended for the same purposes as citric acid, and is largely used for making effervescing powders, and as a discharge in calico-printing.

Teinturier,
(French), a dyer.

Terra-Japonica,
an old trade misnomer, still retained, for gambier, and inspissated vegetable juice, obtained from the Ungaria Gambir of Roxburgh. The imports of Terra Japonica, in 1856, were 6847 tons. See Gambier.

Turkey-red,
a valuable dye prepared from madder.

Turmeric,
a name for the rubers of the Curcuma longa, which are bitter and aromatic, and largely used in the East as an ingredient in curries. Turmeric is imported into this country as a dye-stuff, and used to colour butter. The colouring matter of the dried root is bright yellow. White paper, dyed by an alcoholic turmeric, is a very sensitive test for alkalies.

Tyrian-purple,
a beautiful animal dye, formerly obtained from certain molluscs, species of Murex and Purpura.



----------------- Supplement

Tamarisk galls,
small wrinkled galls formed on Tamarisk Furas, &c. which enter into commerce for the tannin they contain.

Tanekaha bark,
the bark of Phyllocladus trichomoides, which is used for tanning in New Zealand.

Tanghadi,
a name for Cassia auriculata, the bark of which is used tanning in India.

Tannic acid,
the principle of astringency in vegetable substances which converts raw hides into leather. See Tannin in Dictionary.

Tawai-bark,
the bark of Weinmannia racemosa, used for tanning in New Zealand.

Teesoo,
a yellow dye obtained in India from the flowers of Butea frondosa.

Thitnee,
a beautiful red dye-wood from Burmah.

Thitsee,
the varnish tree of Burmah, Melanorrhoea uritatissima.

Tormentil,
the Potentilla Tormentilla, the root of which is used in medicine as a powerful astringent and tonic. In the Orkneys it is employed for tanning,a nd in Lapland for dyeing red.

Trokne,
a name in Egypt for privet-berries used for colouring wine.

Turnsole,
a dye obtained from Chrozophora tinctoria, a native of the South of Europe; a stiff paste, in squares of a blue colour, the concentrated dye of lichens, thickened with chalk, &c.

2.9.15

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: R, S (väriin liittyvät sanat)


The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.
1872.


Realgar,
one of the names of bisulphide of arsenic; red orpiment.

Red,
one of the primitive colours, of which the chief commercial varieties are fine Venetian, red lead, orange, Indian red, and vermilion.

Red-chalk, Reddle,
a soft form of sesquioxide of iron used as a crayon in draqing.

Reddle,
see Red-chalk.

Red-lead,
a pigment. See Minium.

Red Ochre,
see Red-Chalk.

Red-Root,
see Blood-root.

Red Sanders-wood,
an East Indian dye-wood, the procude of the Pterocarpus santalinus, a hard heavy wood imported from Madras and Calcutta. In 1856 117,901 Indian maunds (86 426 tons) of this wood were shipped from Madras. Besides its use as a dye-wood it is employed as the basis of various dentifrise mixtures.

Red-stuff,
a name among watchmakers for some kinds of crocus, or the prepared powder from oxide of iron.

Red-vitriol,
sulphate of iron.

Resins,
various alkaline bases, or oxides of essential oils. The acid resins comprise rosin, dammar, gamboge, sandarac, benzoin, lac, &c.; the neutral resins elemi, guaiacum, dragon's-blood, and storax. They will be found described under their special heads.

Resist,
a sort of paste or mixture used in print-dyeing, to keep the portions white, when the fabric is dipped in the dye-vat.

Roucou, Roucouyer,
Spanish names for arnotto, the Bixa orellana.

Rouge,
a scarlet powder made from crystals of sulphate or iron, and used for polishing hold or silver; a colouring substance used by females for painting their faces, consisting of carthamine, the colouring principle of safflower, mixed with powdered talc. See Crocus.

Rouge and Carmine Maker,
a preparer of those colours.

Ruby-wood,
a name for red sanders.wood.

Ruddle,
red ochre.

Russia-leather,
fine curried leather, which has a peculiar smell, from being impregnated with an empyreumatic oil obtained from birch bark. The tanned hides of young oxen, coloured red, white, or black, are imported from Russia in rolls of about 10 hides. About 20,000 lbs. were imported in 1855.

Safflower,
the bastard saffron, the produce of the florets of the Carthamus tinctorius, largely imported as a dye-stuff. The seeds, yielding an abundance of fixed oil, are also imported for crushing.

Saddron,
a commercial name for the dried stigmata of the flowers of the Crocus sativus. These are picked out, dried on paper in a kiln, or by the sun, and sold either compressed into cakes, or as hay saffron. Cake saffron, as now met with, contains none of the real article, being prepared from the florets of the saffron made into a paste with gum-water. Saffron is used as a colouring principle, and an ingredient in several culinary preparations. We imported 11,000 lbs. in 1855.

Sakur,
an Indian name for small rounded astringent galls, formed on some species of Tamarix, which are used in medicine and dyeing.

Sandal-wood,
an odoriferous wood, the produce of several species of Santalum, in India and the Pacific Islands, of which there are two commercial kinds, the white, probably the outer layers of the wood, and the yellow, or citron, the inner wood. The odour is very strong, rose-like,a nd enduring. The essential oil, to which this odour is due, is extensively used for the adulteration of attar of roses. Sandalwood is very hard, heavy, and susceptible of a fine polish, and extensively used by cabinet-makers, in the fabrication of various articles of ornamental furniture. Sandal-wood is also a name among the Russians for the red wood of the Rhamnus dahurscus, used for dyeing leather.

Sanders-wood,
a red dye-wood obtained from Pterocarpus santalinus. See Red Sanders-wood.

Sand-dragon (French); Sanguis Draconis,
the Latin and pharmaneutical names for dragon's-blood.

Sapan-wood,
a dye-wood obtained in Malabar, and the islands of the Eastern seas, from the Cæsalpinia sappan, C. coriaria, and pulcherima. A decoction of the wood is used by calico-printers for red dyes.

Sap-green,
a vegetable pigment composed of the colouring matter of the berries of the Rhamnus carharticus, and lime.

Saxon-blue,
the sulphate of indigo.

Scarlet,
a bright red colour, so named.

Sealing-wax,
an adhesive resinous substance, made for sealing letters and documents, and covering the corks of bottles. The chief components of sealing-wax are shell-lac resin, and turpentine. In making red-wax, cinnabar is added, and for black wax, levigated ivory black.

Seaside-grape,
the Coccoloba unifera: the leaves, wood, and bark, are extremely astringent, and afford an extract termed Jamaica kino. The wood gives red dye.

Seed-lac,
small fragments of lac-resin, from which the colouring matter has been removed by boiling.

Sepia,
a brown colour originally obtained from the ink-bag of a species of cuttle-fish.

Sepia Draqing, a neutral tinted picture coloured with sepia.

Shellac,
crude lac resin melted into plates. See lac.

Silwerweed,
the popular name of the Potentilla anserina, a roadside weed, the roots of which, being extremely astringent, are sometimes used for tanning, and the distilled water is employed as a cosmetic.

Smalts,
a vitreous substance obtained by melting together zaffres, a regulus of cobalt, potash and siliceous matter, and grinding the produce to a fine powder, commercially known as powder-blue. It is employed to give a blue tinge to writing-paper, linen, and starch, and, not being affected by fire, is much employed in painting earthenware. Some is made in this country, but the bulk used, about 60 tons a-year, comes from Holland.

Smoke-black,
a substance prepared by the combustion of different resinous bodies, especially of pitch in large pans under a dome or chimney; within this cloths are suspended to which the soot becomes attached. This pecies of carbon is employed only in the arts; in the manufacture of printers' ink, or blacking for shoes, &c.

Soorma,
a sulphuret of antimony, with which Indian women anoint the eyelids.

Spanish black
a powder obtained by burning cork in close vessels.

Sumach, shumac,
the dried and chopped leaves and shoots of the Rhus coriaria, a shrub growing in Southern Europe. When ground to powder in a mill, sumach is largely used for dyeing and tanning. The colouring matter is yellow. Our imports, average about 18,000 tons per annum.



----------------- Supplement

Relbum,
a name for the roots of Calceolaria arachnoidea which are largely collected in Chili for dyeing woollen cloths crimson.

Roum,
a blue dye-stuff of Assam, obtained from a species of Ruellia.

Sahtian,
a yellow dyed leather made from goat skins in Roumelia.

Salampores,
dyed long.cloths, generally blue, made in pieces of about 18 yards.

Sienna,
a brown pigment; a brown mottled marble.

Sileslas,
dyed calicoes.

Sindoor,
a name for vermilion in Bengal.

Suringes,
the flower buds of Calysaccion longifolium, collected in India for dyeing silk yellow.



1.9.15

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: O, P, Q (väriin liittyvät sanat)


The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.
1872.


Oak-bark,
the bark of the oak which is largely used for tanning; the inner cortical of young trees being preferred, as containing a larger proportion of tannin. Besides our home supplies of oak-bark, estimated at 200,000 to 800,000 tons per annum, 4000 to 5000 tons more are imported from the Continent for use in the tanneries. See Flittern-bark.

Ochre,
an argillaceous earth of different colours, which, when finely ground, is used as a pigment: a name given to the oxides of various metals. Red ochre is a form of specular iron ore; brown ochre a variety of hematite.

Oil-colours,
painters' colours or pigments, formed of mineral substances worked up with oil, for ornamenting and preserwing wood, stone, &c., Besides the large quantity used at home, painters' colours, to the value of nearly half a million sterling, are exported.

Oozem
soft mud or slime; a tanner's name for a solution of oak-bark, or other tanning material, in a cistern, in which the hide or skin is immersed.

Orange,
a colour composed of equal parts of red and yellow; a fruit.

Orcanett.
See Alkanet,

Orchal,
see Orchilla, and Archil.

Orchilla,
a name of various dye-lichens, varieties of Roccella and Lecanora; R. fuciformis and tinctoria, imported from the Canary and Cape de Verde islands, Angola and Lima.

Orpiment,
yellow sulphuret of arsenic.

Orseille,
See Archil.

Oxides or iron,
the rust on iron from which various pigments and polishing powders are prepared by chemists, bearing special commercial names.

Paint,
a popular general name for all colouring substances used as pigments; to lay on colours.

Paint-box,
a child's box containing cakes of water-colours.

Pala,
a name in India for the Wrightia tinctoria, from which a species of Indigo is obtained; in Italy, a wooden shovel of any kind; a battledore; the blade of an oar.

Peach-wood,
a name for the Nicaraqua-wood (Cæsalpinia echibata), a concentrated decoction of which is largely used as a dye-stuff. See Nicaragua-wood.

Pen,
a shaped quill or metal instrument for writing with; a coop for poultry; a fold for cattle; a reservoir of water; a name in Scotland for the dung of towls.

Pencil,
a black lead, slate, or other instrument, or brush, for writing or drawing.

Perch,
a linear-measure of 5½ yards; a square perch is equivalent to the 160th of an acre, or the 40th of a rood; a term applied to the French decametre. Also the name of a fish, one species, the Sander (Perca Lucio-perca), is very common in the rivers which empty themselves into the Black sea. It is cured like cod, and might readily supply the place of it. The roe is much in request in the Levant; the oil is also more in esteem than that of other fish, and might very well be used for burning; for purposes of tanning; for the manufacture of soap; for the preparation of common colours, &c.

Perelle,
a name for the crab's-eye lichen, the Lecanora Parella, found on rocks in mountainous countries, which yields a purple dye equal to that of archil.

Pernambyca-wood,
a name for the Cæsalpinia echinata. See Brazil-wood, and Peach-wood.

Persio,
a colouring matter prepared from lichens, the mass being of a drier character than archil. See Cudbear.

Philadelphia Bark,
see Quercitron.

Pigment,
a paint; any colour used by painters.

Pink,
a painter's colour, a yellowish or pale red, or light crimson, of which the chief varieties are rose-pink, Dutch, and English-pink; a garden-flower; a vessel with a round setern and bulging sides, capable of carrying a large cargo; to slash cloth: to work in eyelet holes.

Pink-saucer,
a little saucer, containing safflower prepared with a small portion of soda, and used for giving a flesh tint to silk stockings, &c.

Pink-stern,
a ship with a high, narrow stern.

Pi-pi,
the legumes of Cæsalpinia Papan used as a tanning material, but inferior to Divi-divi.

Plaster-of-Paris,
a comon name for sulphate of lime or gypsum, from its occurrence in the Paris formation.

Plumbago,
a carburet of iron commonly known as black lead, and also called graphite, used for making crucibles and leads for pencils; we import large quantities from Ceylon. A genus of plants with acrid, caustic properties. See Lead-word.

Polishing-paste,
a kind of blacking or paste for harness and leather; a substance compounded in oil, beeswax, and spirit varnish, for giving a polish to articles of household furniture.

Pomegranate-Bark,
a name for the rind of the pomegranate fruit, which is used in medicine, and in dyeing, on account of its astringency. It is also said to be employed for tanning Morocco leather. The bark of the root is emetic and purgative, and administered for worms.

Potash,
such constituents on burned vegetables as are very soluble in water, and fixed in the fire; the lixivium of the ashes of wood fuel evaporated in iron pots. Thesea ashes are principally used in the manufacture of flint glass, prussiate of potash, and soft soap. The imports of pot and pearl ash range from 4000 to 9000 tons a-year.

Potelot,
(French), black lead.

Powder-blue,
a name for smalts.

Prickle yellow,
a very common Wst Indian wood, the procude of Xanthoxylon clava Herculis, used for furniture, flooring and inlaying, and said to afford a dye., and to possess medicinal properties. See Yellow-Wood.

Prussian-blue,
a well known fugitive colour, used in dyeing, for tinting paper, and by weatherwomen. It is obtained by mixing a solution of sulphate of iron and yellow prussiate of potash.

Prussian-bue Manufacturer,
a manufacturing chemist who prepares this pigment, which is chiefly made at Newcastle, Birmingham, Hull, and London.

Pulas,
a name in India for the Butea frondosa, and B. superba. Their fibre is used for cordage, or beaten to a kind of oakum, for caulking boats. It is also called dhak. The flowers are used for dyeing.

Purpurine,
a substance extracted from Garancine by alum.

Purree,
a yellow pigment obtained from India. See Indian yellow.


Quercitron,
a name for the black oak (Quercus tinctoria) of the United States, the wood of which is caluable for building, and for cutting into staves: the bark is used for tanning, while the cellular integument is extensively employed in dyeing wood, silk, and paper hangings, and forms an important article of export from Philadelphia.



----------------- Supplement

Pink-boat,
a Dutch vessel.

Pitch pink,
the Pinus resinosa (Aiton) of North America; the name is also given to P. rigida.

Pohutu kawa,
a useful New Zealand timber tree, the Metrosideros tomentosa; the bark is used for tanning.

Poland starch,
a technical name in the trade for blue starch.

31.8.15

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: M, N (väriin liittyvät sanat)


The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.
1872.


Madder,
the root of Rubia tinctoria, which enters largely into commerce, furnishing a fine scarlet colour to dyers and calico-printers.

Massicot,
a manufacturing name for a tolerably pure oxide of lead, the protoxide used by glass-makers.

Mastic,
a choice and valuable white resin obtained from the Pistacia lenticus, which forms the basis of a varnish for paper; a building cement made from Portland stone, sand, and a quantity of litharge.

Mazarine,
a deep blue.

Mendee,
an Indian name for henna. See Henna.

Mica,
a transparent mineral in flakes, largely used in America, and to some extent, in this country, for the opening of stoves, in order to affor a view of the fire. It is often confounded wih talc.

Minium,
a kind of red lead obtained by exposing lead or its protoxdife to heat, till it is converted to a red oxide.

Mordant,
a chemical base used in calico-printing to fix the colours, such as alum; a liquid mixture, used in dyeing, which enables the colour to combine permanently with the fabric.

Morita,
a Spanish name for the fustic-tree, Maclura tinctoria. See Fustic.

Mosaic-Gold,
a bisulphuret of tin imported from germany under the name of bronze powder, used for ornamental work, especially paper-hangings; an alloy of equal proportions of copper and zinc. A common composition for trinkets, is 75 part gold, 25 parts copper, and a little silver.

Mosaics,
inlaid patterns of pictures. There are several kinds of mosaic, but all of them consist in embedding fragments of different-coloured stones, gems, marbles, and even glass in a cement, so as to produce a fancy pattern, or the effect of a picture.

Mother-of-Pearl,
the commercial name for the iridescent shell of the pearl oyster and other molluscs.

Munjeet,
the commercial name for the root of Rubia munjista, largely used for the same purposes as madder.

Murex,
the handsome shell of a mollusc, many varieties of which are esteemed by collectors. Some species of Murex, and Purpua, yielded the Tyrian purple dye of the ancients.

Muscovite, Muscovy-glass,
a name for mica.

Nankeen,
a buff-coloured cotton cloth, made in China from a species of yellowish cotton grown in the Nankin district.

Naples-yellow,
a pigment prepared by calcining antimony and lead, with alum and salt. It was employed in oil-painting and also for porcelain and enamel, but is now superseded by chromate of lead.

Neb-neb, Nib-nib,
the pods of the Acacia Nilotica, which are used for tanning in Egypt.

Nicaragua wood,
an inferior kind of Brazilwood, the produce of Cæsalpinia echinata. used to dye a bright fugitive fancy red. It is also called peach-wood.

Nitrate of Lead,
crystallized nitric acid and oxide of lead, which is much employed in the chrome yellow style of calico-printing.

Nitrate of Silver,
nitric acid and silver, much used as an indelible ink for writing upon linen with a pen.


----------------- Supplement

Malapoo,
the dried flower of Cedrela toona, used in India for dyeing yellow.

Mangkudu,
the root of Morinda umbellata, which affords a red dye.

Marena,
a species of Russian madder.

30.8.15

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: K, L (väriin liittyvät sanat)


The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.
1872.


Kaleidoscope,
a highly ingenious optical instrument, showing, by the change of position a small pieces of coloured glass, a great variety of beautiful design, which have been found very usedul to patterndrawers. It was invented by Sir David Brewster of Edinburgh.

Kaolin,
a porcelain earth derived from the decomposition of the feldspathic granites, and much used for fine pottery. This earth is met with in Assam, Bangalore, Madras, China, and other parts of Asia, whence the name is derived.

Kermes,
an insect produced on the Quercus coccifera, which furnishes a red colouring matter. Also the name for a brick-red mineral powder, a factitious sulphuret of antimony, for dyeing, and formerly used in medicine.

Khenna,
a Persian dye for the hair, used in the baths of Constantinople.

Kino,
an astringent substance obtained from various Australian and Indian trees, and containing a large proportion of tannic acid. It occurs in shining grains of a rich ruby red colour. In India, kino is used for dyeing cotton a nankeen colour, and is also employed in medicine.

Lac,
in Hindoo numeration, 100,000; a lac of rupees is therefore £10,000; a crore is 100 lacs; a resious incrustation produced on the boughs of trees by the puctures of the Coccus lacca insect; and which forms the basis of dyes, varnishes, and sealing-wax, entering largely into commerce. Our imports of crude lac, and lac dye, amount to abut 1500 tons a year, worth about £88,000.

Lac-dye,
small square cakes of lac, for dyeing red colours.

Lake,
a pigment of a fine crimson red colour, of which there are several kinds. Common lake is obtained from Brazil wood, which affords a very fugitive colour. Superior red lakes are prepared from lac, cochineal, or kermes, and the best from madder root. See garancine.

Lamp-black,
the carbon of smoke formed by burning vegetable substances in confined air. It constitutes the basis of lithographic and printing inks, and also an oil paint.

Lana,
a close-grained wood obtained in Demerara from Genipa Americana, which is not liable to split. The tree will frequently square from 14 to 18 inches. The fruit yields the pigment known as Lana dye, with which the Indians stain their faces and persons. Lana is also the Italian for wool; and a Russian weight of 526½ grains.

Lana-dye,
a bluish-black colour used by the Indians of Guiana for staining their persons. See Caruto.

Lazulite,
a blue spar, found in crystals, and in masses in Europe and in Brazils.

Lead-pencil,
a pencil containing black-lead, or compressed plumbago.

Leather-dyer,
a stainer of leather; one who colours the outer surface.

Leather-enameller,
a varnisher of leather; the workman who gives the glossy surface for which patent leather is remarkable.

Linseed-oil,
a well-known commercial yellow oil obtained fro mthe seed of the flaxplant (Linum usitatissimum).

Litmus,
cakes of blue dye prepared in Holland from the Lecanorea tartarea and other lichens, and chiefly used for chemical tests.

Litmus-paper,
unsized paper stained with litmus, used as a delicate test of acidity.



----------------- Supplement

Kahroba,
the Hindustani name for Amber.

Kamala,
a pubescent down covering the capsules of the Rottlera tinctoria, used for dyeing orange, and medicinally.

Kempy-wool,
a wool which has short white hairs at the root of the staple, that never takes the dye, and disfigures all goods into which they are introduced.

Kena,
anoother name for Henna.

King's yellow,
a pigment, the basis of which is orpiment or yellow sulphuret of arsenic.

Kirritochee,
a name for the fruit of Terminalia angustifolia, imported for dyeing.

Koheul, Kohl,
a sulphuret of antimony or of lead, used in parts of Africa and Palestine, &c., to tint the eyelids, and as a cormetic.

Kurpah,
a kind of indigo made in Madras from the wet leaf.

Kutlukur,
a dye-wood from Cashmere.


Lackmus,
(German) litmus.

La-kao,
a Chinese green dye, obtained from Rhamnus cartharticus.

Lo-kao,
see La-kao.

Lucee,
a tree of the myrtlye family, the leaves of which are used in Gulana for dyeing black.

29.8.15

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: H, I, J (väriin liittyvät sanat)


The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.
1872.


Hair-dye,
a preparation used for darkening or altering the colour of the hari. Almos every hair-dresser has a nostrum of his own; many of these are extremely injurious, containing oxide of lead, which is absorbed by the skin.

Hat-dyer,
a workman who dyes beaver hats black.

Heliotrope,
green quartz with blood-red spots and veins; a flower. See Bloodstone.

Hematin,
the colouring principle of logwood.

Hematite,
a rich ore of iron of which there are several varieties, the red, black, purple, brown, &c.

Hematosin,
the red colouring matter of blood; in its dried state is sold for making Prussian blue.

Henna,
an Indian colouring substance obtained from the shoots of the Lawsonia inermis. The Mahometan women use it for dyeing the nails red; the manes and tails of the horses in Arabia and Barbary, are also stained red in the same manner. The destilled water of the flowers is used as a perfume.

Humbalau,
the Malay name for lac.

Indian-Ink,
a black pigment used for water colour painting.
See China-ink.

Indian-madder,
see Chay.

Indian-red,
a purple red, variety of -

Indian -yellow,
a dye of questionable origin, said to be procured from the urine of the cow, after eating decayed and yellow mango leaves; other authorities refer it to camels' dung. Analysis shows it to be composed chiefly on purreic acid, combined with magnesia. Its name, in some parts of the East, is Purree.

Indigo,
a blue dye-stuff of commerce, obtained principally from the leaves of Indigofera, largely cultivated in India; but other plants yield it in small quantities.

Indigo-blue,
washing blue prepared in small lumps for laundresses, who use it to tint the water for rinsing their linen.

Indigo-manufacturer,
a preparer of the colouring substance by maceration, &c., from the leaves of the indigo plant.

Indigo-planter,
a cultivator of indigo, which is now chiefly grown in the East Indies; but was formerly largely cultivated in the West Indies and Central America.

Ingrain,
a name given to yarns, wools, &c., dyed with fast colours before manufacture.

Ink,
a Japanese long measure, nearly 75 inches; a pigment or fluid for writing or printing with, or which there are several kinds. Black writing.ink is commonly made from salts of iron with various astringent vegetable infusions. The best materials are sulphate of iron and nutgalls, suspended by mucliage of gum arabic; other ingredients as logwood, sulphate of copper, and sugar, are sometimes added. Blue ink is made with sulphate of indigo; red ink with Brazil wood infused in vinegar or alcohol, alum and gum. Black printing-ink is made of lamp-black, linseed oil, rosin, brown soap, and a small quantity of indigo. See Ing.

Inkbottle,
a receptable for ink of various forms.

Inking-roller,
a composition roller with hadles, used by printers for spreading ink over type, wood-cut blocks, or engarved plates.

Inking-table,
a table of a peculiar construction, used by letter-press printers to supply the roller with the requisite quantity of ink during the process of printing.

Ink-powder maker,
a manufacturer of a dry composition for making ink with.

Iron-liquor,
a solution of acetate of iron used as a mordant by calico printers. It is usually called printers' liquor.

Ivory and Bone Stainer,
a workman who colours these substances.

Ivory-black,
animal charcoal; a powder prepared by heating ivory shavings in an iron cylinder; when from bones, it is called bone-black. See Bone-black.

Ivory-black Manufacturer,
a maker of animal charcoal from calcined ivory refuse. It is used as the basis of the finer black pigments, and for ink for copperplate printers.

Japan,
a varnish for metallic and other articles, made of linseed oil, umber, and turpentine; another kind is made of seedlac and spirits of wine with a colouring substance added.

Japan-Earth, Terra Japonica.
See Gambier

Japan-maker,
a manufacturer of the varnish termed japan.

Japanned-leather,
enamelled or vanished leather prepared with several coatings of a mixture, consisting of linseed-oil, Prussian-blue, and lamp-black, rubbed in with the hand and then dried in a stove.

Japanner,
a varnisher; one who lays a japan upon substances.



----------------- Supplement

Hinay,
the bark of Eloecarpus Hinau, used for dyeing in New Zealand.

Hursinghor,
a name in India for the flowers of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis usef for dyeing yellow or orange.

Jaffna moss,
a dye lichen, Alectoria sarmentosa, collected in Ceylon for tinctorial purposes.

Japan wax,
a solid white vegetable tint, obtained boiling seeds of Rhus succelanea.

Jiquilite,
the native name for the indigo plant in Central America.

28.8.15

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: E, F, G (väriin liittyvät sanat)


The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.
1872.


Ebony,
a heavy hard black wood, obtained from the Diospyrus ebenus, much used by turners,a and for inlaying work by cabinet makers. Green ebony is used as a dyewood, and comes principally from the West Indies.

Enamel,
a thin opaque or partially transparent coating of glass of various colours on a metallic surface; a porcelaineous surface is thus given to the interior of iron cooking utensils. The white glass for pottery is also called enamel. The process of painting with coloured glass, and with different mineral colours on gold and copper, is termed enamelling. The basis of all kinds of enamel is a pure glass, which is rendered wither transparent or opaque, by the admixture of metallic oxides. White enamel is made by melting the oxide of tin with glass.

Encaustic,
a method of painting in heated or burnt wax. The term is also now very generally applied to all kinds of painting, where the colours are laid on or fixed by heat, so as to be rendered permanent and brilliant.

Faiance, fayance,
delft-ware; china or pottery embellished with painted designs.

Favo,
(Spanish), a cake of yellow wax.

Feuille-morte,
the colour of a faded leaf.

Flake-white,
a sub-nitrate of bismuth; oxidised carbonate of lead in the form of scales or plates; when levigated, it is called body white.

Flacine,
a vegetable extract from the United States, in the form of a light brown or greenish yellow powder, which contains much colouring amtter and tannin, and takes the place of quercitron bark. It gives a fine olive yellow colour to cloth.

Florentine,
meat baked in a dish with a cover of paste; a kind of wrought satin made in Florence; a lake colour extracted from the shreds of scarlet cloth.

Flores,
a commercial classification of indigo, the best quality of dye from Nos. 7 to 9.

Frankfort-black,
a pigment said to be prepared by burning vine branches, grape stones, and the refuse lees of the wine manufacture, &c., used for copper-plate printing.

Fullers'-earth,
a variety of oolite clay, containing about 25 per cent. of alumina, which removes stains of grease from cloth. About 6000 tons a year are used in this country.

Furniture-polish,
a kind of spirit varnish, or ooil, used for articles of room furniture. It is often sold under the name of French-polish. Bees' wax is sometimes used.

Fustic,
a well.-known hard strong yellow dye-wood. The old fustic of commerce is obtained from the Maclura tinctoria, a tree of South America. The wood is admirably adapted for the felloes of carriage and cart wheels. The young fustic of commerce is procured from Rhus cotinus. Our supplies of the former come from Cuba, Tampico, Puerto Cabello, and the Spanish Main.

Falbanum,
a yellowish brown fetid resin obtained in Persia from Opoidia galbanifera, and used medicinally.

Gall,
a small piece of silver with characters on one side, used as a coin in Cambodia, and worth about 4d. sterling; the bitter fluid secreted by the liver; ox-gall is used for scouring cloth; and, then refined, by artists to fix chalk and pencil drawings before tinting them. See Gals.

Gallic-acid,
a peculiar acid obtained from nut-galls, divi divi, and other vegetable substances, rich in tannin. It is used in photography and as a test to detect iron: and is well known as an ingredient of black dye and ink.

Galls, Nut-galls,
spherical concretions and excrescences formed upon the leaves and leaf stalks of several species of oak and tamarisk in the South of Europe. They are made by the puncture of the female gall fly. There are blue or black, green and white galls; the last are of little value. Those from Aleppo are the best. In India, myrobalons and the fruit of different species of Terminalia, are called galls. The imports of galls have been increasing lately, and about 1300 bags of 1 or 2 cwt. are imported in some years.

Gambier,
an extract prepared at Singapore from the Uncaria gambir and used as a dye and tanning substance. It is misnamed in trade circles Terra Japonica. The imports in the last few years have averaged 6000 tons per annum.

Gamboge,
a yellow resin used as a pigment, and in medicine as a purgative; obtained in the East from species Hebradendron and Stalagmites; our supplies come chiefly from Siam.

Garance, Garanoine,
powdered madder root; an extract made from it.

Gauze,
a thin transparent textile fabric, woven of thread and silk, and sometimes of thread only; it is made either plain or figured.

Gauze-dyer,
one who colours gauze fabrics.

Gilding,
the process of laying thin gold over any surface.

Gilding-Size,
a pure description of size for the use of gilders.

Glauconite,
a green sand of Rhenish Westphalia.

Glaze,
a powder or liquid applied to the surface of pottery-ware, which vitrifies by heat.

Gold-leaf,
gold beaten into a thin film, varying in thickness according to the use for which it is to be applied. It is largely employed in gilding frames, cornices, projecting leters, shop fronts &c., and is sold in books containing about twenty-five leaves.

Graphite,
a valuable mineral used for black-lead pencils, melting-pots, and as a polish for iron stoves: also as a lubricator for fine machinery. It is better known as plumbago.

Green-cloth,
baize, &c., for covering tables.

Green-ebony,
a wood obtained from the Jacaranda ovalifolia, a native of the West Indies, and used both as a hard turning wood and as a dye-stuff: about 600 or 700 tons are imported annually. See Ebony.

Green paints,
oil-colours, of which the chief varieties are emerald, mineral, green copperas, mountain sap, and Brunswick greens.

Green-sand,
a silicious stone found in the Blackdown HIlls, Devon, used as a whetstone for scythes, &c.

Green vitriol,
crystallized suplhate of iron used in making ink, Prussian blue, and sulphuric acid; als oemployed in dyeing.

Gum arabic,
a general trade name for several descriptions of clear soluble gums. The best, or true white gum, is yielded by Acacia verek of Guillemin, the red gum arabic by A. Adansonii: A. vera also yields gum arabic and a part of the senegal gum. Our imports of gum arabic are about 3000 tons a year.

Gum-lac,
see Lac.

Gypsum,
a well-known mineral, softer than limestone, which when calcined and powdered, forms plaster of Paris. In the crushed state it is used as a manure in North america. The large blocks are wrought into alabaster ornaments.




----------------- Supplement

Facia-writer,
one who paints letters on the fascia, over the window of a shop, &c.

Grabb,
indigo broken very small, which is only bought by consumers, and not held by dealers.

Grey-goods,
a name in the cotton manufacturing districts for unbleached and undyed cottons.


27.8.15

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: D (väriin liittyvät sanat)


The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.
1872.


Dalim, darimba,
vernacular names in India for the pomegranate, large quantities of which are imported into the norht of India from Cabul and Cashmere. The rind on account of its great astringency is used in medicine, in tanning, and in dyeing yellow. The roots are considered a good vermifuge.

Dammer,
a valuable resin of two kinds, obtained in India, the white from the Valeria Indica and Shorea robusta, and the black from Canarium commune; a name sometimes given in Scotland to miner.

Discoloration,
the art of altering the colour of any thing; injury or damage to walls or goods, &c.

Divi-divi,
a commercial name for the wrinkled pods of the Caesalpina coriaria, used in tanning.

Dogwood,
the produce of Piscidia erythrina, a deciduous tree indigenour to the tropics; the bark of the roots is used as a narcotic to stupefy fish. The dogwood of America (Cornus florida) is used for inlaying by cabinet-makers; the bark is also an esteemed tonic, and used in the manufacture of ink and false quinine.

Dragon's Blood,
a resinous astringent extract, of a deep red colour, obtained from the fleshy fuits of the Calamus Draco, a plant of Sumatra and the Malay Islands. It is schiefly used as a colouring ingredient for spirit and turpentine varnishes and paints, for staining marble, preparing gold lacker, dentifrices, &c.

Dutch-Gold-Leaf,
a mixture of copper and zinc, in the form of thin leaves or foil, in the proportion of eleven parts of copper to two of zinc. See Leaf Metal and Bronze-Powder.

Durch-pink,
a painter's yellow colour, obtained from the plant Reseda luteola.

Dye,
a colour, stain, or tinge.

Dyeing,
the process of colouring substances by immersion; the art of developing and extracting the colouring particles from any substance, and of uniting and fixing them afterwards upon cloth, stuff, or any other material.

Dyer,
one whose occupation is to dye fabrics, &c., and who practises the art of staining or colouring cloth.

Dyers' Company,
one of the livery companies of London, whose hall is situate in College-street, Dowgate-hill.

Dyers'-Weed,
the Genista tinctoria, Reseda luetola, and Isatis tinctoria, native plants which are sometimes used by dyers.

Dye-saucer Maker,
a preparer of pink saucers and rouge colouring substances.

Dyester,
a Scotch name for a dyer.

Dyestuffs,
a collective trade term for the dyewoods, lichens, powders and dye-cakes entering into commerce for dyeing and staining purposes.

Dye-woods,
various foreign woods, used by the dyer and stainer, usually cut and ground, to extract colours from.


----------------- Supplement

Dhak,
a name for Butea frondosa, which furnishes a dye and resin, &c.

26.8.15

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: C (väriin liittyvät sanat)


The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.
1872.



Cactine,
a name given to the red colouring matter obtained from the fruit of some species of Cacti and Opuntia.

Cadmium Yellow,
the commercial name for the sulphide of cadmium, and artist's paint, the finest and most permanent of all the yellow pigments in use.

Calico,
a heneral term for any plain white cloth made from cotton, but which receives peculiar distinctive names as it improves in quality and strength, and according to the purposes for which it is used. In the United States the term is restricted by popular usage to prints. Dyed calicoes are used for book-binding. There are sper calicoes, shirting calicoes, unbleached calicoes, &c.

Calico and Silk Printer,
a workman who imprints coloured figures on silks and cottons, by cylindrical machinery, but the term is usually applied to the master-manufacturers or owners of print-works.

Calico-Printing,
the process of impressing figured patterns upon cotton by coloured substances.

Canadian Yellow-root,
the Hydrastis Canadensis, which furnishes a valuable bitter and useful yellow dye.

Carbolic acid,
a tar creasote, which possesses extraordinary antiseptic properties, and has been used to preserve bodies for dissection, and the skins of animals intended to be stuffed. A valuable dye-stuff is also made from it, called carboazotic acid, which gives magnificent straw-coloured yellows on silk and woollen fabrics.

Carbon,
a commercial name for wood charcoal; the soot and smoke of lamps, gas, and other substances of vegetable origin, is carbon almost pure. Carbon has many uses; it forms the base of a durable ink; of crayons; of the filtering substances, such as charcoal, bone, and ivory black. It is a valuable fertilizer, and deodorizer, and one of the best fuels for reducing metals.

Cardinello,
the Spanish name for verdigris.

Carmine,
a beautiful lake pigment, a fine bright crimson inclining to scarlet, formed by a combination of cochineal, alumina, and oxide of tin. In consequence of being more transparent than other colours, it is chiefly used for miniature painting, artificial-flower tinting, and water-colour drawing.

Caruto,
a name for the Lana dye, a permanent and beautiful bluish-black colour, obtained in British Guiana fro mthe juice of the fruit of the Genipa Americana.

Cassius-purple,
a beautiful pigment used for staining glass and painting porcelain; a mixture of oxide of tin and gold.

Catechu,
an inspissated extract frm the wood, &c., of several Indian trees, chiefly the Areca palm and the Acasia catechu, used in medicine and as an astringent, and by dyers as a source of tannic acid. See Cutch and Gambier.

Ceruleum,
a blue Roman pigment, a silicate of copper.

Ceruse,
a name given to white-lead paint, a preparation from thin plates of lead exposed to the hot vaporous exhalations of vinegar or other acid.

Chalk,
the carbonate of lime, a white calcareous deposit occurring with flint nodules. Chalf forms the basis of whiting, crayons, and some white colours. In agriculture, chalk is perhaps the most extensively employed of the limestone species, being added in many instances to the soil to alter the constituents and to fertilize land. In medicina it is used in the form of prepared chalk and compound chalk powder, as an astringent and ant-acid.

Chalk-Drawing,
a drawing sketched and filled in with black and coloured crayons.

Chalk-lime,
the burnt carbonate of chalk from which heat has driven off the carbonic acid.

Charbon (French),
coal, charcoal, bitumen.

Charcoal, animal,
a form of carbon obtained by burning bone or the chippings of hides, leather, &c., which is used for filtering or decolorizing vegerable solutions.

Charcoal, vegetable,
charred or burnt wood, which is largely used for fuel on the Continent, and is also valued for making glass, steel, and as a deodorizer when powdered: cylinder charcoal obtained by distilling non-resinous woods is used in the manufacture of gunpowder. See Carbon.

Chay,
a red dye-stuff obtained in India from the root of Hedyotis umbellata, and used by dyers for the same purposes as madder.

Chemic,
a commercial name for bleaching

Chermes,
(Italian), cochineal. See Kermes.

China-clay,
decomposed felspar of the granite, a fine potter's clay largely used in ceramic manufactures, being first artificially cleaned and prepared in Cornwall.

China Ink,
a black pigment made from oil and lampblack thickened with gelatine or isinglass, and scented with musk or camphor. It is ordinarily known as Indian ink, and many cheap and poor imitations of it are made.

Chrome, Chromite, Chromium,
an important mineral. The green oxide furnishes a valuable colour for oil-painting, enamel, and porcelain. Chrome iron ore forms the basis of many of the coloured preparations of chrome used in dyeing, and for the production of chromate of potash.

Chrome-Yellow,
the chromate of lead, a rich pigment of various shades from deep orange to the palest canary-yellow.

Chromic-Acid,
a chemical preparation in the form of an orange red coloured powder, much used by bleachers and calico printers.

Chrysammic-acid,
a newly invented colouring matter obtained from aloes, which is also called polychromate.

Cobalt,
a mineral, the oxides of which are used for colouring glass and porcelain blue.

Cobalt Bloom,
the red arseniate of cobalt; a beautiful mineral found with the ores of cobatl, and used in the manufacture of smalt.

Cochenilla Wood,
the heart of a tree shipped from St. Domingo, furnisging a handsome furniture wood.

Cochineal,
the dried carcases of the female Coccus cacti, an insect which feeds on several species of Opuntia. Cochineal is a brilliant scarlet colour, and also furnishes the beautiful carmine pigment. In 1855, 1375 tons of cochineal were imported into the United Kingdom.

Color, colour,
a dye or pigment; a flag or standard. The colours of a ship or regiment are the national ensign or some special distinguishing flag. See Ensign.

Color-box,
a box with cakes of water-colours.

Colored-Glass,
stained glass for windows, Bohemian or fancy glass arcicles.

Colored-saucer-maker,
one wo manufactures what are termed pink saucers, used by ladies for rouging purposes, and to give a flesh tint to silk stockings when washing them. See Pink Saucer.

Color-Extractor,
an apparatus patented by M. Bourra, and shown at the Great Exhibition 1851, for removing colours from fabrics.

Color-man,
a vender of paints, &c. who is usually styled an oil-and-colour man.

Color-manufacturer,
one who prepares and compounds colours.

Color-Serjeant,
a non-commissioned military officer, who supports the ensign-bearer of a regiment.

Copal-varnish,
an important and useful varnish much used in the arts and manufactures.

Copperas,
a popular name for the beautiful, green crystals forming sulphate of iron, also called green vitriol.

Cosmetics,
nostrums and preparations for improving the hair and beautifying the skin, many of which are at best of doubtful utility.

Coumatch,
a red twill made in Russia.

Cowsoon, Coosong,
a kind of nankeen dyed black; an article of trade in the Philippine and Sunda islands.

Crab-wood,
a light wood obtained in Guiana from the Carapa Guianensis which takes a high polish, and is used for masts and spars, floorings, partitions, and doors of houses. There are two varieties, the red and the white. It may be cut from 40 to 60 feet in length, with a square of 14 to 16 inches. The bark is used for tanning and the seeds yield a valuable oil, which is used for burning, and is highly esteemed as a hair oil, preventing it turning grey, and curing scalpy eruptions.

Crocus,
a commercial name for a polishing powder made from oxides of iron.

Crottles,
a Scottish name for certain mosses and lichens used in the Highlands for dyeing woollen stuffs brown, &c.; Parmelia physodes is the dark brown crottle; Sticka pulmonacea, the light brown crottle; Isidium corallinum, the white crottle, used in the preparation of red or crimson dye. The isidiod from of other crustaneous lichens may be used in a similar way. Lecanora parella is another, Permelia omphalodes is the black crottle; and P. saxatilis is one of the crottles most frequently used in dyeing yarn.

Cudbear,
a red powder sometime called persis, obtained from the Lecanora tartarea and other lichens, by steeping in ammoniacal liquor, and which yields a rich purple colour, employed in dyeing yarn. See Archil.

Cutch, Kuth.
See Catechu.

Cyanotype,
a process of taking solar portraits in Prussian blue, by a
wash of cyanogen on the prepared paper, whence the name.



----------------- Supplement

Catechu,
in the original language kate signifies a tree, and chu juice.

Curcumine,
the colouring principle of turmeric.



25.8.15

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: B (väriin liittyvät sanat)


The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.
1872.


Badigeon,
the French name for whitewash, gypsum, or plaster of Paris; also a composition of saw-dust and glue, used by joiners to fill up chinks in wood; a colouring substance or thick mortar for hiding defects in stone work.

Barchent,
the German name for fustian.

Barking,
a technical name for colorin or tanning sails, nets, cordage, &c.; also for stripping trees of their bark for the use of tanners.

Bar-Wood,
a red dye-wood, the produce of Baphia nitida, imported from Angola and Gaboon in Western Africa.

Berberine,
a bitter crystalline powder obtained from the root of Berberis vulgaris used as a substitute for quinine, and for colouring cottons and silks.

Berlin Wool,
various kinds of dyed worsted yarns, used by ladies for knitting and tapestry work.

Berries,
the seeds of plants, many of which enter into commerce, as bay-berries, juniper-berries, &c,M French and Persian berries re the small dried fruit of Rhamnus infectorius used for dyeing, also called yellow berries.

Bichromate of Potash,
a beautiful crystalline salt in large prisms, of a brilliant red color, used in dyeing and calico printing, obtained from chromate of iron, and which is the source of the chrome pigments. Mixed with sulphuric acid, it is a powerful oxidizing agent for bleaching oils and fats.

Billiard Cloths,
green woollen Broad cloth, manufactured to cover a billiard tble, which are piece dyed, and seventy-two to eighty-one inches wide.

Bismuth Ochre,
an oxide of bismuth found in Saxony, Bohemia, and Siberia.

Bitumen,
a solified earth-oil, or naphtha, which constitutes the inflammable principle of coal. See Asphaltum.

Black,
a money of Riga equal to about two French deniers or pennies; the darkest of colours used in painting.

Black-Ball,
a blacking composition used for polishing shoes.

Black-Borderer,
a person employed in painting the edges and borders on writing paper, envelopes, &c., with a margin of black, for the use of persons in mourning.

Black Chalk,
a grayish or bluish black slaty substance, also a preparation of ivory black and fine clay, used in crayon drawing.

Black Draught,
a popular purgative medicine, composed of epsom salts, senna, liquorice, and aromatics.

Black-Fluz,
a preparation of cream of tartar ignited in a close crucible; a carbonate of potash and charcoal.

Blacking,
a polishing paste or liquid, the chief ingredients of which are powdered bone black, sperm or linseed oil, molasses, sour beer or vinegar, oil of vitriol and copperas. Many thousands of tons of blacking are annually made in England.

Blacking Manufacturer,
a maker of liquid blacking, or polishing-pastes for leather.

Black Ink,
see Ink.

Black Jack,
a mining name for zinc blende or sulphide of zinc; a drinking cup of tin or leather; caramel or burnt sugar, which is used to colour spirits, cinegar, coffee &c.; a trade name for adulterated butter.

Black Japan,
a varnishing material made with tar and alcohol, or with lamp-black and resins.

Black-Lead,
a polishing material for iron stoves, &c. See Graphite and Plumbago.

Black-Lead Maker,
one who refines and prepares plumbago for various uses.

Black-Lead-Pencil Maker,
a manufacturer of pencils for draqing, marking, &c.

Black Paint,
the darkest pigment used. In oil colours there are ivory blacks, blue blacks and lamp blacks; in water colors we have also Indian Ink.

Black Plates,
a commercial name for thin sheets of iron not coated with tin.

Black Pudding,
a kind of sausage, made of sheep and pigs' blood, groats, suet, &c., enclosed in the dried intestines of swine and boiled. Many thousands of tons of these are made annually in Great Britain.

Blackrowgrams,
an iron-stone.

Black-Reviver Maker,
a manufacturer of a chemical preparation, for restoring the brilliancy of black dyed articles.

Blacks, a name for ink used in copperplate printing, prepared from the charred husks of the grape and residue of the winepress.

Black-Salt,
a chemical product in high repute as a specific among the natives of India. It is nothing ore than muriate of soda, fused with a species of myrobalan, whereby it acquires some of the qualities of the fruit, and a portion of iron. It also passes under the names of bitlaban, or bit-nolen.

Black Tin,
tin ore, beaten into a black and fine powder like sand for smelting.

Black Wad,
an ore of manganese used as a dryer for painters' colours.

Bleacher,
one who whitens linens, &c., by chemical agency, or by exposure to the atmosphere.

Bleaching,
the chemical process of removing the colour of cloth or vegetable substances.

Bleaching Powder,
chloride of lime, made by exposing slaked lime to the action of chlorine, which is used for bleaching linens, calicoes, and paper materials: many thousand tons of it are made annually in the kingdom.

Bley,
the German name for lead, bleyglotte being litharge, and bleyweess white lead.

Blood-root,
a popular name for the flesthy [...]mes of Sanguinaria Canadensis which furnishes an alkaloid, considered to be an acrid emetic, with stimulant and narcotic powers; also for the root of Geum Canadense, which has some reputation as a mind tonic.

Blue asbestos,
a hydrosilicate of iron, in delicate fibres, of an indigo blue color.

Blue-Backs,
a name for the North American herring, Clupea elongata; a variety of the money cowry.

Blue Cloth,
an Indian cotton fabric shipped from Madras.

Blue Copper,
an ore of copper, of an indigo blue colour.

Blue Gum-Wood,
a fine lofty tree of Australia, the Eucalyptus globulus, which is chiefly used for shipbuilding purposes.

Blue-ink,
See Ink.

Blue-John,
a miner's name for flor-spar, an esteemed variety of Derbyshire marble, which is worked up into vases and other ornaments.

Blue Lead,
see Galena.

Blue Light,
a kind of firework or night-signal which throws out a vivid light visible at a great distance.

Blue Paints,
of these some of the recognised commercial varieties are celestial, Prussian, common verditer, refiners' verditer, and indigo.

Blue-Peter,
a asquare flag with a white centre and blue border, usually hoisted at the mast-head of a ship to announce her intended departure for sea.

Blue Pill,
a preparation of mercury with confection fo roses, liquorice root in powder, and other substances; a common medicine.

Blue Polishing-stone,
a dark slate imported in small lengths for workers in silver, metal, &c., to polish off their work.

Blue-Stone,
a common name for sulphate of copper.

Blue-Vitriol,
the sulphate of copper, which is used medicinally and to burn off proud flesh, for dyeing and electrotyping.

Bluholtz,
a German name for logwood, the Nicaragua dyewood.

Bole,
a hydrated silicate of alumina; a friable argillaceous earth, which form a paste when moistened with water. The red or Armenian bole is used as a tooth-powder, and for giving a colour to sprats when pickled as anchovies, or pitted as paste for a breakfast relish. Powdered bole is used as an absorbent application sprinkled over ulcers. In time of scarcity this and other unctuous earths have been used in some coutries as a mechanical substitute of food.

Bone-Black,
a name for animal charcoal, the carbonaceous subtance which remains after the calcination of bones in close vessels.

Borax,
the biborate of soda. This salt is largely imported from India under the name of tincal, and after purification forms the refined borax of commerce. It is chiefly used as a flux for metals, and a constituent of the glazes for porcelain.

Braziletto,
the colonial name of a small tree, the Cæsalpinia Brasiliensis, the wood of which is much used for ornamental cabinet work, and is peculiarly adapted for carriage-wheel spokes. It was formerly used as a dye, but C. echinata has superseded it.

Brazil-wood,
a dye-wood obtained from the Cæsalpinia echinata, imported chiefly from Pernambuco and Costa Rica. It yields rose, red, or yellow color, according to the mordant used; but it is very fugitive, and now not largely used.

Bremen Green,
a pigment. See Verditer.

Bronze,
an alloy of copper in the proportion of 70 or 80 per cent.; with 20 to 30 percent of zinc, and small quantities of tin or lead; used for castings, &c. The proportion of the metals varies.

Bronze-powder,
a metallic powder resembling gold-dust. The principal uses of bronze colours are for japanning and bronzing tin and iron goods, statues, gas-fittings, papier maché work, printing, ornamental painting, and such like purposes. See Leaf Metal.

Brown Bess,
a name occasionally given to a musket with a brown barrel.

Brown Coal,
the German name for a species of lignite.

Brown Holland,
an unbleached linen, used for various articles of clothing and upholstery.

Browning,
a varnishing surface given to metals as gun barrels, &c., by chloride of antimony.

Brown Ochre,
a peroxide of iron.

Brown Paints,
in oil colours we have the following commercial varieties: English, Turkey, and burnst umbers, T. D. Sienna and burnt Sienna, Vandyke, purple, washed and Spanish browns.

Brown Spar,
a crystallized form of carbonate of iron.

Brunswick Green,
a pigment of various shades of colour, according to the sulphates added.

Buck-Thorn,
the Rhamnus catharticus. A syrup is made from the berries which is used in cases of dropsy and worms. The juice stains paper green.

Buckum-wood,
see Sapan-wood.

Buff,
a light drab colour; an oiled leather for polishing.



----------------- Supplement

Black,
a painter's colour of which the chief varieties are ivory-black, bine-black [bone-], and lamp-black.

Brown,
a painter's colour, the chief varietis of which are umber, Turkey, burnt Sienna, Vandyke, purple brown, washed brown and Spanish brown.

24.8.15

The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products: A (väriin liittyvät sanat)


The Commercial Dictionary of Trade Products, Manufacturing and Technical Terms: with a Definition of the Moneys, Weights, and Measures, of All Countries, Reduced to the British Standard.

By P. L. Simmonds, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," "Waste products and Undeveloped Substances," "The Curiosities of Food," etc., etc.

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

London: George Routledge and Sons, the Broadway, Ludgate;
New York: 416, Broome Street.
1872.


A Al
an Indian name for the root of the Morinda citrifolia, a dyeing substance.

Abaesum
an oxide of iron formerly used in medicine.

Abaiser,
a name for ivory black, or animal charcoal.

Abir-ubeer,
a yellowish to red powder, with which the natives in the East stain their flesh and clothes.

Abraum,
a red ochre used to darken new mahogany.

Acacia,
the mimosa tribe of trees, which furnish to commerce various gums, ex-tracs, and barks for tanning.

Acetates,
crystallisable satls, formed by the combination of any salifiable base with acetic acid; thus there are acetates of copper, of lead, of potash, &c., which bear other names in commerce, as verdigris, sugar of lead, &c.

Ach,
an Indian name for the Morinda tinctoria, which furnishes a red dye-stuff.

Achiote,
an American name for the seeds of the annotto plant, Bixa orellana.

Achromatic Glasses,
object lenses which collect light without producing coloured images.

Agalla,
a Spanish name for the nut gall.

Aguajaque,
the Spanish name for a kind of gum ammoniac.

Aguerras,
the Spanish name for spirits of turpentine.

Ahak,
in India slaked lime.

Alamode,
fashionable; the name of a thin glossy black silk, formerly made, used chiefly for women's hood and men's scarfs.

Alnarium,
a pure white lime or stucco, obtained from burnt marble.

Albatre,
the French name for alabaster.

Albite,
a variety of feldspar.

Albumen,
a constituent of the animal and vegetable fluids and solids, which enters into commerce in a dried state; chiefly the albumen of the egg and of blood. The principal use of albumen is in photography, and in the print manufactories and Manchester and in other districts.

Albuminous,
consisting of albumen.

Algarovilla,
the agglutinated seeds and husks of the legumes of Prosopis pallida, occasionally imported in mass from Chile. It contains a good deal of tannin.

Alizari,
a name in France and Tripoli for madder-root.

Alizarine,
a fine red volatile colouring matter, in he form of crystals, found in madder, and which yields to Turkey-red dye.

Aljezon,
the Spanish name for gypsum.

Alkanet,
the commercial name for the root of Anchusa tinctoria, a species of bugloss, from the South of Europe and the Levant, which imparts an elegant red colour to oils, and is used for staining wood.

Alkermes,
a confection of kermes berries (Coccus ilicis), used in Tuscany, also imported as a liqueur.

Alkool,
a black dye used by females in eastern countries to tinge their eyelids. See Henna.

Alligazant,
a kind of black rosewood.

Almacija,
one of the Spanish names for mastic.

Almagra,
a purplish red ochre, formerly used in medicine and as a pigment.

Alum,
an efflorescence found in aluminous rocks and lava, used in medicine, and in various manufactures of leather, paper, dyeing, &c.

Alum, factitious,
a powerful astringent salt in crystals, a bisulphate of alumina and potash, used in medicine and dyeing; of which many thousand tonsa are annually manufactured.

Alumina,
a kind of earth, which consists of pure clay or argil; in its crystalline form it is the base of corundum, emery, and other ard polishing substances used in the arts; combinations of it yield fuller's earh, pipeclay, ochres, &c.,; a dye for calicoprinters is procured from it, and it enters intot the manufacture of porcelain.

Anatto,
one of the modes of spelling the dye-stuff Annotto.

Anileria,
the Spanish name for an indigo manufactory.

Animal charcoal,
principally carbonized bone, used by sugar-refiners and by iron-makers in blistering steel; when obtained cheap, it forms a valuable fertilizer for land.

Annotto,
a dye-stuff prepared from the red pulp of the seeds of the Bixa orellana, which enters into commerce under two forms, flag and roll.

Antimony-Yellow, a preparation of antimony, of a durable colour, used in enamel and porcelain painting.

Antique-Bronze,
an alloy of copper and tin, used for statuary, casts, &c.

Antwerp-Blue,
a colour rather lighter in tint than Prussian blue.

Antwerp-Brown,
a painter's colour made from asphaltum ground in drying oil.

Arang,
a Malay name for charcoal.

Arbol-a-brea,
a resin of a greenish-gray colour, obtained from the Canarium album in the Philippines.

Archil,
a violet red paste prepared from various lichens, such as Roccella tinctoria and fuciformis. The most esteemed comes from the Canaries and the Cape de Verde islands; it is extensively used for dyeing silks and woollens, but, although it imparts a beautiful colour, it lacks permanence; other products are called persio and cudbear. See Orchilla.

Arnotto,
see Annotto.

Asbolane,
an earthy black cobalt used in manufacture of smalt.

Asphaltum,
a mineral pitch or bitumen obtained from the Levant, America, and the West Indies; dormerly used for embalming, now chiefly employed by artists for a black coatings or varnish.

Avignon-berries,
the small yellow dyeing berries of commerce, the produce of the buckthorn, Rhamnus amagdalinus.

Azafran,
the Spanish name for Saffron.

Azure,
a pale but clear and brilliant blue colour; a name for ultramarine, formerly made from lapis lazuli, but now artificially composed.

Azure Spar,
a variety of lazulite or blue spar.

Azurite,
blue carbonate of copper, a valuable ore found in carious localities at home and abroad.

----------------- Supplement

Aliakoo,
a name in India for the Memecylon tinctorium, the flowers and leaves of which are used for dyeing.

Anil,
(Spanish), indigo.

Aniline,
a product obtained from coal-tar, the base of many beautiful dyes.

Antoof,
an oak fungus used in tanning, which is an article of commerce in Turkey, selling for about 1½d. per pound.

Apple-galls,
a commercial name for the Dead Sea apples, Solanum Sodomeum.

23.8.15

Lukijain kyselyosasto. N:o 25. Vaaleakutri.

Kodin Lehti 37, 15.9.1917


Vastauksia:

N:o 25. Vaaleakutri. Onko todellakin syytä tuhria vaaleita kutrejaan? — Ehkäpä, koska sitä kysytte. Siis neuvot esille.

Minkä laatuista värjäystä haluatte: lyijyaineita, salpietarihappoisia, vismutti-, rauta- vaiko eläimellisiä aineita? — Jo kohta huomautamme, että kaupoissa olevat hiusten värjäysaineet ovat yleensä myrkyllisiä. Varsinkin lyijyaineet ovat vaarallisia, joista voi kadottaa näkönsäkin. Niitten kanssa ei siis kannata leikitellä.

Aineita on monenmoisia kutakin lajia. Mitä niistä esittäisimme? Ehkä salpietarihapokkeista, jota pidetään vaarattomana. Miksi vaaleatkutrit värjäämme? Ehkä mustanruskeiksi?
Tarvitaan 2 hiusharjaa ja 2 värjäyslasia. Hiukset pestään ohennetulla ammoniakkiliuoksella (1 osa 10. osaan tislattua vettä). Annetaan hiusten kuivua. Sen jälkeen kaadetaan hiusten pääle siten, ettei kosketeta päänahkaa, värinestettä: valkoisessa lasissa olevaa, joka on väkiviinaan liuotettua rikkikaliumia (2 osaa 12. osalle), sinisessä lasissa salpietarihappoista hopeaoksiidia (1 osa) ammoniakkia (3 osaa) ja tislattua vettä (3 osaa).

Hiusten kuivuttua kaadetaan sinisestä lasista pienempään lasiin liuosta sen verran kuin värjäykseen tarvitaan, otetaan toinen harja ja sen avulla sivellään hiuksia yhä varoen ettei kosketeta ihoa eikä sormia, jotka myös värjäytyisivät. Väriä voidaan kylläkin vahingon tapahtuessa poistaa pesemällä ihoon päässeitä pilkkuja alarikkihappoisella natronilla. Värin on annettava hyvin kuivua hiuksiin.

Englannittaret käyttävät seuraavaa värjäysreseptiä:
Acid pyrogallici 1,0 gr.
Aqva destillata 200,0 gr.
Clyserini 5,0 gr.

Harmaantuvia hiuksia varten on tri Pfoff antanut seuraavankin reseptin:
Argtnt nitr. fus. 1,0
solve
Aqva destillata 100,6
adde
Acid pyrogallici 1,0
Clycerini 5,0.
Neste ei saa koskea ihoon. Harjalla kostutetaan vain harmaantuneita paikkoja.

Vielä pomaada-resepti hiusten mustaamista varten:
Vismuttinitraattia 15 gr.
espanjalaista viheriää 3 gr.
manteliöljyä tarp. muk.
bensoerasvaa 90 gr.

Ehkäpä tässä kylliksi. Puuhaa siitä on, mutta mitäs vaivatta saataisiin ja naiskauneus tottahan sen vuoksi kannattaakin vaivaa nähdä, näin meidän kesken sanoen.

22.8.15

25 vuotta (...ensimmäisen kemigraafillisen kuvalaattalaitoksen perustamisesta Suomeen)

Kirjapainotaito 11-12, 1916

Kun nyt "Kirjapainotaito" juhlii kymmentä ikävuottaan, niin voivat myös maamme kemigraafit juhlia ammattinsa 25-vuotista olemassaoloa Suomessa. Tämän vuoden heinäkuussa tuli nimittäin kuluneeksi neljännesvuosisataa ensimäisen kemigraafillisen kuvalaattalaitoksen perustamisesta maahamme. Tosin oli jo 1880 luvulta alkaen yksi ja toinen yritellyt valmistaa yksinkertaisempia viivapiirros-kuvalaattoja, syövyttämällä niitä sinkkiin tai muuhun sopivaan metalliin. Niinpä kerrotaan kivipiirtäjien Nummelin'in ja Brandstake'n yritelleen siten valmistaa kuvalaattoja painossaan Puistokadun varrella Helsingissä. Mutta suuressa tulipalossa, jossa koko painorakennus tuhoutui, raukesi myös tämäkuvalaattojen valmistus-homma. Sittemmin yrittelivät myös puupiirtäjä Behrens sekä kivipiirtäjä G. Arvidsson valmistaa kuvalaattoja, pääsemättä kuitenkaan mainittavimpiin tuloksiin.

Vihdoin vuonna 1891 perusti O.-Y. T. Tilgmann kirja- ja kivipainonsa yhteyteen ensimäisen kemigraafillisen kuvalaattalaitoksen Suomeen, ja voidaan täten yllämainittuavuotta pitää maamme nykyisen kuvalaattojen valmistustavan perustamisvuotena.

Tämä uusi työtapa työnsi ennen pitkää kokonaan syrjään entisen vaivaloisen ja pitkäveteisen puupiirrostyön. Kuvalaatat voitiin nyt saada nopeammin ja halvemmalla kuin mitä ennen oli mahdollista. Aikakauslehtiä, oppikirjoja, kuvalehtiä y.m. julkaisuja voitiin entistä runsaammin varustaa selventävillä kuvilla.

Ensimäiset ulkomaalaiset kemigraafit jotka toivat tämänuuden työtaidon Suomeen, olivat: valokuvaaja Michael Wagner sekä jäljentäjä ja syövyttäjä Josef Schmidbauer. Ensinmainittu näistä työskenteli senjälkeen Suomessa yli 20 vuoden ajan toimien O.-Y. Tilgmann'in kemigraafi- ja heliogravyyri-osaston johtajana, sekä ollen sittemmin muutaman vuoden Kemi graafisen Osakeyhtiön palveluksessa. Ensimäinen suomalainen joka kemigraafi-alalle antautui on hra Georg Werner, ja aloitti hän uransa syksyllä v. 1892(Tilgmann'illa).

Vuosi sen jälkeen kun O.-Y. F. Tilgmann oli perustanut kuvalaattalaitoksensa, perusti myös O.-Y. Weilin & Göös kirjapainonsa yhteyteen kemigraafillisen laitoksen. Ensimäisinä työntekijöinä ja mestareina toimi sielläkin kaksi ulkomaalaista, nimittäin valokuvaajana O.Höfer ja syövyttäjänä Steinbauer. Ensimmäiset suomalaiset,jotkasinne oppiin otettiin, olivat: syövyttäjiksi hrat Unto Forsström ja C. Asp ja valokuvaajaksi hra Nordblad, joka siten on ensimäinen suomalainen kemigraafivalokuvaaja.

Kolmannen kemigraafillisen laitoksen Tämä perusti O.-Y. Lilius er Hertzberg v. 1899. on ensimäinen suomalainen kemigraafi-laitos, joka alotettiin puhtaasti kotimaisilla työvoimilla. Ensimäisenä valokuvaajana toimi nimittäin hra Karl Nordblad, ja ensimäisinä syövyttäjinä h:rat C. Asp ja H. Nyman.

Vuonna 1899 perusti hra Unto Forsström oman liikkeen, mutta toimi tämä laitos ainoastaan noin vuoden ajan. Samana vuonna perusti myös Kustannus-ja Kirjapaino-osakeyhtiö Sampo Tampereelle kuvalaattalaitoksen. Täällä tehtiin m.m. kuvateos "Raamatullisia kuvia." Laitos lopetti toimintansa v. 1901.
Helsingissä toimii nykyään edellämainittujen lisäksi seuraavat kemigraafi-laitokset: kemigraafinen laitos (perust. 1904), Kemigraafinen Osakeyhtiö (perust. 1906), O.-Y. (perust. 1907) ja 0.-Y (perust. 1910). Hra Unto Forsström perusti uudestaan kuvalaattalaitoksen (v. 1908) ensiksi Hankoon, jossa se toimi ainoastaan muutaman viikon toiminimellä Hangon kemigraafillinen laitos. Muutettuaan sen Helsinkiin, jatkoi hän sitä noin vuoden ajan toiminimellä Unto Forsström'in kemigraafinen laitos. Hänen johtamanaan ei laitos ajanpitkään syystä tai toisesta kannattanut. Koneet ja työvälineet siirtyivät v. 1910 hänen sisarensa miehelle, joka jatkoi liikettä toiminimellä Grafia (Weilin & Göösin talossa). Vuonna 1912 meni tämäkin liike lopullisesti myttyyn.

Turussa toimii v:sta 1911 Turun Kliseelaitos. Samana vuonna oli myös Kirjapaino Polytypoksella oma kliseelaitos, jossa tehtiin yksinkertaisempia fototypia-kuvalaattoja. Nykyään ei laitos enää toimi. Kolmas, suurin ja ajanmukaisin Turkuun perustetuista kuvalaattalaitoksista on Turun ja Sanomalehti O.-Y:n kliseelaitos (perust. v. 1912). — Viipurissa toimii v:sta 1913 Itä-Suomen Kuvaosakeyhtiö.

Edellisessä on kaikessa lyhykäisyydessä selonteko Suomessa tähän asti toimineista kuvalaatta-laitoksista. Seuraavassa on muutamia huvittavia tietoja entisajan työtavoista.

Työtavat ja koneet olivat varsinkin alku-aikoina kokolailla kömpelömpiä kuin nykyään. Useasti tehtiin sama kuva moneen kertaan, yhä uudestaan, ennenkuin onnistuttiin saamaan hyväksyttävä ja käyttökelpoinen kuvalaatta. Mutta työhön asetettiin enemmän huolta ja annettiin sitä varten enemmän aikaa kuin mitä nykyään on tapana. Valokuvaaminen tapahtui pääpiirteissään samojen menettelytapojen mukaan kuin nykyään, mutta oli se silloin kokolailla mutkallisempaa ja vaivaloisempaa. Niinpä ei ollut nykyaikaisia lasiverkkoja (rasteria), vaan täytyi ne itse valmistaa ottamalla paperille piirretyistä, yhteen suuntaan vedetyistä viivoista lasinegatiivi. Tätä lasinegatiivia käytettiin sitten valokuvattaessa verkkona, ja täytyi se puolen valoitusajan kuluttua kääntää toiseen suuntaan, jotta olisi saatu autotypia-pisteet. Samaten ei ollut nykyaikaisia voimakkaita sähkölamppuja, joiden avulla voi valokuvata ulkoilmasta riippumatta, vaan tapahtui kaikki valokuvaaminen päivänvalon avulla. Täten oli useasti, varsinkin talvisen pimeän aikana, hyvinkin "konstikasta" saada jotain valokuvatuksi ja kopioiduksi. Ja jotta olisi voitu tarkoin käyttää kaikki mahdollinen päivänvalo, niin varustettiinkin ensimäiset valokuvaus-atelierit lasikatolla ja -seinillä, kuten senaikaiset O.-Y. F. Tilgmann'in ja Weilin & Göös'in atelieerirakennukset vieläkin osoittavat.

Kuvan jäljentäminen metallilaatalle ei käynyt "suoraan" niinkuin nykyään, vaan jäljennettiin kuva ensin valonaralle kromipaperille. Tämävuorostaan asetettiin metallilaatan päälle ja vetämällä nämä yhdessä satineeraus- tai kivipainokoneen lävitse, saatiin kuva laatalle. Sitten seurasi syövytys. Fototypiat (viivapiirrokset) syövytettiin jokseenkin samaten kuin nykyäänkin, sillä eroituksella, että silloin ei osattu valssata syväsyövytykseen juoksevalla pellavaöljyvärillä, vaan peitettiin viivojen reunat käsin, pensselin avulla. Syväsyövytyksen jälkeen käsinkaiverrettiin "askeleet" huolellisesti pois, ennenkuin viimeiset pyöristyssyövytykset tehtiin. — Autotypian syövytystavassa oli ainakin se ero, ettei osattu käyttää nykyistä pistesyväsyövytystapaa, joten pisteitten välit useasti tulivat kovin mataloiksi, ja kuvalaatta vaati siten painajalta enemmän taitoa ja huolta. Emaljikopioimismenettelytavan käytäntöön tultua ei tunnettu nykyään melkein jokaisessa suomalaisessa liikkeessä käytännössä olevaa vahvistuskylpyä. Heikko emaljikuvakalvo ei silloin aina kestänyt hapon vaikutusta, vaan irtaantui useasti ennenaikojaan. Tämä oli suurena syynä useitten autotypiakuvien pilaantumiseen syövytettäessä, eikä silloinen työtapa ollut niin varmaa kuin nykyinen.

Työtavat pidettiin tarkoin salassa, ettei vaan kukaan sivullinen olisi päässyt niitä "varastamaan". Oltiinpa niinkin salaperäisiä, että työskenneltiin eri huoneissa, tarkasti reikelissä olevien ovien takana. Jos joku oppi jonkun uuden "kniksin", niin varoi hän tarkasti näyttämästä sitä toisille. Se joka eninten osasi oppia ottaa ja tilaisuuden tullessa lisää "varastaa", hän parhaiten menestyi ja pääsi lopulta hyvän ammattimiehen kirjoihin. Syövytyksessä y.m. tarvittavat värit keitettiin kotona. Samaten jauhettiin asfaltti kotona hienoksi pulveriksi. Tämä oli oppilaitten tehtävä, ja oli se kiusallista työtä, kun hieno asfaltti pöly tarttui tukkaan ja ihoon, eikä tahtonut lähteä pois ei saippualla eikä millään.

Kävisi liian pitkäksi selostaa työtapojen asteettaista kehitystä. Vähitellen opittiin yhä yksinkertaisempia ja parempia työtapoja. Ja monta arvokasta sivistyshistoriallista kuvateosta saatiin vuosien varrella valmiiksi. Mainittakoon tässä muutamia: "Suomi 19:sta vuosisadalla", "Hirvenhiihtäjät", "Teckningar ur kadettlifvet", "Kung Fjalar" ja "Vänrikki Stoolin Tarinat", jossa Edelfelt itse valvoi työn suoritusta.

Ensimäinen Suomessa tehty kolmivärikuva (jäljennös Edelfeltin taulusta: "Porvoon kirkkomäki") on vuodelta 1897. Samana vuonna tehtiin maassamme ensimäinen heliogravyyri-kuva, (jäljennös Gallen-Kallelantaulusta: "Sammontaonta"). Molemmat edelliset, samaten kuin edellämainitut kuvateoksetkin, ovat kaikki tehdyt ja painetut O.-Y. F. Tilgmann'illa.

Ennenvanhaan ja vielä noin kymmenkunta vuottakin takaperin, kuuli joskus lausuttavan, ettei muka suomalainen kuvalaattojen valmistustapa vetäisi vertoja ulkomaalaisille. Kaikki mikä tuli ulkoa, se oli muka hyvää ja hienoa. Selailtiin ja ihailtiin ulkomaalaisten liikkeiden reklaamikirjoja, tietämättä että ne useimmiten olivat suurin kustannuksin vartavasten reklaamitarkoitusta varten tehdyt, ja että samoista hienoista liikkeistä tuleva muu jokapäiväinen työ on useasti laadultaan hutiloitua ja huonompaa kuin täällä Suomessa tehty. Kotimainen kuvalaattojen valmistustaito on varsinkin viimeisien vuosien aikana suuresti kehittynyt, ja voidaan nykyään omassa maassa ja omilla työvoimilla valmistaa kuvalaattoja, olipa ne mitä laatua tahansa, täysin yhtä hyvin ja halvemmalla kuin ulkomaaltatilatessa. Mutta suomalaiset liikemiehet jakuvalaattojen tarvitsijat eivät tahdo uhrata läheskään sellaisia summia, kuin heidän ulkomaalaiset virkaveljensä kuvalaattoihin uhraavat, ja halvalla hinnalla ei hyvää työtä kannata tehdä. Työmme hyvyydestä on takeena tiheät vuorovaikutukset ulkomaalaisten ammattimiesten kanssa, omien ammattitoverien opintomatkat ulkomailla ja melkein jokaisessa suomalaisessa liikkeessä nykyisin käytännössä olevat uusimmat työvälineet ja työtavat. Ei siis kenenkään ole pakko kuvalaattoja tarvitessaan mennä enään "merta edemmäksi kalaan".

Lopuksi pyydän saada lausua kiitokseni kaikille niille henkilöille ja liikkeille jotka, antamalla arvokkaita tietoja menneen ajan työtavoista, henkilöistä y.m., ovat avustaneet allekirjoittanutta tämän kirjoituksen laatimisessa. Erittäinkin tahtoisin kiittää johtaja hra Georg Werner'iä ja tirehtööri hra Ernst Tilgmann'ia sekä hroja Karl Nordblad'ia, C. Aspia ja O. Liukkosta, sekä myös O.-Y. Kuvaaja Kemigraafista Osakeyhtiötä siitä, että ovat lahjoittaneet kuvalaatat tähän kirjoitukseen.

- Väinö Laurel