30.6.14

Mainos: C. T. Raynolds & Co. Paints, Oils, Varnishes, and Colors...

The Manufacturer and Builder 12, 1877

Kaswiwärjäyksestä. Ruskea wäri warjowiwahduksissa willa- ja karwalanka-aineksille. Keltasenwihreä wäri willa- ja karwalankaan.

Pellervo 4. 1.12.1912

Ruskea wäri warjowiwahduksissa willa- ja karwalanka-aineksille.

1 kg walkoista lankaa.
500 gr kiwentiuraa eli kiwensammalta.
Wettä niin paljon, että langat hyvin peittywät.

Kiwensammal on harmaata wäriltään. Se kaswaa tawallisten harmaakiwien pinnalla, paraiten aurinkoisilla paikoilla. Sateen jälestä irtaantuu sammal kiwistä paraiten. Se on ennen säilöönpanoa kuiwattawa, sillä kosteana kasassa se homehtuu eikä kelpaa käytäntöön.

Kiwensammal asetetaan pataan ja pannaan tarpeellinen määrä kylmää wettä päälle sekä annetaan tämän puoli tuntia hywästi kiehua. Sen jälestä otetaan kiwensammal pois padasta. Langat, jotka ensin kostutetaan lämpimässä wedessä, pannaan pataan, jossa ne saaat kiehua 20-30 minuutin ajan. Kun langat nostetaan padasta pois, wirutetaan ne hywästi. Jos puhtaassa wedessä otetaan kiwensammalta 1 kg lankakiloa kohti, tulee wäri toisen werran tummemmaksi. Warsin tummanruskeata saadaan, kun otetaan 1½ kg kimensammalta lankakiloa kohti.

Kotikehruiseen lankaan tulee wäri kirkkaampi eli wahwempi, sillä tehtaan langoissa on usein öljyä, jota ei lähde tyystin.

Eri paikoilta kootut kiwensammaleet saattawat antaa lankoihin erilaisen ruskean wäriwiwahduksen, kuten: ruosteen-, kullan- ja wihreänruskean.

Tämä on pysywä ruskea wäri.


Keltasenwihreä wäri willa- ja karwalankaan.

1 kg walkoista lankaa.
500 gr tuoreita tai kuiwia koiwunlehtiä.
Wettä niin paljon, etta langat peittywät.

Tuoreista koiwunlehdistä walmistettawaa wäriä ei tarwitse keittää niinkauwan kuin käytettäessä kuiwia koiwunlehtiä. Tuoreita koiwunlehtiä ei saa asettaa tiiwiisiin wasuihin eikä säkkeihin, sillä ne lämpiäwät ja mustuwat. Koiwunlehdet asetetaan pataan, pannaan kylmää wettä päälle ja annetaan kiehua 3/4 tuntia. Lehdet otetaan pois padasta ja asetetaan sinne langat, jotka ensin kostutetaan lämpimässä wedessä, ja saawat ne kiehua 20-30 minuutin ajan. Langat wirutetaan hywästi puhtassa wedessä.

Wähän tummempi wäri saadaan, ottamalla lehtiä 1 kg ja näiden lehtien sekä weden mukana pannaan pataan tilkkaseen wettä sulatettu pieni walkosen alunan palanen.

Seuraama tumma wiwahdus saadaan, lisäämällä lehtiä toisen werran, siis 1 ½ kg, ja pari pientä maitoisen alunan palaa. Menettely muuten kuten edellisessä. Sama wäri tummanwihreänä saadaan menetellen kuin edellisessä main sillä erolla, etta walkoisen alunan sijasta täytetään palanen "wihreäalunaa" eli wihtrilliä.

- Wanha emäntä.

29.6.14

Lukijain osasto. 1363. Wesimaalin walmistus.

Pellervo 10, 1910

Miten walmistetaan ulkohuoneiden seinien ja pärekattojen maalaukseen käytettäwä wesimaali? Sopiiko seinille ja katolle samalla tawalla walmistettu maali?
- Pieniwiljelijä.

Wastaus. Wanha resepti liedewäriä warten on seuraawa: 45 l. wettä pannaan 5 kg ruisjauhoja, jotka keitetään; tähän sekotetaan sitten 10 kg traania tai wernissaa, 2 kg sinkki- tahi kupariwihtrilliä ja 1,5 kg kolofoniumia ja tarpeen mukaan wäriainetta sekä lisätään wettä 15 l. Wäri on kestäwä. Wähentämällä öljymäärää, tulee se heikommaksi, mutta samalla halwemmaksi.

H. R. H.

Emblematic Colors.

Manufacturer and builder 11, 1869

In very early art we find color used in a symbolical or mystic sense; and until the ancient principles or traditions were wholly worn out of memory, or set aside by the later painters, certain colors were appropriate to certain subjects and personages, and could not arbitrarily be applied or misapplied. In the old specimens of stained glass, we find the following sig-nifications scrupulously attended to:

White, represented by the diamond or silver, was the emblem of light, religious purity, innocence, virginity, faith, joy, and life. Our Saviour wears white after his resurrection. In the judge, it indicated integrity; in the rich man, humility; in the woman, chastity. It was the color consecrated to the Virgin, who, however, never wears white, except in pictures of the Assumption.

Red, the ruby signified fire, divine love, the Holy Spirit, heat or the creative power, and royalty. White and red roses express love and innocence, or love and wisdom, as in the garland with which the angels crowned St. Cecilia. In a bad sense, red signified blood, war, hatred, and punishment. Red and black combined were the colors of purgatory and the devil.

Blue, or the sapphire, expressed heaven, the firmament, truth, constancy, fidelity. Christ and the Virgin wear the red tunic and the blue mantle, as signifying heavenly love and heavenly truth. The same colors were given to St. John the Evangelist, with this difference, that he wore the blue tunic and the red mantle; in later pictures, the colors are sometimes red and green.

Yellow, or gold, was the symbol of the sun; of the goodness of God, initiation or marriage, faith or fruit-fulness. In pictures of the apostles, St. Peter wears a yellow mantle over a blue tunic. In a bad sense, yellow signifies inconstancy, jealousy, deceit; in this sense, it is given to the traitor Judas, who is generally habited in dirty yellow.

Green, the emerald, is the color of spring, of hope, particularly hope in immortality, and of victory, as the color of the palm and the laurel.

Violet, the amethyst, signified love and truth; or passion and suffering. Hence it is the color often worn by the martyrs. In some instances the Saviour, after his resurrection, is habited in a violet instead of a blue mantle. The Virgin also wears violet after the crucifixion. Mary Magdalen, who, as patron saint, wears the red robe, as penitent wears violet and blue, the colors of sorrow and of constancy. In the devotional representation of her by Timotese della Vita she wears red and green, the colors of love and hope.

Gray, the color of ashes, signified mourning, humility, and innocence accused; hence adopted as the dress of the Franciscans, (the Gray Friars,) but it has since been changed to a dark rusty brown.

Black, expressed the earth, darkness, mourning, wickedness, negation, death, and was appropriate tc, the Prince of Darkness. In some very old illuminated manuscripts Jesus, in the Temptation, wears a black robe. White and black together signify purity of life, and mourning or humiliation; hence adopted by the Dominicans and the Carmelites. The mystical application of colors and attributes was more particularly attended to in that class of sub. jects which are distinguished as devotional, and, as above remarked, is specially noticeable in the old specimens of stained glass.

28.6.14

Artificial Alizarine.

Manufacturer and builder 11, 1869

Two German chemists, Messrs. Graebe and Liebermann, have succeeded in manufacturing " alizarin," which does not differ from the pigment extracted from the root of madder either in its chemical or physical properties. The method of manufacture is a secret as yet; all that the above gentlemen have made public is the fact of its being made out of "anthracene." This is a body consisting of carbon and hydrogen, closely resembling "naphthaline," and occurring together with the latter hydro-carbon in coal-tar. It has a high fusing point, (210° C.,) and a higher boiling point than quicksilver. It is, therefore, obtained from the heavy carbons of tar, while the lighter oils yield the material for the manufacture of "aniline colors." Up to the present time the heavy constituents of tar have bad no other value except for manufacturing asphaltum or being used as fuel. It is to be hoped that the utilization of this class of tar-oils will be developed on a commercial scale. The patent right for different countries is already secured by the above gentlemen, and will most likely be a source of ample remuneration to them. "Alizarine" is the stuff extracted from the root of madder, which furnishes the purest colors. Their superiority consists in their great resistance to the changing influence of sunlight, to which the aniline colors are unfortunately subject. Therefore a great gain in chemistry has been achieved, if the basis of this class of pigments can be artifically manufactured. But the importance of this discovery does not end here; much will be gained for national wealth in an indirect way. All the lands required for the cultivation of the madder will now be rescued for the production of food.

One important feature of this new industry is the fact that its raw material is a waste product of another manufacture. The coal-tar produced in the manufacture of illuminating gas, and formerly considered worthless, furnishes the raw oils for the brilliant aniline red, blue, violet, brown, yellow, black, white, etc., and the refure of this industry will now yield the raw material for the manuvature of madder colors. Who will now doubt the possibility of manufacturing in our laboratories at no distant day, from the fossil vegetation of geologic ages, even such coloring matters as indigo, hitherto the exclusive property of the living vegetable kingdom?

- Berlin corr. of Liepzig Maschinen Constructeur.

27.6.14

Magenta

Manufacturer and builder 5, 1869

In a previous article we have treated of the employment of aniline colors in general; we now proporse to discuss one of these colors, namely, magenta or aniline red. This color is produced by the action of oxidating agents on aniline-oil. Aniline-oil is a substance similar in composition to ordinary ammonia gas, with the difference, however, that one of the equivalents of hydrogen contained in common ammonia is replaced by the organic radical, phenyl. Aninile may be produced by a series of chemical processes from coal through the medium of coal-tar. These processes are in general as follows: Coal, when heated in a closed vessel, gives common coal-gas, and, in addition to this, a mixture of tar and ammoniacal water, which two substances are readily separated by allowing them to remain undisturbed. The coal-tar, separated from all other substances, is black, heavy, viscous fluid, composed of a great variety of elements. When coal-tar is heated in a retort, a quantity of different hydrocarbons at first distills off. The various hydrocarbons distill in a temperature varying from 80° to 130° Centigrade. They consist of benzol, toluol, xylol, cumoll, and cymol, and are similar to each other in composition. If the coal-tar after its separation from these hydrocarbons be further heated, it will give off several substances in succession. At first a heavy oil will be distilled, containing an acid substance which is known by the name of coal-creosote or phenic acid. This substance, which is often employed for disinfecting purposes, is ectracted from the oil by treating it with an alkaline liquid - commonly with a solution of soda. After several purifying processes, the pure phenic acid is obtained as a mass of reddish white needles, which possess a very characteristic smell of creosote, and very strong acid properties. This substance being distilled off, the coal-tar gives off heavy tar-oils, which are employed for lubricating machines; there finally remains in the retort a black substance, similar to pitch in appearence, called asphalt.

For the production of aniline only the hydro-carbons, known as benzols, are of importance. Long before these substances were employed to produce aniline, chemists were aware of the fact that by treating one of these hydro-carbons with nitric acid, the equivalent of hydrogen, which has combined with the radical phenyl, is removed by one equivalent of the oxygen, contained in the nitric acid; and the subnitric acid that remains combines with the radical phenyl, and thus the hydrogen of the benzol is replaced by subnitric acid. The new substance thus formed is called nitrobenzol, and its formula is according to the deduction given above. This substance is quite different from benzol. It is a heavy yellow liquid, with the odor of bitter almonds, and was already used, previous to its employment in the manufacture of aniline, for perfuming purposes, and was known under the name of "Huile de Mirbane." Just as from the benzol we may obtain nitrobenzol, so we may obtain in turn nitrotoluol, nitroxylol, nitrocumol, and nitrocymol by simply treating the various hydro-carbons with strong nitric acid. If hydrogen in the moment of its development meet with one of the above nitro-compounds, the latter will be immediately reduced; that is to say, the hydrogen forthwith combines with the oxygen contained in the nitro-compound, and forms water. If, for instance, nitrobenzol be treated in this manner, four equivalents of hydrogen will combine with and absorb the four equivalents of oxygen, forming four equivalents of water. But two other equivalents of the freshly produced hydrogen unite with the compound that still remains, and an entirely new substance is formed, which we may designate as an ammonia in which one equivalent is replaced by one of the radical phenyl. The ammonia in which one equivalent of hydrogen is replaced by one of the radical phenyl is an aniline, whose production we have thus shown. Because this ammonia contains the radical phenyl, organiz chemists call it phenylamine. It is obvious that in exactly the same manner we may produce from nitrotoluol, tolylamine or toluidine; from nitroxylol, xylamine or xylidine; and so also cumidine and cymidine. The mixture or these  substances, produced, as has been shown, from the benzol kinds, is called "aniline oil." It may be proper to remark here that the dydrogen necessary to form aniline from nitrobenzol is produced by pouring any acid and water on iron or zinc. By this process chemists usually procure hydrogen. From  the aniline oil the coloring matters are produced, known to us by the name of "aniline colors." By means of oxidating agents, that is to say, by any substance that is able to give off oxygen, the aniline oil receives certain colors, the shades of which vary according to the quantity of the agent employed. Thus, m. Runge, who was one of the first that discovered aniline, and who, previous to all others, regocnized its importance for the production of colors, obtained a blue by treating aniline with bleaching powder. M. Perkins obtained a violet by treating the same substance with a mixture of bichromate of potash with sulphuric acid. On a similar process is based the manufacture of magenta. We will confine our explanation to the method at present employed in its production.

A metal is employed that plays an important part in the criminal annals of the world, arsenic. From this metal there is easily obtained a white powder, generally known as "white arsenic," and in the language of chemists termed arsenious acid. It consists of one equivalent of metallic arsenic and three equivalents of oxygen. If this arsenious acid be treated with any substance that will supply it with oxygen, it takes two more equivalents of oxygen, so that we have a compound consisting of one equivalent of metallic arsenic and five equivalents of oxygen. This product is a white mass that strongly attracts water; it is known as arsenic acid. This acid can, of course, be reduced again to arsenious acid by separating from it two equivalents of oxygen. A solution of this arsenic acid, which oxidates rapidly through the great quantity of oxygen that it contains, is usually employed to produce the magenta from aniline. In a large iron retort the aniline oil is mixed with an convenient quantity of a strong solution of arsenic acid. The retort is then connected with a colling worm and finally heated. A quantity of water an aniline oil is distilled off, and at about 180° Centigrade a thick brown mass is formed in the retort. The arsenic acid is partly reduced to arsenious acid, and the aniline-oil has attained a specific color. The mass thus produced is treated with boiling water, which dissolves off the arsenic forming a solution of a red color, while a black, tarry mass remains undissolved. After the red solution has been filtered, a conveminent quantity of common salt is added to it, and the liquid allowed to crystallize. After several days, small crystals are formed of a gfreenish golden color, which, on being mixed with water, produce a red solution of great intensity. These crystals are called magenta, fuchsine, or aniline-red. They may be purified by dissolving them again in boiling water and allowing them to crystallize once more. When dried, they are then ready for the trade. These greenish golden crystals, diluted with water, give, as above stated, a brilliant red solution, which dyes wool and silk dipped into it very rapidly in exceedingly beautiful red shades. The purifying process to which the magenta should be subjected is of great influence as regards the freshness of the color. The brown resin formed, together with magenta, will, if not entirely separated from the latter, impart a disagreeable brown shade, and the goods dyed with this mixture will always have a dirty look. Dyers must, therefore, regard particularly the purity of the magenta that they buy, since tfresh and brilliant colors can only be obtained from a pure pigment.

The process of dyeing with magenta is extremely simple. For animal fibres it is sufficient simply to dip them in a bath of magenta. For dyeing silk and wool the magenta crystals are dissolved in diluted acetic acid or in vinegar. The magenta might just as well be dissolved in simple water or diluted sulphuric acid as in vinegar. Practice has, however, shown that by being dissolved in acetic acid, the colors produced obtain a very agreeable bluish shade, which is very popular among the ladies. In preparing the magenta solution it is best to place the crystals together with vinegar or acetic acid in a retort, and to allow the crystals to dissolve. The retort must be placed in some warm locality, and shaken at intervals until the crystals are quite dissolved. Then the resulting thick, red fluid is obtained perfectly cean; it may be decanted or filtered and added to the bath. For the purpose of preparing the dyeing bath in a vat, water is heated by steam; when it has attained the correct temperature, as much of the abovementioned solution is added as is sufficient to give the entire bath a perfect red hue. Into this, then, the silk or wool, after being well washed, is dipped; when wool is to be dyed the bath must be heated to boiling. We may readily observe that as the bath gradually loses its color the wool and silk attract it, and finally the entire coloring matter is fixed on the fibre. The goods are then removed from the bath, to which a fresh quantity of magenta solution is added, and the whole bath thoroughly stirred. The goods are inserted a second  time, if a deeper shade be desired. In this manner every shade of red may be obtained from the brightest rose color to the darkest red. Whenever the desired shade is attained, the goods are simply removed from the bath. The main difficulty in dyeing is to prevent the coloring substance from spreading with unequal intensity over the goods. This is very liable to happen through the rapidity with which the color is attracted by the animal fibre. That portion of the fibre which is first inserted in the bath has already attracted a quantity of color before the last part of the goods has been thrown into the bath, and therefore, unless considerable caution be exercised, one part will receive a deeper shade than the other. It is advisable not to put too much color into the bath, and if the same goods are immersed several times, those goods which, on the first occasion, had been last immersed should on the second occasion be immersed first. Also by the addition of a little sulphate of soda (salt-cake) the too rapid attraction of the coloring matter may be prevented, and thus the goods will be dyed more equally. After the dyeing process has been completed, the goods are washed and dried. As we have already stated, the color produced in dyeing depends upon the quality of the magenta employed. In buyng coloring matters, dyers must regard the purity rather than the cheapness of the article.

Before passing on to the dyeing of vegetable fibre, especially cotton, we desire to introduce some remarks concerning the composition and chemical nature of the magenta, not because we intend to introduce our readers into scientific speculations, but to enable them to understand the influence which mordants and other substances have on magenta. It is well known that in chemistry every substance is called a "salt" that consists of an alkaline and an acid substance whose properties neutralize each other. Such a substance is magenta. It contains an alkaline substance which chemistst call "rosaniline," because it is obtained from aniline  and imparts rose color. This base can combine with most acids, and produces with them a series of rosaniline salts. The salt usually employed is the hydrochrlorate of rosaniline - magenta - whcih is obtained by the process just described. Sometimes, however, even the sulphate and acetate are sold in trade. These salts are quite as good as the hydrochlorate, but their intensity is inferior. That is to say, in order to dye a certain red shade on a certain quantity of wool, a larger quantity of the sulphate or acetate of magenta is used than of the hydrochlorate. The cause of this difference is simple enough. In rosaniline salts the constituent part which dyes is the base itself - the rosaniline. The greater the quantity of rosaniline in a salt which has this substance as its base, the better will it be adapted to dyeing purposes. Of the three salts of rosaniline that occur in trade, the sulphate, hydrochlorate, and acetate, the hydrochlorate contains the most rosaniline; hence this salt is the most advantageous for dyeing, especially as the prices of the three salts do not vary. The acetate possesses a property on account of which it is frequently preferred to the other salts. When it is employed in dyeing, the colors produced are of a very beautiful bluish shade, which is highly agreeable to the eye. It is always quite easy to transform the hydrochlorate or any other salt of this base into the acetate by the addition of a little acetate of soda to the dyeing bath. There will then result from the hydrochlorate of rosaniline, mixed with the acetate of soda, an acetate of rosaniline and common salt; the goods inserted into the resulting salt will receive a fine bluish-red shade. In a previous article on "the aniline colors in dyeing," we have mentioned the mode in which cotton is dyed with these pigments; and have spoken of the animalizing process, by which the cotton was covered with any substance derived from animals, as with albumen and caseine. The animal substance attracts the color, and thus the cotton is dyed.

Cotton when treated with oil mordant attracts aniline pigments and, therefore, necessarily magenta, it being also one of their number. As some of the rosaniline salts are not readily soluble in water, dyers prepare the cotton with any substance that is able to form one of these salts. The cotton is thus often mordanted with tannic acid, or tannin, which is contained in a decoction of gall-nut and sumac. After being treated with this decoction, the cotton may be dipped into a bath of magenta, and will be dyed. The tannic acid fixed on the fibre of the cotton forms with the rosaniline salt, dissolved in the bath, tannate of rosaniline, which is not readily soluble; this is precipitated on the fibre. The greater part of the cotton goods will in the moment of this precipitation be dyed with magenta. Magenta can also be employed for the production of mixed colors. Thus, a scarlet color may be obtained by grounding the goods with any orange color and topping with magenta.For grounding, it is, however, necessary to choose a color which is reddish-yellow, since pure yellow will not combine with the bluish-red magenta and produce a fine scarlet. For this reason annatto is employed for dyeing silk, and quercitron for wool. For purposes of printing, magenta can readily be fixed. If we desire to print on animal fibre, that is to say, silk or wool, the magenta is simply dissolved in water, to which a little acetate of soda may be added, and the solution thus obtained may be thickened with tragacanth gum or starch. This paste is the nprinted, and, when dry, vaporized. The vaporizing process consists in hanging the dry printed goods on sticks in a room, which is then filled with steam. The steam moistens the color and heats it, so that the animal fibre is able to fix it. After the vaporizing process is finished, the goods can be safely washed without fear of the colors fading; the gum is, of course, dissolved off in the process of washing the goods. As vegetable fibre is unable to fix magenta, the printing of cotton is not simple. There must be an animalizing substance employed on every spot on which the magenta is to be fixed. The nimalizing substances employed for this purpose are albumen and caseine, which have already been described in my previous paper. Albumen, prepared from eggs or from blood, is dissolved in water, until a perfectly transparent solution is obtained. This is then thickened with starch or gum, and the resulting paste is printed. The goods, after being dried, are vaporized. The vaporizing process is here employed for a purpose somewhat different from that in the case of silk or wool.

Albumen is, as is generally known, soluble in water, but at a temperature of 80° Centigrade it becomes insoluble, and therefore if it be brought in soluble form upon the fibre, and then heated to this temperature, it is fixed on the spot on which the soluble albumen was printed. The thickened albumen will, therefore, become insoluble on the cotton, when the latter is hung in a chamber filled with steam, because the steam has a temperature of 100° Centigrade, which is considerably higher than that necessary to coagulate the albumen. The albumen thus printed on the cotton is so perfectly fixed that water can not remove it from the fibre. If the cotton has been prepared in this manner, it will, when dipped into a solution of magenta, attract this color upon those spots only which are covered by albumen. Thus only the printed parts of the cotton are dyed. But magenta is a color of such intensity that even those parts of the cotton which were not covered with albumen are dyed by the mechanical adhesion of the color; purifying process must, therefore, be resorted to in order to clean that portion of the cotton which was not printed. To avoid this unpleasant circumstance, magenta is usually printed upon the cotton in another way. The printing paste is composed of albumen and a thickening substance, dissolved in a solution of magenta. This paste is printed upon the cotton, which is dried and hung in a steam-chamber. The hot steam coagulates the albumen, which during this process is dyed by the magenta solution contained in the paste, so that the magenta in the paste is firmly fixed on the fibre. The cotton is then washed in order to remove the thickening substance; the magenta and albumen are fixed on the fibre. By this process it is impossible that any but the printed spots of the cotton can be dyed by the color; furthermore the tedious purifying procedure is avoided. At the same time, every other color which must be fixed by steam can be combined with the magenta and be fixed with it upon the cotton.

Sometimes the magenta is fixed by printing a paste which contains tannin and magenta; by evaporation the tannin and magenta are both fixed, and have the same qualities as were just detailed when speaking of magenta and albumen. The albumen process is, however, the one most generally employed. We will, finally, mention the caseine process, though it is but rarely employed. t consists in printing a solution of caseine, in ammonia liquor, upon the vegetable cotton fibre. After being dried the goods are inserted into an acid bath. The acid contained in this bath neutralizes the ammonia, so that the caseine is precipitated as an insoluble substance on the fibre, which can not be removed by water. The cotton, when dipped into a magenta bath, will then only dye at those spots on which caseine was printed and precipitated. The processes that we have thus named are the only ones that are known for fixing magenta on the fibre by dyeing and printing.

26.6.14

Keltaisen värin psykologiaa.

Helsingin Kaiku 46, 17.11.1906

Havelock Ellisin mukaan.

Punaisen värin merkitys voimakkaana sielunelämän kiihoittimena on silmiinpistävä ja melkein samanlainen kaikkien kansojen keskuudessa ja kaikilla sivistysasteilla. Keltaisen värin tunnesävyä ei ole laisinkaan niin helppo määrätä. Se vaihtelee hyvin suuressa määrin historian eri aikakausien ja eri seutujen mukaan, jopa iän mukaan samassa yksilössäkin. Ei ole yhtään väriä, jota välistä on pidetty niin korkeassa, välistä taas niin huonossa arvossa. Keltaisen värin psykologia tarjoo sen vuoksi arvoituksia, joita on hyvin vaikea ratkaista.

Kehitykseltään alkuperäisten kansojen keskuudessa näyttää jotensakin yleisesti pidettävän erityisesti
keltaisesta väristä. Punainen on villien lempiväri, mutta keltainen on järjestyksessä numero 2, jopa se välistä asetetaan yhtä korkealle kuin punainen. Niin on asianlaita esim. Tyynen valtameren saarilla asuvien villien keskuudessa, samoin käyttivät jo alkuperäiset germanilaisnaiset kelta- ja punamultaa koristaakseen kasvojaan ja ruumistaan.

Pienet lapset, jotka monessa suhteessa ovat samalla kannalla kuin villit, ovat näiden kanssa yhtäpitäviä siinäkin suhteessa, että he rakastavat keltaista ja tavallisesti pitävät sitä parempana kuin punaista, vaikka muutamat kirjailijat, niinkuin esim. raamatussa, ovat taipuvaisia selittämään sen keltaisen värin suuremman loistavuuden aiheuttamaksi, mikä osiksi epäilemättä pitääkin paikkansa. Että lapset, olivatpa mitä kansaa tahansa, yksimielisesti pitävät keltaista väriä kaikista parhaana, siitä ei voi olla juuri epäilystä. Ja se onkin kokeilla monta kertaa toteen näytetty. Preyerin lapsi iloitsi keltaisesta väristä ja osasi erottaa sen muista, Miss Shinn huomasi keltaisen olevan lapsenlapsensa lempivärin, sillä lapsi piti 27 kuukauden vanhana erittäin paljon pääsiäisliljoista ja keltaisesta hameesta. Mrs Moore huomasi, että hänen lapsensa 15 viikon vanhana piti keltaista palloa parempana kuin punaista ja valitsi 44 viikon iässä 6 kertaa 10:stä keltaisen pallon, kun hänelle tarjottiin molempia, mutta kokeissa on samalla huomattu, että iän varttuessa vähenee lasten ihastus keltaiseen; 4-7 vuoden iässä oli keltainen vielä poikien lempivärejä, vaikka se oli alkanut jo alentua tyttöjen suosiossa.

Tutkimukset eri maiden ylioppilasnuorison keskuudessa ovat melkein aina osottaneet, että keltainen
kuuluu vähimmän suosittuihin väreihin. Ja täysikasvuisten ihmisten piirissä ovat keltainen ja oranssinkeltainen ylipäänsä sangen harvoin lempivärejä. Merkitessään 4,500 miehen ja naisen väriualinnan Chicagon maailmannäyttelyssä, huomasi Jastrow, että keltainen ja oranssinvärinen olivat harvinaisimpia värejä, vaikka naiset täälläkin näyttivät useammin pitävän keltaisesta kuin miehet.

Mutta koko ihmiskunnan suhteen eivät nämä tulokset, vaikka niilä tuskin voidaan vastustaa, kumminkaan pidä paikkaansa. On laaja ja tärkeä osa maailmaa - eikä suinkaan kokonaisuudessaan mikään sivistymätön -  missä keltaista väriä päinvastoin pidetään korkeimmassa kunniassa, melkein yli Aasian, sekä vanhan että uuden - Assyriassa, Intiassa ja Ceylonilla, koko Kiinassa ja Malakkan niemellä - on keltainen yleensä arvokkain ja pyhin väri. Intiassa ja Ceylonilla pidetään enimmän keltaisista kukista sekä puvuista. Buddhalaisten pyhä kukka on keltainen, ja persialaisten lempiväri keltainen, samoinkuin se oli vanhojen hebrealaistenkin;  "korkeassa veisussa" esim. verrataan morsianta sahramiin. Kiinassa on keltainen onnen väri ja malaijilaisissa valtioissa pyhimpänä värinä ainoastaan kuninkaille kuuluna. Läntisimmässä Aasiassa ja oanhassa Egyptissä pidettiin keltaista suuressa arvossa, vaihkei se siellä ollut kaikista korkein väri.

Yksinpä vanhanajan Europassakin, siihen aikaan kun se oli korkeimmalla sivistysasteellaan, suosittiin keltaista väriä elämän ja ilon värinä, vaikkei kuitenkaan samassa määrin kuin Aasiassa. Sekä Kreikassa että Roomassa oli keltainen väri, vaikka punainen olikin kaikista pyhin, määrätty naisten ja lasten juhlapukuihin; varsinkin, sanoo Plinius, täytyi naisten olla keltaisiin puettuina, kun he menivät naimisiin. Keltaista väriä käyttivät myös Kybelen papit. Punainen ja keltainen väri oli (Pliniuksen mukaan) yleisimmin vallitsevana vanhoissa maalauksissa. Keltainen oli punaisen rinnalla myös Homeroksen mieliväri, ja latinankielisessä runoudessa on sangen monta nimitystä keltaiselle.

Miten on nyt selitettävissä se tunnoissa tapahtunut mullistus, että nykyinen europpalainen maailma on joutunut seisomaan toisella kannalla kuin vanha klassillinen maailma ja Aasia? Ei olla aivan selvillä siitä, miksi me olisimme lakanneet iloitsemasta väristä, jota toisen ajan ja toisen mantereen ihmiset ovat pitäneet niin suuressa arvossa, auringon, kullan ja jyvien, hunajan ja meripihkan värinä.  Olemmehan me yhä sen värin kanssa läheisesti tekemisissä, onhan sitä auringon valossa sekä keinotekoisessa valossa, eikä se vaikuta lainkaan väsyttävästi silmiimme, ellei se ole kovin vahvaa, päinvastoin vaikuttavat sopusointuiset keltaisen vivahdukset asuinhuoneessa hyvin miellyttävästi moniin, ehkäpä useimpiin ihmisiin. Emmekä voi väittää, että vastenmielisyytemme keltaista väriä kohtaan osattaisi hienostuneempaa kauneus-herkkyyttä kuin vanhanajan ihmisillä oli; sillä maalarit eivät laisinkaan tunne sitä vastenmielisyyttä. Sellainen suuri maalari kuin Rembrandt hurmaantui, lähestyessään hitaasti taiteensa korkeinta kehitystä, yhä enemmän ja enemmän keltaiseen väriin, kunnes hänen maalauksensa, jopa hänen muotokuvansakin, kokonaan ikäänkuin peittyivät vanhan kullan kimallukseen.

Nähtävästi toi kristinoppi tullessaan keltaiseen väriin katsoen uuden tuntematavan, joka johti siihen, että kansojen mieleen teroitettiin suurempi kiintymys tummasävyisiin väreihin. Jos asiata katsotaan hyvin suuressa laajuudessaan, oli tämä epäilemättä vain eräs ilmaus kristinuskon vihamielisestä suhteesta klassilliseen maailmaan ja siitä taipumuksesta, että se hylkäsi kaikki, mitä käsitettiin ilon ja ylpeyden merkiksi. Punainen ja keltainen oli ollut vanhan maailman lempivärejä. Keltainen muuttui pian kateuden väriksi.

Kuitenkaan ei tämä tunne liene ollut niin suuressa määrin vastavaikutusta kuin luonnollisen kehityksen jatkoa. Klassillinen maailma oli alkanut, niinkuin villit ylipäänsä, ihailemalla melkein yksinomaan punaista väriä, heidän mielestään tuskin oli muita värejä olemassakaan; Homeros samoinkuin arabialaiset piti sateenkaarta pääasiasiassa punaisena. Sitten oli keltainen tullut lisäksi miellyttävien värien joukkoon; mutta hyvin hitaasti ovat muut päävärit jaksaneet kiinnittää huomion puoleensa. Kristinuskon tulo kiiruhti tätä väriasteikkoon tutustumista senkautta, että kristityt vaistomaisesti joutuivat kammoamaan loistavia värejä, jotka olivat liittyneet pakanallisiin uskonmenoihin ja tapoihin. Siitä johtui, että ei punaisesta eikä keltaisesta, vaan sinisestä, taivaan väristä, tuli neitsyt Marian puvun perinnäinen väri. Pappissääty ei ole koskaan pitänyt keltaista väriä suuressa arvossa, vaan joko kokonaan sivuuttanut sen tai kohdellut sitä välinpitämättömästi. Eikä tämä vastenmielisyys ole vähentynyt vuosisatojen kuluessa; v. 1855 kiellettiin käyttämästä keltaista väriä pappien puvuissa, eikä sitä protestanttisessa kirkossa ylipäänsä ole koskaan suosittu.

Keltaisesta tuli mustasukkaisuuden, kateuden, petollisuuden väri. Judas esitettiin keltaisessa asussa, ja muutamissa maissa pakoitettiin juutalaiset käyttämään keltaista pukua. -  On olemassa eräs varsinainen syy, minkä vuoksi kristinusko luultavasfi alkoi katsoa keltaista väriä epäluuloisesti. Se oli ollut myöhempinä aikoina Kreikassa, ja vielä laajemmassa määrin Roomassa, haureellisen rakkauden väri. Kreikan hetairat ja heidän jälkeläisensä Roomassa kulkivat sahramin-värisiin hameihin puettuina ja värjäsinät tukkansa keltaiseksi. Tämä ammattia kuvaava tapa värjätä hiuksensa on jossain määrin kestänyt yli 2,000 vuotta, läpi koko keskiajan meidän päiviimme asti, ja Aleksanterin kielto (jonka mainitsee Klemens Aleksandrialainen): "yksikään siveä nainen ei saa värjätä hiuksiansa keltaisiksi" on alinomaa toistunut kirkkoisien kirjoituksissa. Oli kuin heijastus keltaisen värin kehityksestä tähän suuntaan, että se muuttui kevytmielisyyden ja haureuden vertauskuvalliseksi väriksi.

Keltaisen värin historia näinä 2000 vuotena osottaa, minkälaisten vaihtelujen alaisia ovat olleet ne tunteet, joita se ihmismielissä herättää. Toiselta puolen on keltaisen värin yleinen tunnesävy useimpien kansojen keskuudessa hitaasti muuttunut joko negatiivisesti yhdentekeväksi tahi positiivisesti  vastenmieliseksi. Mutta tämän värin alkuperäinen ja klassillinen ihailu ei ole kokonaan kuollut. Se on ainoastaan keskittynyt sanan "kultainen" ympärille. Tämä kaksinaisuus kuvastuu runoilijoissakin. He käyttävät hyvin säästeliäästi sanaa "keltainen", verrattuna "punaiseen", mutta "kulta" ja "kultainen"  esiintyvät yhtämittaa, ilmaisten aina kauneuden ja loiston ja riemun tunnearvoja. Ensi aikoina antoi väri yhtä suuressa määrin kuin kalleuskin arvoa kullalle, mutta nykyaikaisten runoilijoin tuotteissa on "kultainen" alkanut hyvin tuntuvasti kääntyä merkitsemään sitä, mikä on kaunista tai iloista, väriin hyvin vähän tai tuskin ollenkaan katsomatta. Esim. englannin kielessä on "kultainen" (golden) alkanut merkitä ei keltaista eikä muuta väriviuahdusta, vaan kaunista ja aruokasta yleensä. Vasta viime vuosisadan keskivaiheilla alkoi ainakin Englannissa herätä uudelleen vanhan ajan ihastus keltaiseen väriin. Se näkyy esim. runoilija Stuinburnen kiintymyksestä tähän väriin.

Vanhoista ajoista meidän päiviimme asti on tämän rinnalla ollut toinen tunnesuunta, pyrkimys osottaa "keltaisella" muutakin paitsi kauniita ja suotavia asioita. Keltainen on nimittäin sekä sapen että  keltatautisen ihon väri. Ja primitiioisten kansojen mielestä johtuoat useimmat ihmisen pahat intohimot ja taipumukset juuri sapesta ja maksasta. Sillä tavoin on "keltainen" joutunut kateuden ja  synkkämielisyyden väriksi. Shakespeare esim. puhuu "mustasukkaisuuden väristä" (oranssin keltaisesta) ja "viheriästä ja keltaisesta melankoliasta" ja englantilainen runoilija Pope "keltatautisesta silmästä, josta kaikki näyttää keltaiselta", mahdollisesti perustuu juuri tällaisiin vastenmielisiin ajatusyhtymiin se epämieluisuuden tunne, jota kristinusko aikoinaan osaltaan lisäsi europpalaisissa kansoissa keltaista väriä kohtaan.

Joka tapauksessa tarjoo keltaisen värin omituinen ja monivaiheinen historia ei ainoastaan suurta  mielenkiintoa, vaan se asettaa myäs eteemme suuren kysymyksen, jota sielullisten ilmiöiden tutkija ei voi ratkaista suinkaan vain yhtä näkökohtaa silmällä pitäen: nim. missä määrin nämä vaihtelevat ilmiöt ovat toiselta puolen luettavat psyykillisen elimistön synnynnäisten ominaisuuksien vaikuttamiksi ja missä määrin ne toiselta puolen ovat tuloksia ajallisista muutoksista ja hitaasti vaihtuvan ympäristön vaikutuksista tuntoihin.

Kirjoitusmusteen myrkyllisyys.

Lukutupa 5, 1.3.1902

Preussin hallitus on lähettänyt kouluihin seuraavan varoituksen:

Tutkittaessa on aivan selvästi käynyt toteen, että useimmissa kirjoitusmustepulloissa on  homesieniä ja runsaasti muita terveydelle vaarallisia aineita, varsinkin on sellaisissa pulloissa, joita ei ole aina heti suljettu kirjoittamasta lakatessa. Pienemmät eläimet, kuten rotat ja hiiret y. m., joihin on sellaista mustetta ruiskutettu, ovat kuolleet muutaman päivän perästä. Täten on selvitettävissä sellaiset surulliset tapaukset, kun pieninkin pistos mustekynällä voi synnyttää verenmyrkytyksen ja tuottaa pistetylle kuoleman. Useilla lapsilla on paha tapa pistää mustekynä suuhunsa ja vieläpä nuolla sitä, joten homesienet ja tauti-itiöt (bakterit), menevät sylkinesteen kanssa vatsaan, ja siellä vaikuttavat tautien syntymistä ellei heti  verenmyrkytystä. Toiset lapset nuolevat vihkoiltaan tipahtaneet mustetahrat. Tämän vuoksi vakavasti varotetaan tuollaisesta terveydelle vaarallisesta kirjoitusmusteen käyttämisestä.

Kun kodeissa vielä useammin lapset kirjoitusmustetta varomattomasti pitelevät, jonka vuoksi myöskin vanhempia kehotetaan ottamaan tämä varotus huomioon.

25.6.14

Chrome-Yellow Paint.

Manufacturer and builder 1, 1869

The compounds of the metal chromium are among the most useful and most common of the substances used in the manufacture of paints. The colors made from it range from green, through all shades of yellow and orange, to red, and are all, with hardly an exception, bright and beautiful. For that reason they have superseded many paints formerly used - such, for instance, as orpiment, massicot, and others.

Chromium was only discovered at the end of the last century, and the name given to it - derived from the Greek - was chosen on account of the many colors that can be produced from it. It was a mere curiosity at first, until, in Maryland, extensive deposits were found in combination with iron ore. This compound is analogous to magnetic iron ore, which consists of a combination of sesquioxide of chromium and oxide of iron. This substance is that from which all preparations of chromium are derived. It is converted into a chromate of potassa in the following manner:

The ore, having been reduced to powder, is calcined with nitre, or with carbonate of potassa, quicklime being sometimes added, and heated for a long time in a reverberatory furnace. The product is treated with water, and a yellow solution obtained, which upon evaporation deposits lemon-yellow crystals of chromate of potassa. These crystals are a combination of potassa with an acid formed by the chromium, and called chromic acid. This acid is similar to sulphuric acid, and it forms, with the potassa, the above-named chromate of potassa. When a small quantity of sulphuric acid is added to this salt, half the potassa is removed, combining with this acid, and the remaining half of the potassa combines with double the quantity of chromic acid, and thus is the so-called neutral chromate of potassa converted into a  bichromate of potassa. Of this salt immense quantities are manufactured for use in the arts. It forms beautiful red crystals. Dissolved in water, it forms, according to the amount dissolved, yellow, orange, or red solutions. One part will saturate ten parts of water. The solution has acid properties, and is quite poisonous.

In order, now, to make chrome-yellow, all that is necessary to be done is to make a solution of some lead salt, as, for instance, the acetate of lead, or, in other words, the sugar of lead, or the nitrate of lead. When such a solution is mixed with a solution of the chromate or bichromate of potassa , a yellow or orange precipitate of chromate of lead will be formed, of which the shade will be regulated by observing certain particulars which will be hereafter explained. The precipitate, dried and boxed up for the trade, is manufacture in this country upon a very large scale, and is known in Europe as American chrome-yellow. Unlike many other articles, it may also be manufactured to advantage on quite a small scale.

24.6.14

Lead-pencils.

Manufacturer and builder 2, 1869

Conrad Gessner, a Swiss naturalist of the sixteenth century, makes the first mention of graphite, as used in pencils, in his book on rare fossils. The nature of the material used in their manufacture was not then scientifically ascertained. Imparting a lead-color when traced upon paper, it was called black-lead. This name, however, is very inappropriate, as there is not  a trace of lead present in it. It was Pott who, in 1740, attempted to demonstrate this fact; but it still remains doubtful whether he was in possession of black-lead or of the sulphide of molubdena, which substance were then frequently confounded with each other. The Swedish professor, Scheele, in 1779, first distinguished them from each other in ascertaining the nature of both. He discovered that plumbago, when mixed with nitre, is converted into carbonic acid gas, this not being the case with the sulphide of molybdena.

Plumbago, or black-lead, (Reissblei, or drawing-lead, in German,) is more or less pure carbon, and occurs in beds and imbedded masses in gneiss, granite, micaschist, and various other rocks. Its principal impurity consists of oxide of iron. The purest variety of graphite occurs in Turkinsk, in the government of Irkutsk, in Siberia, where also a large mass has been found having the structure of the wood from which it was formed. This mine, however, has only recently been discovered. The purest variety was formerly obtained from the pits at the Borrowdale Mountains, in Cumberland. This is one of the reasons why the English pencils have won the fame which they still retain. Until very recently, in fact, they were considered quite indispensable to the work of fine drawing.

23.6.14

Interior Decoration - Management of Colors.

Manufacturer and builder 5, 6 tai 7, 1869

Painters, as a general rule, acknowledge but three primary colors - blue, red, and yellow; and whatever exception may be taken to such a statement on scientific grounds, there is no question that such a view of the subject does afford certain practical advantages. It is further assumed, that all other tints are mere mixtures of these three colors. For instance, green is made up of blue and yellow; violet, of blue and red; and orange, of red and yellow. If one has no taste and no power of discriminating between colors, it is a useless task for him to undertake decoration; it is useless for him to rely upon the painter; for what is wanted is that education which will enable us to make a judicious selection suited to the several purposes to which they are to be applied. Thus, in arranging colors, we can not put bright scarlet next to white without a tinge of green appearing on the edges of the scarlet; for in looking first at scarlet, and then at any other color, a green hue will invariably appear about it; and again, after first looking at green, other objects will have a tinge of red. This illusion has doubtless occurred to many, and to avoid these unpleasant effects is in a great measure the object to be attained in the selection of appropriate colors for wall or furniture decoration.

Where violet and green are placed in juxtaposition, each color having one element - blue - in common, this similarity on one point makes the dissimilarity on the others stand out more clearly; so that the green on the violet appears more yellow, whilst the violet, on the other hand, appears more red. In like manner, if orange and green be taken - the yellow element in the one canceling, so to speak, the yellow in the other - the orange will assume a reddish hue and the green a bluish. An upholsterer should be very careful in choosing the colors of stuffs used for coverings. It will not do to cover mahogany furniture with scarlet - the color is too bright, and when placed beside it the mahogany loses brilliancy and becomes like walnut wood. Many persons, however, like the color, and insist that it shall accompany mahogany. In such cases, the unpleasant effect produced can be in a measure relieved by putting a green or black braid or an edging of yellow silk or gilt lace on the border where the cloth and wood meet. In paper-hanging a room, it is well to remember, that on crimson-colored grounds black looks green, and in the same way black upon green loses its lustre, and vice versa. Orange upon red is injurious to the eyesight; violet upon blue looks washed out; blue upon green looks spinach color by candle-light, and gray upon green would show pink. Such combinations of colors should always be avoided, as the effect produced upon the eyesight on entering a room whose side walls are decorated in green and black or red and black, or an orange figure upon a red ground, is any thing but agreeable. It is the same in dress. The most striking effects are those produced by selecting harmonious colors, whereby the eyesight is maintained in a state of repose, and not affected by the false tints caused by the improper mixture of colors. The trade in paper-hangings has now become so extensive that such faults seldom occur, and yet there are defects still noticeable in the prevailing style where a light ground is interspersed all over at equal distances apart by small gilt figures; now this, in effect, is sometimes good, but in most cases the effect is like looking at some arabesque ornament whick appears all mixed up, because the eye can not take in all the figures at once. Now, if we have a pale pink blue, gray, violet, ireen, or other ground color, and at the top decorated with a bright colored border, the same at the base - or divided off into panels by stripes, ornaments, medallions, rosettes,and lines - the effects can tien be at once grasped by the eyesight, and the result is interesting and pleasing.

22.6.14

Sinettilakan keksintö.

Jokamiehen ja joka naisen viikkolehti 48, 5.12.1908

Sinettilakka ei tosin ole aivan tarpeellisimpia esineitä ihmiskunnan suuressa taloudessa, mutta on silläkin historiansa, mikä näyttää, miten sattuma on saanut aikaan suuria keksintöjä.

Vahaan, jota oli käytetty pitkät ajat kirjeiden sinetittämiseen, ruvettiin kuudennentoista vuosisadan keskipaikoilla sekoittamaan hartsia ja muita senkaltaisia aineita. Tällä tavalla saatiin tosin jonkinlaista sinettilakkaa,  mutta se oli niin huonoa, että se ilolla vaihdettiin n. s. öylättiin, joka pääsi yleisesti muotiin v. 1600 paikoilla.

Tähän aikaan eli Pariisiasa Francois Rousseau niminen kauppamies, jonka päätoimena oli rohdoksien valmistaminen. Eräänä yönä joulukuussa v. 1625 hävitti tulipalo hänen talonsa niin nopeaan, että hän ja hänen omaisensa töin tuskin saivat henkensä pelastetuiksi; kaikki heidän tavaransa ja omaisuutensa joutuivat liekkien uhriksi, ja kun viimein kiviseinätkin kaatuivat, oli siinä jäljellä vain sorakasa osoittamassa talon entistä paikkaa.

Onneton kauppias oli nyt mielestään hävinnyt mies - sillä eihän siihen aikaan tiedetty niin mitään palovakuutuksista. Kassansa, jossa oli kulta- ja hopearahoja, arveli hän kuitenkin löytävänsä, joskin möhkäleeksi muuttuneena. Poikainsa kanssa alkoi hän sitä raunioista kaivaa. Rahat olivat olleet lukitussa pöytälaatikossa; tämän alla oli ollut  toinen, isompi laatikko, joka oli sisältänyt koteloihin pantua sinooperiä, shellakkaa, hartsia j.n.e. Rousseau muisti kaiken tämän varsin hyvin, ja kun hän ja hänen poikansa tiesivät paikan, missä pöytä oli ollut, niin he löysivät pian haettavansa.

Poistettuansa muutamia tiilikiviä ja palaneita kalkkipalasia, saivat he esille jäännöksiä palaneesta pöydänkannesta ja rahalaatikon rautaisen lukon. Vastamainittu shellakka ynnä muut alemmassa laatikossa olleet aineet olivat arvatenkin palaneet hyvin nopeasti ja yhtyneet suureksi möhkäleeksi. Tämän sisään olivat rahat sulamatta  painuneet.

Francois ja hänon poikansa alkoivat noukkia esiin rahakappaleita. Yht'äkkiä huudahti nuorin: "Isä, katsopas,
kuinka kauniisti kuninkaan kuva on painautunut möhkäleeseen".

Poika oli oikeassa. Sattumalta oli siihen muodostunut rahasta oivallinen jälkikuva.

Vanha Rousseau, joka oli taitava ja älykäs mies, huomasi kohta, mihin tällaista möhkälettä voitiin käyttää, ja vastasi:
"Niinpä todella. Se on onni onnettomuudessa. Luulin itseni hävinneeksi mieheksi, mutta jollen erehdy, niin olemme tässä entisen kotimme raunioissa tehneet keksinnön, joka kenties on tekevä meidät rikkaammiksi, kuin muutenkoskaan olisimme voineet tulla".

"Mitä tarkoitat, isä?" kysyivät pojat kuin yhdestä suusta.

"Ottakaamme tämä sulatuksen kautta  syntynyt möhkäle mukaamme ja tutkikaamme sitä tarkasti. Sitten tehkäämme shellakasta, sinooperista ja hartsista sinettilakkatankoja, jotka miellyttävät ostajiemme
kauneuden aistia. Niin kauniita ja sieviä jälkikuvia kuin tässä möhkäleessä ei saa öylättiin eikä mihinkään
muuhunkaan lakkaan. Keksintömme tulee, jollei kokonaan syrjäyttämään edellisiä lakkoja,ainakin olemaan niille vaarallinen kilpailija.

Ja onni, joka kerran oli ruvennut suosimaan Rousseaun perhettä, teki sille vielä hyvän palveluksen, jonka kautta uusi keksintö tuli tunnetuksi paljo nopeammin kuin muutoin olisi ollut mahdollista. Sattui näet juuri samaan aikaan kuin Rousseau lähetti kauppaan uuden sinettilakkansa, että Longuevillen  herttuatar pahasti sairastui, ja lääkärit sanoivat siihen syyksi myrkytyksen. Tutkittiin asiaa ja silloin kävi selville, että myrkytys oli syntynyt muutamista viheriän värisistä öyläteistä, jotka herttuatar oli kastellut suussaan, niillä sinetittääkseen kirjeitään. Tietysti joutuivat öylätit tästä pahaan maineeseen, ja kun ihan samaan aikaan Rousseau laski liikkeeseen sinettilakkansa, niin voitti tämä suurta suosiota, ja pian nähtiin sitä kuningas Ludvig XIII:n, Richelieun ja muiden ylhäisten kirjoituspöydillä.

Jo ensimäisenä vuonna ansaitsi Rousseau lakallaan 50,000 livreä, eli paljon enemmän kuin hän tulipalon kautta oli kadottanut.

20.6.14

Notes & Queries. (1996) Printer's Ink. (vastaus)

The Manufacturer and Builder 12, 1877

The best kind of common printer's ink will do. To make it, boil 1½ gallons of old and clear lin-seed oil to the consistency of a thick varnish, add while hot 6 pounds of powdered resin, 1 3/4 pounds of dry brown soap shavings, 2½ ounces of indigo, 2½ ounces of Prussian blue, and 5 pounds of the best lampblack; stir these all in well, let it stand a week, and then grind it.

19.6.14

Lake Colors - Their Nature and Manufacture.

Manufacturer and builder 3, 1869

Under the denomination lakes, are comprised all those colors which owe their origin to a coloring principle of the vegetable or animal kingdom, and which consist, either of the pure pigment, or contain the same combined with an earthy or metallic base. They serve as water q.nd oil-colors, while a small number of them only, are employed in dyeing and calico-printing. Though they do not cover as well as ordinary paints, frosts the fact that they possess a certain transparency, and though their stability, with the exception of one or two, is not great, they are, nevertheless, extensively employed in the arts, for the reason that their shades, in most cases, can not be replaced by any color derived from the mineral kingdom.

To begin with a description of the manufacture of blue lakes, it may be remarked that though nature has furnished us with quite a number of plants which yield blue coloring matters - botanists describe above sixty species of the genus indigofera - there are but a few entering into the preparation of lakes. Those furnishing the litmus belong to some species of lichens, found in Southern Europe, Africa, South-America, and the East Indies; and those yielding the soluble indigo, a color resembling Prussian blue, belong to some species of the genus indigofera which are found chiefly in Malabar, in the East and West Indies, in Egypt, and in both Central and South America. As to the soluble indigo, it is prepared in the following manner: The indigo is reduced to an impalpable powder. Then in order to free the same from a glutinous substance, it is digested for several days in weak sulphuric acid; the latter is then removed by repeatedly washing the indigo with water. When free of acid, it is thoroughly dried upon a water-bath, and if not immediately used, the powder is put in cans to cool. To each pound of good Bengal indigo six pounds of strong oil of vitriol are put in a large jar, or a tub lined with sheet lead, furnished with a cover. To this the indigo is added gradually in small quantities, care being taken that the temperature of the mixture does not exceed 212° Fahr. When the indigo is all added, the mixture is allowed to stand undisturbed for a fortnight, in order that the desired chemical action may take place. For the preparation of the soluble blue it is necessary to neutralize the free sulphuric acid as well as to combine the sulphindylic acid formed - Crums' ceruline - with a base; the latter compound will then, on account of its slight solubility in solutions of salt, fall to the bottom of the vessel. To this end, the mixture of sulphuric acid and indigo is poured gradually into a proportionally large quantity of distilled water, the liquor obtained is left to settle until clear, and finally drawn off into another vessel, where it is neutralized with a strong solution of a carbonated alkali. The indigo-carmine thus precipitated is thrown upon.a filter of woolen cloth, and when sufficiently drained off is ready for market. The coloring-matter remaining in the liquor may be obtained by steeping wool in the solution, which absorbs the color, and by then digesting the fibre thus impregnated with an alkaline solution. The latter is evaporated to one half of its volume and used in connection with the alkalies for throwing down the indigo blue. One pound. of Bengal indigo yields from seven to ten pounds of indigo-carmine or soluble indigo. The same should possess copper-lustre, be perfectly soluble in water, and should not show any white spots. This would indicate that it had not been well washed.

Yellow dyes are furnished by the vegetable world in great abundance. Though not very permanent, they are of great vivacity of color. In order to prepare the lakes, a decoction of the vegetable is first prepared, and to the same, when clear, a solution of alum is added, and thereupon a solution of an alkali or powdered chalk, as long as there is any precipitate In case a soluble alkali has been employed, the precipitate is only a combination of the coloring matter of the dye with the base of the alum. If. however, tho. alum has been decomposed by the chalk and the alkali, a mixture of the former compound with sulphate of lime or gypsum is obtained. Sometimes the dye is exhausted by means of a weak alkaline lye, after which alum-water is added to the solution. When it is desired to have the lake of a lemon cast of color, a solution of tin instead of alum is employed, or it is used in connection with it. The precipitate must be filtered, washed, made into cakes, and dried. From the decoction of the yellow wood from which the morine has been separated, a yellow lake is prepared by simply pouring a solution of basic acetate of lead into it. The precipitate is of a chrome-yellow color. Sometimes, as in case of quercitron bark, the decoction is first purified by means of glue, or lime-water. It is thus freed from a dirty, brownish-yellow matter. Yellow lakes are produced from yellow berries, yellow wood, quercitron bark, the weld, and the annotto. Recently two new dyeing materials have been brought into the European market, which may, perhaps, be used to advantage for the making of yellow lakes. Both are obtained from China, the one is described by Von Martins as the imperfect flowers of the Sophora japonica; the other is called "wongsky," and consists of the seed-vessels of a plant belonging to the gentianæ.

Red and violet lakes are obtained from cochineal, madder, Brazil-wood, logwood, lac-dye, and the safflower. These materials are largely employed in dyeing and calico-printing. The beautiful pigment from the cochineal was accidentally discovered by a Franciscan monk at Pisa, Italy. In macerating the insects with salts of tartar, in the preparation of medicine, he obtained, upon the addition of an acid, a fine red precipitate. Carmine lakes are now generally prepared by first making a decoction of the insects with alumwater - one part of alum to thirty parts of water - and afterward precipitating with, generally, a solution of soda; though the liquor is often employed which was decanted from a preparation of carmine, obtained from a cochineal decoction, to which small quantities of certain acids or salts have been added, and which had been allowed to remain undisturbed for some time. Tin and mercury salts added to the alum-water brighten the color. The red lakes obtained fiom the other materials above mentioned, with the exception of the earths, mine, are all prepared very nearly alike. In the preparation of the madder-lakes, however, not the dye-wood itself but the garancine is employed. This is a chocolate-colored powder obtained by the action of oil of vitriol upon the groundroots of the dye-plant. From this a decoction of alum is prepared, which is filtered hot, allowed to cool, and decanted from the separated ilocculte, which themselves yield the darkest and finest lakes. The coloring-matter is thrown down from the liquor by means of carbonated alkalies with, or without the addition of salts of tin. Madder-lakes are the least fugitive of all the lake-colors, and are applied in oil and water. They fade but slightly, even upon exposure to the direct rays of the sun. In regard to the lakes which are prepared from Brazil-wood, it has been discovered that more brilliant shades are obtained when the hot decoction of the wood in water is allowed to ferment. The reason for this has, however, not yet been satisfactorily explained. The base of the finer Brazil-wood lakes is simply alum, earth, and protoxide of tin; that of the more common ones, alum, earth, starch, and gypsum. The balls that appear in the market are formed by the addition of dextrine, glue, or gum-arabic. Lakes with violet tints are produced from a decoction of logwood in the same manner as the red-lakes are from Brazil-wood. They are also made by using an excess of alkali in the preparation of the latter.

18.6.14

Indigo. (osa III)

Kauppalehti 17, 29.4.1903

(Jatk.)

Säiliöstä A. johdetaan vesi alapuolella olevaan säiliöön B. rännin kautta. Tässä säiliössä B. on eräänlainen  pyörivä myllynratas, joka pannaan liikkeeseen höyryvoimalla. Tällä on tarkoituksena saattaa vesi ilmahapon kanssa yhteyteen, jonka kautta edellämainittu indicanin hapoittuininen saa alkunsa. 1 ½ - 5 tunnin jälkeen on se päättynyt. Käytännöllisellä indigon viljelijällä on kaikenlaisia vaikeasti selitettäviä tunnusmerkkiä siitä, milloin lopettamisen oikea hetki on tullut. Tärkeimmän näistä tunnusmerkeistä on nykyaikana eräs saksalainen oppinut, tri A. Schulte keksinyt. Kastetaan nimittäin kappale imupaperia liikkeessä olevaan veteen ja saatetaan se  ammoniakkikaasujen vaikutuksen alaiseksi. Jos vesi ei enään värjäänny siniseksi, on veden liikkeessä pito lopetettava. Tämä keksintö on sitä suuremmasta merkityksestä, koska sen kautta tilanomistaja on tilaisuudessa myöskin öisin työskentelemään, jonka vanhojen tunnusmerkkien tunteminen tekee mahdottomaksi. - Indigo, joka on nähtävänä suurissa joukoissa nyt hiljaisen veden pinnalla, laskeutuu nopeasti pohjalle. Varovaisesti annetaan ylimmäisen liikaveden juosta pois, kuitenkin niin, että siitä vieläkin on hyötyä. Sillä on nimittäin suuri arvo lannoitusaineena, jonka vuoksi sen annetaankin juosta kentille. Pohjaan laskeutunut väriaine juoksee seulantapaisen laitoksen läpi, joka pidättää kasvin jäännökset y. m., alimpana olevaan säiliöön C. Tästä viedään indigo keittohuoneeseen, jossase alituisesti hämmennettäessä varovaisesti keitetään kuparipannuissa. Sitten siivilöitään vellimäinen aine suuren siiviläkankaan läpi. Senjälkeen pannaan se puristimeen, joka muodostaa siitä 7,5 cm paksuisia kappaleita. 5,000 kg. kasvin liuottamisesta saadaan suotuisissa olosuhteissa 26 kg. indigoa, huonoimmissa tapauksissa ainoastaan 10 kg.

Tässä muodossa olevat indigokappaleet eivät vielä ole mitään markkinatavaraa. Tätä varten ovat ne leikeltävät kaakun muotoisiin 7,5 cm. suuruisiin neliöihin. Jokaiseen kaakkuun on ensiksi painettava viljelysmaan merkki sitten niin kutsuttu "boilings", päivän sadon määrä ja numero.

Kun indigon hyvyys melkein joka päivä vaihtelee, on myynnille tarpeellista pitää joka päivän tulokset erillään toisistaan, niin että voitaisiin markkinoille lähettää niin paljon kuin mahdollista samanlaatuista tavaraa. Määrä, paljonko indigo sisältää indigosinistä, voi vaihdella ei ainoastaan samalla viljelysmaalla, vaan on eri maiden indigossa huomattavissa vielä suurempi eroavaisuus. Bengalista tulevat kappaleet sisältävät esim. 50-70% indigosinistä, Doabista ainoastaan 30-60%. Sittenkun indigokappaleet ovat kuivuneet, lähetetään yksi kappale jokaista boilingia yhdelle niistä kolmesta liikkeestä Calcutassa, joiden kautta tilanomistajat myyvät indigonsa. Täällä järjestävät asiantuntiat kappaleet laadun mukaan. Tämä järjestysjakso ilmoitetaan tilanomistajalle. Tämän jälkeen puhdistetaan viljelysmaalla kappaleet homeesta ja asetetaan laatikkoihin, joihin kuhunkin menee noin 120-130 kg. indigoa. Liikkeen määräämässä järjestyksessä lähetetään indigo huolellisesti pakattuna Calcuttaan. Jo Lokakuussa saapuvat ensimmäiset laatikot Calcuttaan, mutta vasta Marraskuussa alkavat huutokaupat. Markkinapaikoilla seisovat laatikot pitkissä riveissä, joiden välillä kulkee  ostajia tutkien tavaran laatua. Tätä tarkoitusta varten ovat laatikot avatut klo 7:mästä aamulla. Joskin indigoostajia on saapunut tänne kaikilta maailman kulmilta, ovat saksalaiset kuitenkin enemmistönä ja saksan kieli hallitsee markkinoita. Klo 2 päivällä alkavat huutokaupat. 1000 laatikon myynti kestää 2½-3 tuntia. Viikossa pidetään 4-5 huutokauppaa. Yhteisenä painomittana käytetetään "Factory Maund", joka on noin 33 kg. Intia lähetti v. 1900 154,559 maundia markkinoille.

Meillä on ollut tilaisuus luoda pikainen silmäys omituiseen, ehkä kuolevaan teollisuuteen, joka johtaa alkunsa kaukaisesta muinaisuudesta. Vaan sen häviön, joka nyt uhkaa luonnollista indigoa, on se itse kerran tuottanut kukoistavalle eurooppalaiselle teollisuudelle, joka Saksassakin elätti lukuisia henkilöitä, nimittäin  värimorsinkoteollisuuden. Värimorsinkokasvia viljeltiin samalla tavalla kuin indigoakin; senkin lehdet sisälsivät, vaikkakin pienemmässä määrässä, eräänlaista indigosinistä. Nykyään on värimorsinkon käytäntö suuresti vähentynyt. Tätä kasvia viljellään kauppaa varten nyt vaan Ranskassa ja Thüringenissä. Sen lehtiä käytetään kylläkin värjäyslaitoksissa, mutta sillä on nykyään vähäpätöisempi merkitys.

17.6.14

Indigo. (osa II)

Kauppalehti 16, 22.4.1903

(Jatk.)

Kemian kilpailu on aiheuttanut sen, että tilanomistajat nykyään panevat kaiken voimansa ja taitonsa liikkeelle parantaakseen maan laatua y. m. ja sen kautta koettavat saavuttaa suurempaa menekkiä. Kuinka paljon hyötyä heillä tästä tulee olemaan, sen tulevaisuus osoittaa.

Vielä nyt on luonnollisen indigon maailman tuotanto niin huomattava, että hyvinkin ansaitsee luoda silmäys sen
kokonaiskuvaan; olkoonpa se vaan katoavan kulttuuripäivän ilta-auringon valaisema. -  Vuosituhansia on katoavaisuuden hautaan vaipunut siitä päivästä kun indigo tuli kansojen käytäntöön. Intia oli se, joka kaukaisessa muinaisuudessa ensimmäiseksi oppi käyttämään sitä. Sanskritin kielellä kutsutaan indigoa nila, joka on sama kuin sininen. Portugalilaiset muodostivat nilasanasta anil, joka onkantasana sanalle anilin.

Ennenkuin käymme selittämään indigon valmistamista, luomme pikaisen silmäyksen sen maailman tuotantoon. Sitä lähetettiin maailman kauppaan v. 1900:
Intiasta 51,000 Dz,
Javasta 6,000 "
Philippineiltä 1,500 "
Siamista 350 "
Venezuelasta 5-800 "
Guatemalasta 20 000 "
San Salvadorista 15,000 "

Japani ja Kina tuottivat tosin myöskin huomattavan määrän, kuitenkin käytettiin  niiden tuotantoa ainoastaan kotimaisiin tarpeisiin.

Intian varsinaiset indigon viljelyskentät sijaitsevat pohjois-Intiassa, pääasiallisesti pyhän Gangesjoen rantamailla. Sadeajan lopussa, kun tuo mahtava virta on laskeutunut takaisin uomaansa, jättäen jälkeensä rannikoille mutaansa, joka on hyvää lannoitusainetta sekä samalla maksutonta, kylvävät tilanomistajat näille rantamaille Indigofera tincto[r]ia, kasvia, joka noin 4-5 kuukauden kuluttua on täydellisesti kehittynyt. Tämä on silloin puolipensas, joka on 1 - 1½ korkea, haivenisilla, sini-vihreillä lehdillä. Kylvön ja tuleentumisen välinen aika on tilanomistajalle huolien aika. Toisinaan liian ankarat sadekuurot, toisinaan liian pitkälliset poudat vahingoittavat viljelystä. Toisinaan voi tulla toukkia, jotka muutamassa päivässä voivat tyyni hävittää indigokentät. Tilanomistaja on silloin pakoitettu uudelleen kylvämään. -  Kun indigo vihdoinkin alkaa kukkimaan, on se niittovalmis. Nyt alkaa ensimmäinen korjuu. Aikaisin aamulla rientää satoja kulija (alhaisin luokka intialaisia) kentälle ja leikkaavat sirpillä kasvin poikki niin korkealta maasta, että siihen jää vielä sivuhaaroja, jotka voivat valmistua toista korjuuta varten. Etelä-Intiassa korjataan useasti yhtä kylvöä kaksi vuotta ja saadaan ensimmäisenä vuonna kaksi ja toisena vuonna kolme korjuuta. - Kasvi viedään useimmiten heti suoraan kentältä tehtaaseen. Näissä, jotka ovat seisoneet 9  kuukautta, alkaa nyt vilkas toiminta.

Tämmöisen tehtaan sisustus on muutamilla viivoilla piirretty. Kuvitelkaamme kolmea muurattua sisäpuolelta huolellisesti sementillä päällystettyä vesiallasta, jotka ovat rakennetut vieretysten niin, että ensimmäisen A:n pohja on korkeimmalla, seuraavan B:n pohja huomattavasti alempana sekä viimeisen C:n alimpana. Tehtaaseen tuotu indigo asetetaan heti ensimmäiseen säiliöön A., joka vetää noin 5,000 kg. Heti säiliön täyttämisen jälkeen kaadetaan kasvien päälle vettä helposti tapahtuvan kuumentumisen välttämiseksi. Veden lämpömäärä asetetaan noin 30-40° C. Nyt alkaa väriaineen liuottaminen, toimitus, jota on väärin nimitetty käymiseksi. Vielä muutamia vuosia takaperin uskottiin nimittäin, että liuottamistoimitus tapahtuisi mikro-organismien kautta, samalla tavalla kuin keskiajan vertavuotava pyhä ehtoollisleipä, hostia, josta todellisesti tippui punanen verentapainen lima, jonka nykyään on huomattu tapahtuneen eräänlaisen sienen vaikutuksesta. Samalla tavalla arveltiin nyt, että sininen väriaines syntyi indigokasvista. Todellisuudessa tapahtuu tämä kemiallisen reaktioonin kautta, joka vaikuttaa, että indicani eroittautuu kuolevasta kasvista. lodicani hapoittuu sittemmin indigosiniseksi. Jos säiliössä ennen liuottumisen päättymistä tapahtuu käyminen, joka hyvinkin helposti voi sattua, on väriaine pilaantunut, ja syntyy siitä vähempiarvoinen tavara. Mutta tilanomistaja huomaa, milloin tämä käyminen alkaa, pinnalle nousevista kuplista, jotka ovat täytetyt mutakaasulla. Tämä on varmin merkki siitä, että liuottaminen nyt täytyy lopettaa. Tähän hetkeen asti ovat kasvit olleet veden alla noin 7-15 tuntia. Vesi on nyt saanut vähitellen kirkkaan tumman keltaisen värin, viheriäisillä vivahduksilla.

(Jatk.)

16.6.14

Indigo. (osa I)

Kauppalehti 15, 15.4.1903

Seuraavan kirjoituksen julkaisemme erään saksalaisen ammattilehden mukaan:

Sattumalta voi siellä täällä päivälehtiin eksyä tiedonantoja, jotka kertovat "ennenmuinoin kukoistaneen"  indigoviljelyksen lopusta. Toisinaan kerrotaan indialaisesta rajahista, toisinaan englantilaisesta tilanomistajasta, jonka on täytynyt lopettaa laajan indigoviljelyksensä siitä syystä, ettei voi enään kilpailla halvemman saksalaisen kemiallisen teollisuuden kanssa. - Koetamme tarkemmin selittää näitä asianhaaroja. Niinkuin tunnettua täytyy meidän ottaa huomioon, että kemian avulla vihdoinkin on onnistuttu valmistamaan puhdistetusta kivihiilitervasta muiden tärkeiden väriaineiden muassa myöskin sangen tärkeätä indigoväriä, joka on yhtä halpaa, kuin viljelyksestä saatu indigo. Missä määrin keinotekoinen indigo on syrjäyttänyt luonnollisen Saksassa, käy selville seuraavasta esityksestä.

Huomattavin vuosi saksalaiselle indigokaupalle on v. 1897. Sinä vuonna oli indigon vienti alhaisin se oli 2400 Dz. (=Doppelzentner) pienempi kuin v. 1889, mutta se oli myöskin  käännekohta  indigon kaupassa, sillä tämän vuoden jälkeen nousi vienti hämmästyttävässä määrässä; johonka suurimmaksi osaksi vaikutti "Badische Anilin und Sodawerken'in" toiminta.

Vuosi    | Tuonti  | Vienti
1897   | 14,080 Dz.  |  6,080 Dz,
1898   | 10,360 "   | 9,180 "
1899   | 11,080 "  | 13,640 "
1900  |  5,640 Dz.   | 18,730 Dz
1901  |  6,090 "   | 26,730 "

Niinmuodoin ei ole epäilemistäkään, ettei luonnollisen indigon saanti voisi äkkiä loppua Saksassa tekemättä vahinkoa saksalaisille värjäyslaitoksille. Keinotekoisen aineen etusijan saavuttaminen maailmankaupassa on vaan osittainen, sekä on pysyvä sellaisena vielä muutamia vuosia. Mutta keinotekoisen indigon vaikutuksen maailmanmarkkinoilla huomaa jo etenkin hintojen alhaisina pysymisessä. On pelättävä että luonnollisen indigon valmistamisen täytyy menehtyä, koska se ei voi kilpailla tehtaissa tapahtuvan keinotekoisen valmistamisen kanssa. Jos badenilaiset tehtaat, joille yksinoikeus silloin joutui, eivät voisi tyydyttää markkinoiden kysyntää, joutuisivat värjäyslaitokset ikävään välikäteen. Mutta vaara on kuitenkin torjuttavissa. - Ensimmäiset vaikutukset alhaisista hinnoista tuntuvat jo siinä, että alkuperäisellä kannalla olevat alku-asukkaat alkavat jättää sikseen raaka-aineskasviksen viljelemisen. Heille ei ole tästä mitään vahinkoa, he kun voivat käyttää aikansa toisten tuotteiden kasvattamiseen, ryhtyäkseen jälleen suotuisampain olosuhteiden vallitessa indigon valmistamiseen.

Alueet, missä alkuasukkaat ovat tällä kehittymättömällä kannalla, ovat Benares, Doab ja Madras. Toisin on laita Beharissa ja Alabengalissa, jossa sivistys ja kauppa on englantilaisten käsissä ja jossa on sijoitettuna yksin englantilaista pääomaa yli 60 miljoonaa markkaa.

(Jatk.)

15.6.14

Marble Paper Manufacture

Manufacturer and builder 3, 1869

Mankind are not always indebted to science for valuable discoveries and improvements in the mechanic arts. Some of the most useful arts are traceable to accidental causes, in which neither science nor learning was included. Among these may be named the manufacture of various kinds of marble and fancy paper. Little has been written upon this subject, and, with the exception of those immediately engaged in the business, very few have the least idea of the methods employed in its manufacture. This is not to be wondered at when it is known that the process of marbling or marbleizing paper is a secret known only to those engaged in the business. As this secrecy, how-ever, springs from selfish motives, and as a large number of honest, industrious mechanics now kept in the dark might turn the knowledge to some account, the veil for the first time is herewith removed.

To become an expert in the business of manufacturing marble paper, one should have a practical knowledge of colors, of their nature and chemical properties Without this but little progress can be made, unless he serves an apprenticeship at the business and gathers his knowledge mechanically. Even then, so nice are the workings of the process, he will find himself often at fault, and spend his time and labor in vain. To snake this matter plain, the mechanic should at first pay some attention to the study of nature. For example, in nature there are but three colors, which are very properly called "the primitive colors," namely, blue, red, and yellow; the rest are but tints or gradations of color, as may be seen through a prism or in the hues of the rainbow. In addition to the three primitive colors, nature also produces every variety of tint, not only in the vegetable kingdom, but in metallic and mineral bodies. The prismatic spectrum furnishes seven colors, of greater or lesser density, but sufficiently decided to be easily recognizable in an ordinary light; these are red, blue, yellow, green, orange, indigo, and violet, (or purple,) though only the three first named are original in the sun's rays, the remainder being formed from a combination of blue, red, and yellow. The combination of red and yellow forms the orange; the yellow and blue combined produce the green; the union of red and blue, by altering their component parts, results in the indigo and the violet. Mankind have come to call them the seven colors.

In a regular marble paper manufactory, colors in a dry state are pulverized and mixed with water, in a stone mortar or on a marble slab, to the consistence of a thin paste, and in this state are run through an ordinary paint-mill and ground very fine. The chemicals used in mixing the colors are then put in, well stirred, and again run through the mill. In this way they become incorporated with the color, and are not easily separated therefrom when reduced to a liquid state. The colors used in the business are as follows Burnt umber, raw umber, lamp-black, ivory-black, bone-black, Oxford ochre, burnt ochre, Bengal indigo, Caracas indigo, madder lake, rose pink, Dutch pink, yellow ochre, brown ochre, Spanish brown, raw sienna, burnt sienna, Antwerp blue, ultramarine blue, cobalt blue, whiting, flake white, Paris white, chrome yellow, chrome green, chrome orange. A number of other pigments are also used, including the various lakes, made from the cochineal-fly. The indiscriminate use of any color, however, of a perishable nature should be avoided. With, probably, the exception of indigo, all colors of vegetable origin, ground with water, lose their brilliancy when exposed to the action of the atmosphere and light. Hence the best manufacturers of marble paper use only those colors prepared from earths and minerals. These are durable, and will retain their tints as long as the paper lasts upon which they have been worked. Various shades of green, violet, purple, and orange are made by compounding two colors,and lightened to any shade by the admixture of white. White is also used to good advantage with single colors, when of themselves too transparent to give them body and opacity. When a set of colors are prepared for the work, they are reduced to a thin liquid state and placed in wide-mouthed, white crockery gallipots ready for use. The brushes ordinarily used in marbling are small sash tools; these have a small nail, with a bit of leather a third of an inch in diameter, cut round, fastened to the head and driven into the centre, forming a round cone-shaped fan, (see Fig. 1,) the better to scatter minute particles of the liquid color on the surface prepared to receive it. This surface is a mucilage that can be prepared in a variety of ways. That made from gums, is most generally used, and of these gumtragacanth and gum-egg are tlse principal. The mucilage produced from tragacanth ie prepared in a large tub or cask, cut in two, into which several pails of raw water have been poured, and a given quantity of the gum, say two pounds, placed therein to soak over night. On the following day, it will have absorbed all the water and become a thick paste. This is well beaten with a twig-broom, more water added to it, and when thoroughly dissolved, reduced to the consistence of sweet-oil and strained into a flat wooden trough. Unless the gum is pure and unmixed with other gums, there is more or less astringency in the mucilage, whirls prevents the colors from flowing over its entire surface; this is corrected by a thin solution of roachalum whirls has the effect of neutralizing the astringency. The troughs are placed on a stand or table; they are made water-tight, about five inches deep, and sufficiently large to admit from four to eight sheets of paper.



The preparation of mucilage from gum-egg is very different and requires both care and judgment. When soaked the same as tragacanth, it does not forma paste, but becomes completely disintegrated, the particies being white and resembling crumbs of bread. This gum possesses a great deal of both astringency and acidity, and will not yield a mucilage until the water in whirls it is dissolved is carefully strained from it, fresh water added, and again strained, when it is placed on a slow fire in a large iron or copper vessel, a given quantity of pearl-ash mixed with it, and left to simmer. When it commences to boil, it must be continually stirred to prevent its burning, and in due time a thick mucilage will be formed, the particles gradually disappearing until a thick pulp is produced. This when cooled is reduced to a similar consistence to tragacanth. Care should be taken not to use too much pearl-ash, as an overquantity will prevent .the veins of the marbling from closing, in whirls case the paper will not be entirely covered with the colors. To remedy this the same solution of alum or a mild vegetable acid must be well mixed with the mucilage, which nullifies the alkali without injuring the liquid. In this, also, care should be used, and only sufficient of the solution put in to neutralize the pearl-ash, an overquantity rendering tlse mucilage too watery.



Supposing the mucilage to be already prepared and in the trough, and the colors ready for use and arranged on a shelf or table on the right of the work-man, (see Fig. 2,) the colors that form the veins of the marble are carefully sprinkled, one at a time, over tlse surface of tlse mucilage, the manipulator, in holding his brush, making a pivot of the ball of Iris second finger and thumb, and using Isis dexter finger as a hammer to force the fine globules of color from the brush to the mucilage. The color whirls is to form the groundwork or principal figures of the marble is thrown on last. The paper, whirls occupies a table to the left of the workman, is then put on, in single sheets, by taking up the 'sheet by the extreme corners, bending it in the form of a bow and gradually letting it fall lightly on the surface. The colors, whicls are all floating on the surface, immediately adhere to the paper with a portion of the mucilage; the paper is then thrown over sticks and placed on racks to drip, the color remaining and the mucilage falling into a sloping trough below the rack, placed there for the purpose of receiving it.

Say that six colors are used for any particular pattern desired, five out of the six will form veins, and one (the last thrown on) the groundwork. As a simple illustration of this, the first color used covers tlse whole surface and forms no vein; the second is then thrown on, whirls displaces the first, covering the surface, forcing the first into a vein, and forming the groundwork; the third in the same way displaces the second, becomes the ground, and in turn forces the second into a vein; and so on until tlse last color designed for the groundwork is thrown on, forming five distinct veins of as many different colors, and one principal color, or marble design. A variety of mudlages is made, for small work, such as for marbling the edges of books, and little jobs that do not need extensive preparations. A simple and inexpensive mucilage is made from flaxseed, (linseed,) the material from which linseed oil is manufactured. The seed is allowed to soak over night in rain-water, and tlse next morning to simmer over a slow fire for five or six hours, stirred at intervals, and closely watched, the object being to extract the mucilage without the oil. On a quick, hot fire, oil will be thrown out, which, rising to the surface, will prevent the colors from spreading, and interfere with the after-process of glazing. When the mucilage is thus obtained, it is reduced to a. consistence the same as the gums, allowed to cool, and used without admixtures of any kind. The edges of books are marbled as follows: they are sent from the bindery with their edges cut and their covers unbound; as many as may be conveniently handled are grasped with both hands, pressed closely together, and dipped upon the surface of the mucilage, which has been sprinkled with the necessary colors. The books are held together, with their edges describing an angle, the back edge first touching the mucilage, and the whole gradually made to touch. the surface. In this way the edges of thousands of books may be marbled in one day at a comparatively trifling cost. After the books are dipped they are placed in piles on narrow slips to drip, the mucilage gradually falling away and the colors remaining. Both with paper and books, the gummy nature of the mucilage and the mixtures. used in preparing the colors, prevent the colors from rubbing off. The after-glazing also assists in preserving the colors and the design of tile marbling. The edges of books are glazed after they are bound, by placing them in a binder's work-bends press, screwed together very tight, and rubbed with a binder's burnisher, a tool made with a piece of round, polished, transparent agate at its end. The friction produced by the agate on the edges leaves a gloss which is indispensable to the finish of the book.

A simple contrivance for glazing paper after it is marbled is as follows A piece of flint rock (free from flaws) about three inches long, two and a half to three incises wide, and three fourths of an inch in thickness, is made to fit into a square block of some hard wood and ground upon a grindstone until the surface which,. is to come in contact with the paper is perfectly flat; the edges are then ground away until the surface describes the half of a circle, its whole length being still: preserved. On the opposite side of the block into which the flint is fastened, a pole, five or six feet in length, and two incises in diameter, is driven, and the remaining end made to fit loosely in a socket made in the centre of a horizontal springy board, one end of which is fastened by hinges to a stationary cross beam, and the other tied with a stout cord, which is brought down in a perpendicular line and fastened to a staple in the floor; the board, when in use, describing the figure of a bow. A block of very hard wood, a trifle wider than the flint, two feet six incises long, sawed: out to describe an inverted bow, and presenting a poliished surface, is fastened on in tlse centre of a strong wooden table, made perfectly plumb, on which the flint rests. When the pole is perfectly perpendicular, it rests in the centre of the grooved block; the paper, in single sheets, is then laid on the grooved block, the operator propelling the upright pole with the flint attached, to and fro, the whole lengths or width of the sheet. The pressure from the levered board above, and the friction of the flint over the paper, give it a beautiful gloss; the operator using his right hand to propel the pole, and his left to guide the paper, during the process of glazing. This economical and homely method of glazing, however, has its disadvantages, and in consequence is fast growing into disrepute.

The latest improvement now generally adopted in large manufactories for glazing marbleized paper is much more expensive, and considerably more intricate in design. It consists of running the paper between two cylinders or calenders of polished steel, the faces of which are kept firmly pressed together, the upper cylinder performing three revolutions to one of the lower, the revolutions being regulated by multiplying cog-wheels. These cylinders are made sufficiently long to take in the largest paper used for marbling, and are made of solid iron with a steel face, which is burnished to look as bright as a mirror. They are fitted into a stationary cast-iron frame and propelled by horse-power, hand or steam, (see Fig. 3.) Paper glazed by this process receives a more brilliant gloss and retains it better than by any other; it is also a great saver of time and labor. When much power is used in propelling the cylinders, a ream of paper (480 sheets) can be turned out in the space of ten minutes. The paper must be thoroughly dried, smoothed out, and pressed before it is glazed, as any kinks, ridges, or dampness will cause it to tear in the process.



Marble-paper makers seldom allow visitors to see them while at work, andd never when preparing their colors, this being deemed the most important secret in their business. The time has rassed, however, when this, as with all other exclusive monopolies, should be encouraged at the expense of thousands of industrious mechanics, whose limited means debar them from paying exorbitant sums for learning the business. It is for their benefit, therefore, that the present article is written and the following additional instructions given. As previously noted, to make clean and good work, all ingredients used for mixing with the colors should be ground with them; in this way they are more thoroughly incorporated with the pigments; if added afterward, when the colors are thinned for use, they dO not mix properly; they become separated and float upon the surface. The ingredients used for mixing with the colors are beef's gall, raw and boiled linseed oil, spirits of turpentine, alum, and gum-arabic, in their proper proportions. With those pigments that are considered slow driers a little litharge may be used to advantage, not sufficient, however, to interfere with the native brilliancy of the color. For those colors that are to form the veins of the marble, such as black, red, yellow, blue, green, etc., all that is necessary to use for mixing is beef's gall, in the proportion of two table-spoonfuls to a pint of color, and a little weak solution of gum-arabic; the gall having the effect of making the color spread when it falls on the mucilage, and the gum-arabic of assisting in making it permanent on the paper. For the colors which are to form the ground or principal figure, beefs gall, in the same proportion, is used, with the addition of a tea-spoonful each of raw and boiled linseed oil, spirits turpentine, and the same solution of gum-arabic. These give a softness and transparency to the most opaque colors. Alum, in a thin solution, is only used when too much gall has been mixed with the color, the object being to contract the spreading, which otherwise would make the figures of the ground. work too large, and the paper could not be used on any small work.

To imitate a conglomerate marble or puddle-stone, several groundwork colors may be used in small quantities; the brush used last should contain but little color, so that the globules may be very minute, and the figure correspondingly small; the vein colors, as previously noted, being thrown on first. The effect of this is the appearance of one color of marble being imbedded in that of another.

The combing, or feather-shaped marble, is produced by the following very simple contrivance. The colors are laid on the mucilage in the ordinary way, after which a comb, the whole width of the trough, (made of a thin strip of wood, with large needles driven into its edge at given distances apart, with an elliptic piece in the centre of its upper edge, for the hand,) is drawn slowly across the surface of the mucilage, and the paper laid on immediately thereafter. Waving, or imitating waves in marble, is also very simple, if the hands are steady. It is done by giving the paper, as it touches the mucilage upon which the colors have been thrown, a to and fro or seesaw motion; beginning with one corner of the paper and gradually finishing the sheet, the motion of the arms being kept up to the end. The effect produced is to cause waves or ripples on the surrace of the mucilage, a certain portion of all the colors being displaced thereby, or, more properly rendered, faint, by every alternate dip of the paper, as it catches the impression. As some considerable time is consumed in this process, the waved paper is sold at a much higher price. From four to eight sheets of paper, according to size, can be marbled at one impression, and as the impressions are instantaneous, the operator should be careful to lay his sheets on the mucilage just in the places where they belong, commencing at either corner of the trough, and laying the next sheet immediately alongside of the first, and so on until the whole surface is covered, the space required for any given number of sheets being regulated by a sliding upright partition at the side and end of the trough. No partition, however, should subdivide the number of sheets laid at any one impression. After removing the paper from the trough to the drying-rack, before the colors are again thrown on the mucilage, the surface should be smoothed over with a flat wooden scraper, about three incites wide, made thin, and fitting in the trough lengthwise, with two uprights about six inches long, for handles. This removes all air bubbles and particles of color left from the last impression on the surface.

As a rule, the fewer and simpler the colors used for marbling, the better; the colors thus preserve their brightness, and the mucilage is kept cleaner. Certain admixtures of color are, however, indispensable; for example, lampblack alone will never form a rich, deep black, but will, when dry, have a dingy, sooty appearance. To Obviate this a little bone or ivory black and Bengal indigo is ground up with it. Chrome yellows are seldom used alone, on account of their opacity and too great brilliancy; to subdue their brightness, make them harmonize better with the adjacent colors, and also to give them a semi-transparent appearance, a portion of Dutch pink, Oxford ochre, or yellow ochre is ground with it. With rose pink a little madder lake is used. Although chrome green is occasionally used alone, it works better mixed with a little indigo and yellow ochre.

In concluding this treatise, it is proper to remark that a great deal will depend for success upon the care and judgment employed in marbleizing paper. It is not a mere mechanical art, nor can it be ranked as One of the fine arts. With a mechanical knowledge of the business should be associated a knowledge of chemistry and some artistic taste; perseverance and practice will then accomplish the rest.

It has been intimated, in the commencement of this article, that the discovery of the process of marbleizing paper is attributed to an accidental cause; this is really the case, and to a woman belongs the honor of originating the invention. About the middle of the eighteenth century, in the city of London, a Mrs. Pendarvis, while engaged in' washing clothes on a lawn adjacent to her dwelling, had occasion to use a small bag containing a preparation of indigo-blue, which had been previously dipped in the soap-suds. A neighbor passing by at the time stopped to gossip with the housewife, the drippings front the bag in her hand meanwhile falling on the suds and soap-bubbles in her tub. After her neighbor had passed on, her attention was directed to the singular appearance of the contents of her tub, which appeared like a collection of glass marbles, reflecting and refracting all the hues of the chameleon, blue being the prevailing color. Now most women under the same circumstances would have paid no attention to this, attributing it to its proper cause, the dripping of the bag; but Mrs. Pendarvis was not a common woman. She had an inquiring mind, and spent much thought in studying causes and effects. Although she had been accustomed to see the rainbow tints, and even her own rubicund face, reflected in the soap-bubbles, it never excited her wonder; but the blue marbles—there was a real and tangible something about this that struck her for the first time; it might be turned to some account. And Mrs. Pendarvis pondered over it at her washing until her husband came home to dinner, when she mentioned the circumstance to him. Mr. Pendarvis, though a dyer by trade and accustomed to dabble in colors, laughed at his wife's foolish speculations, and, calling them castles in the air, dismissed the subject. His wife, however, was not to be put off; she knew there was something in it, and secretly determined to fathom it. Her reasoning on the subject was homely, but cogent: if one color would produce such an effect, what would two or more produce ? Her husband was a dyer; she would secure a little of his dye without his knowing it two or titres different colors, and try the experiment. It would be no harm at all events. The experiment was tried, and the bubbles were like marbles of many colors. This did not surprise her, she looked for such a result; but how to adapt it to some practical use was the question. At length, after torturing her mind for a considerable time, a bright idea struck her. Procuring a piece of white paper, she laid it gently on the bubbles, and a faint impression of motley tints was produced. A second experiment, with a stronger lye, was made, producing more decided impressions of color, and the result communicated to her son, a book-binder's apprentice. He, like his mother, saw "something in it," and in turn informed his master, showing him the impressions. Further experiments were tried at the bindery, resulting in some improvements, and here a crude sort of marbling was inaugurated. At this stage science stepped in and suggested a liquid body of sufficient resistive force to enable colors to float on its surface, and by repeated experiments, a mucilage was found to be the best medium. But to Mrs. Pendarvis attaches the first honor of the discovery.

14.6.14

Notes & Queries. (1992) Changing Photographs to Natural Colors. (vastaus)

The Manufacturer and Builder 12, 1877

There are several processes for giving natural colors to photographs, but to do it satisfactorily one must be an able artist. One way is to simply color them with transparent water-colors, such as anilines; this is the easiest, but also the least artistic. Another way is to treat them like miniature water-colors; this is adapted for small photographs. Another way, best adapted for large life-size pictures, such as are thrown up by the solar camera, is to treat them with pastel; this, in able hands, gives a splendid effect. The most elaborate is what our correspondent mentions especially - photo all paintings; to produce these the prominent photographers in large cities employ a special artist who understands portrait-painting in oil colors. The picture is photographed on canvas, and this is only used by the artist as an outline for position, etc., during his treatment. What there is of the photograph becomes entirely invisible and covered up by the paint. There is no process nor is there any chemical for "changing a photograph to natural colors;" it is simply done by painting, and to do it well you must learn to paint.