31.1.13

Wähän walosta

Väinämöinen 28-29, 17.9.1902

(Väinämöiseen).
Meidän maapallon asukkaiden paras walonlähde on aurinko, tuo päiwän kultainen kerä, jota on waikea äkkiä niin suureksi uskoa, luin se todella on. Niinpä esim. kun eräs wanhan ajan kreikkalainen oppinut  Anaxagoras arweli, että aurinko on ainakin niin suuri kuin Peloponnesos, siis melkein yhtä suuri kuin Häme, Uusimaa ja Warsinais-Suomi yhteensä, hänen aikalaisensa, nuo muutoin siwistyneet kreikkalaiset, pitiwät häntä houkkiona ja nauroiwat hänen muka hulluille mietteilleen. Mutta kyllä he olisiwat kaikessa wiisaudessaan hämmästyneet, jos olisiwat saaneet tietää, että aurinko on koko maapalloa enemmän kuin miljoona kertaa suurempi. Ja kun niin on, niin ei ketään kummastuttane, jos tuollainen kummitus lähettääkin  niin äärettömästi waloa ja lämpöä, että niiden awulla tapahtumat kaikki työt maapallolla, jonka osaksi  kumminkin tulee wain warsin wähäinen osa kaikista auringon säteistä. Tämän mahtawan walonlähteen rinnalla hupenee toisten samaan suuntaan waikuttawain esineiden arwo warsin wähäiseksi. Kuu ja tähdet kokemat auringon muualla matkustellessa toimittaa walaisijan wirkaa, mutta tekewät sen niin huonosti, että ihmisen, jos hän mielii silloin jotain askaroida, täytyy turwautua palawain kappaleiden walaistuswoimaan. Sitte on luonnossa wielä joitakuita eläimiä, jotka pimeällä huwikseen loistelewat, mitään muuta sanottawaa hyötyä aikaansaamatta. Sellainen on esim. kiiltomato.

Puhuttuamme walonlähteistä, seuraa tässä ikäänkuin itsestään kysymys: mitä walo oikeastaan on? Suuri englantilainen luonnontutkija Newton ajatteli loistawasta kappaleesta lewiämän joka suuntaan erittäin hienoa ainetta, joka kulkee läpi awaruuden äärettömän nopeasti ja tunkee läpikuultawain kappaleiden molekyylien wäliin. Nykyjään on kumminkin yleisesti oikeaksi tunnustettu hollantilaisen Huyghensin esittämä teoriia, jonka mukaan walo syntyy walaiseman kappaleen wäräyksistä tulleista waloaalloista. Tuo wärähteleminen tapahtuu hywin tiheään, sillä wäräysten luku nousee sekunnissa 400:sta 800:aan biljoonaan. Waloaaltoja muodostaa ja lewittää eetteri-niminen aine. Se on näkymätöntä ja lisäksi niin hienoa, että woi tunkeutua kaikkialle. Se on lewinneenä koko maailman awaruuteen ja täyttää niin hywin taiwaankappalten wäliset äärettömät awaruudet kuin myös kappalten molekyylien pikkulomaset. Niinpä täyttää se silmänkin molekyylien wäliset lomat ja johdattaa wäräykset silmän pohjassa olewaan näköhermoon, jossa ne synnyttäwät walontunteen. Tässä aineessa se nyt walo lewiää suorawiiwaisina säteinä 300,000 km. nopeudella sekunnissa, joten walo siis tarwitsee wain noin 8 minuuttia kulkeakseen tuon huimaawan matkan auringosta maahan.

Jos asettaa peilin winosti päiwänwaloa wastaan, niin ilmaantuu kattoon tai seinään wastapäätä peiliä walaistu kohta. Peiliin langenneet walonsäteet heijastuwat nimittäin siitä takaisin. Kailki muutkin esineet heijastawat walonsäteitä, ja elleiwät ne sitä tekisi, emme me woisi nähdä muita kuin omawaloisia kappaleita. Olisi warsin hauskaa ottaa erittäin tarkastettawaksi walon heijastaminen peileistä, sekä tasaisista että ontewista ja  mykewistä, mutta aineen laweus estää puhumasta siitä tämmöisessä pikkukyhäyksessä.

Sen sijaan pakisemme wähän walon taittumisesta, joksi sanotaan sitä ilmiötä, että walonsäteet joutuessaan jostakin aineesta toiseen erilaiseen aineeseen, jossa ne myöskin pääsemät lewiämään, eiwät enää kulje suorina wiiwoina, waan näiden molempain aineiden rajapinnalla muuttawat suuntaa, murtuwat. Tämä taittuminen  selittää, minkätähden wesisangon pohja näyttää nousewan, kun sanko täytetään wedellä, minkätähden kirkaswetiset järwet omat matalamman näköiset, kuin ne todellakin owat, minkätähden weteen winosti asetettu keppi näyttää taittuneelta j. n. e. Walonsäteet omat näissä tapauksissa kulkeneet weden ja ilman läpi, jotka owat walo-opillisesti eri tiheitä aineita. Eri paksujen ilmakerroksien läpi kulkeneiden walonsäteiden taittumisen seuraus on sekin omituinen luonnonilmiö, että kaukaiset ja sentähden ennen näkymättömät esineet, esim. kaupungit ja laiwat, wälistä näkywät ilmanpiirissä. Tätä näönhairausta sanotaan kangastukseksi, ja näyttäytyy se etenkin merillä ja suurilla wesillä sekä erämaan aawikoilla.  Huwittamaa olisi puhua myöskin walon taittumisesta kaikenlaisten linssien läpi sekä niistä walo-opillisista  koneista, mikroskoopeista, teleskoopeista y. m., jotka owat laitetut tämmöisistä linsseistä, waan jo ennen mainittu syy tekee sen mahdottomaksi.

Mutta waikka tila onkin ahdas, niin emme kumminkaan woi olla päällisinmyöten koskettelematta walon erittelemistä eri wäriwiwahduksiinsa. Se tapahtuu esim. näin: Tehdään neulalla reikä jokseenkin suureen paperilewyyn ja annetaan auringonsäteen kulkea niin hywin reiän läpi, kuin myös reiän takana olewan kolmisärmäisen lasiprisman läpi, jonka yläpintaa pidetään waakasuorana sekä päästetään se lankeemaan  särmiön takana olemalle walkoiselle paperille. Silloin se pilkku, johon walo tulee, ei ole walkoinen, waan siinä nähdään seuraawat 7 pääwäriä: punainen, punakellerwä, keltainen, wiheriäinen, sininen, tummansininen (indigo) ja punasinerwä (wioletti). Punaiset walonsäteet taittuwat wähimmin, punasinerwät enimmin. Saatua wärikuwaa sanotaan spektriksi. Kaikki edellämainitut wärit owat huomattawina wesikaaressa, joka syntyy
siten, että sadepisarat heijastawat ja erittelewät auringonsäteet. Walkoinen auringonwalo on siis yhdistetty kaikista noista wäreistä. Ensimmäinen, joka huomasi ja osoitti auringonwalon kokoonpanon, oli Newton. Sittemmin on tälle pohjalle syntynyt laaja tiede-ala ja on m. m. keksitty spektraali-analyyfi, s. o. tutkimatapa, jolla määrätään kappaleen kemialliset alkuosat sen synnyttämän spektrin awulla. Spektraali-analyysia on käytetty monella tieteellisellä ja teknillisellä alalla ja se on auttanut inhimillisiä tutkimuksia ennen tuntemattomille aloille. Sen awulla woidaan määrätä miljoonain peninkulmain päässä olewain taiwaankappalten alkuosat ja laatu. Niin esim. auringonspektristä woidaan päättää, että tässä taiwaantähdessä on hehkuma, jähmeä tahi sula  sydän, jonka ympärillä on loistawa kaasumassa ja että auringon atmosfeerissa on tärkeimpinä osina metykaasua ja rautahöyryä sekä wielä muita, myöskin maanpallollamme löytywiä aineita, niinkuin natriota, kaaliota y. m.

Edellä on jo siwumennen huomautettu, että heijastawat waloaallot auttawat meitä näkemään eri esineitä. Se ei kuitenkaan ole kaikki, mitä ne tekewät. Ne saattawat meitä wielä eroittamaan wärejäkin. Ajatelkaamme esim. lehdellä wälkkyilewää auringonsädettä. Osa waloaalloista kimmoaa lehdeltä suorastaan silmiimme.  Siten näemme lehden pinnan. Mutta aaltojen jäännökset jääwät lehteen. Se tarwitsee rawinnoksensa punaiset, punakeltaiset, keltaiset, siniset, tummansiniset ja punasinerwät aallot eikä päästä niitä menemään. Mutta wiheriäisiä aaltoja ei se tarwitse. Ne kimmahtamat takaisin ja tulewat meidän silmiimme, ja siten näemme me lehden wiheriäisenä. Kun siis sanotaan lehden olewan wiheriän, merkitsee se, että lehti ei tarwitse wiheriäisiä walo-aaltoja, waan lähettää ne meille. Ylimalkaan wärit syntymät siten, että kappale heijastaa wain yhden lajin niistä walonsäteistä, jotka walkoiseen waloon kuuluwat, mutta säilyttää muut. Jos kappale heijastaa kaikki säteet, näyttää se walkoiselta. Mustalta näyttää esine silloin, kun siitä ei ensinkään heijasta wäriä, waan kaikki wärilajit imeytyivät.

Edellä olewasta hajanaisesta esityksestä on jo jonkun werran selwinnyt, mistä kaikista hauskoista asioista walo-oppi eli optiikka puhuu. Lopuksi on meillä wielä mainittawana Röntgen- eli X-säteiden keksiminen, noiden aiwan uusien walonsäteiden, jotka salliwat silmäimme tunkeutua tähän asti näkymättöminä pidettyjen esineiden sywimpiin sopukoihin ja siten tekewät melkein "Tuhannen ja yhden yön" sadut osittain mahdollisiksi. Tällä keksinnöllä, jonka on tehnyt saksalainen fyysikko Konrad Röntgen ja josta tieto heti lewisi ihmettelewään maailmaan wiisi, kuusi wuotta sitten, on suuri arwo käytännöllisillä aloilla, esim. lääketieteen palweluksessa.

30.1.13

Kokeellisesta sielutieteestä. (Osa artikkelista.)

Valvoja 2 / 1887

(Jatkoa.)

IV. Kauneustieteen perusteista, muistista y. m.

Erittäin luonnollinen ja paikallansa on kokeiden käyttäminen yksinkertaisimpien kauneustieteellisten suhteiden
selvittämiseksi ja määräämiseksi.

Itsestään selviää, ettei voi ajatellakkaan tutkia tällä tiellä muuta kuin vaan kaikkein yksinkertaisimpia, alkeellisimpia kauneuden suhteita. Niinpä siten selvitellään, kaikin tavoin koettelemalla, esim. miksikä tämä kuvio, tämä kaareva viiva minua miellyttää enemmän kuin tuo toinen, vähän toisellainen, y. m. semm. Tässä on tietysti noudattaminen semmoista menetystä, ettei luoteta yhden ihmisen arvosteluihin, vaan verrataan sitä esteetistä vaikutusta, jonka itsekukin muoto synnyttää useihin eri henkilöihin, - menetystapaa, jota sopii sanoa tilastolliseksi. On saatava selville, mainitakseni muutamia esimerkkejä, mikä merkitys on kuvioiden suuretieteellisellä säännöllisyydellä esteettisen mieltymyksen synnyttämisessä, mikä merkitys on tuolla n. s. "kultaisella jaolla" y. m. Viimemainittu nimitys tarkoittaa jonkun viivan leikkaamista kahteen osaan sillä tavalla, että koko viivan suhde isompaan osaan on sama kuin isomman osan suhde vähempään; tuo nimitys on keksitty sen vuoksi, koska on muinaisista ajoista asti väitetty että tämä suhde olisi varsinainen "kauneuden suhde", kerrassaan kauniimpi kuin mikään muu suuruuden suhde eri viivojen välillä. Kokeiden tuloksista mainittakoon: sellainen eri viivojen suhde, jommoinen kultaisella jaolla syntyy koko viivan ja isomman osan, isomman ja vähemmän osan välillä, miellyttää toden teossa verratessa pystysuoraa vaakasuoraan, mutta ei juuri muuten. Suoranaiset kokeet osoittavat, että se yleensä ei miellytä, jos leikataan yksi viiva sen suhteen mukaan kahteen osaan; jos vaakasuora on jaettava, niin symmetrinen jako enimmin miellyttää; jos pystysuora on jaettava, niin semmoinen suhde osien välillä.

Kokeiden tuloksista mainittakoon: sellainen eri viivojen suhde, jommoinen kultaisella jaolla syntyy koko viivan ja isomman osan, isomman ja vähemmän osan välillä, miellyttää toden teossa verratessa pystysuoraa vaakasuoraan, mutta ei juuri muuten. Suoranaiset kokeet osoittavat, että se yleensä ei miellytä, jos leikataan yksi viiva sen suhteen mukaan kahteen osaan; jos vaakasuora on jaettava, niin symmetrinen jako enimmin miellyttää; jos pystysuora on jaettava, niin semmoinen suhde osien välillä kuin 1:2 näyttää miellyttävimmältä. - Aivan yksinkertainen, säännöllinen suuretieteellinen kuvio synnyttää ainoastaan heikkoa esteetistä mieltymystä; useimmissa tapauksissa voipi näyttää, mitenkä mieltymys hyvin tuntuvasti kasvaa, jos vaan kuvioon lisätään muutamia sopivia, säännöllisiä viivoja, niin että siihen tulee jonkunmoinen moninaisuus. - Nämä seikat ovat vähäpätöiset, mutta ne riittänevät viittaukseksi,että tämmöiset järjestelmälliset vaarin-otot voivat olla apuna mutkallisempien kysymyksien selvittämisessä.

Toinen tärkeä tutkimus-ala, jossa jo on tehty paljon työtä, on värien, eri väriyhdistyksien ja vastakkaisten väriaistimuksien vaikutus näköaistimeen, mitenkä esim. erityiset värien-yhtymiset voivat omituisesti muuttaa kunkin eri värin näennäistä vivahdusta. Ei liene aivan rohkea arvelu että tästä alusta tulee ennen pitkää kehittymään todellinen "värien alkeellinen estetiikka", jota tunnustetaan yhdeksikorkeamman kauneustieteen peruskiveksi, ja joka on rikkaampi sisällykseltään ja luotettavampi kuin ne tuumailut, joita on totuttu tuomaan esiin kauneustieteessä "värien esteettisestä vaikutuksesta".  Luulen että täytyy tunnustaa esteettisenkin tutkimuksen olevan tässä varmalla tiellä, joka on tuottava valaisua tieteelle.

Jonkunmoisen kokeellisen menetystavan käyttäminen on tällä alalla niin luonnollinen,että sopii sanoa sitä käytetyn jo kauan, hyvin kauan ennen kuin yleinen kokeellinen sielutiede syntyi; mutta tuo tapahtui kovin vähässä määrässä. Tulevaisuudessa taas tämä suunta minun luullakseni tulee sekin saamaan paljoa suuremman merkityksen kuin vielä yleensä
aavistetaankaan.

Tässä on puhuttu yksistään kaikkein yksinkertaisimmista kauneustieteellisista seikoista. Tosin korkeammat esteettiset vaikutukset ja tunteet kieltämättä aina perustuvat siihen, että mielessämme herätetään korkeampia aatteita, siveellisiä tunteita y. m. semm. Jollei semmoisia meissä herätetä, niin korkeampi esteettinen vaikutus on kerrassaan mahdoton; sillä muodon ja värin suhteet ja hienous yksistänsä vaikuttavat verrattain heikon mieltymyksen tunteen, joka on aistillista laatua, tavallisesti epäselvä ja häilyvä. Mutta kuitenkin noihin korkeampiin esteettisiin vaikutuksiin on aina yhtynyt suuri joukko semmoisia aistillisia,mitä yksinkertaisimpia mieltymyksen tunteita, jotka perustuvat yksinkertaisimpiin muodon ja värin suhteihin, yhdenmukaisuuksiin ja sopusointuun. Ja näidenkin tarkka selvittäminen on kauneustieteelle aivan tärkeä. - Yleisesti tunnustetaan että kaikki tuommoiset taideteoksissa esitetyt aatteet ja niiden johdosta heränneet tunne-harrastukset (esim. siveelliset taikka isänmaalliset tunteet y. m.) voivat helposti häiritä puhtaastaan taiteellista mieltymystä. Mutta ne ovat, kuten sanottiin, kuitenkin aivan välttämättömät korkeamman taiteellisen kauneuden synnyttämiseksi. Ja niistä huolimatta kuitenkin puhtaastaan taiteellinenkin mieltymys voipi myös säilyä aivan sekoittumalta, kun niitä vaan esitetään taiteellisesti oikein, täytenäisesti ja objektiivisesti.

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29.1.13

(Ilmoitus) Maalarinsällit

Uusi Suometar 72, 18.6.1877

Maalarinsällit saawat työtä nyt heti Helsingissä Aleksanderinkatu N:o 50.
A. Kronqwist.
Maalarimestari.

(Ilmoitus) Maalarinsällit

Uusi Suometar 72, 18.6.1877

Maalarinsällit saawat edullista työtä nyt heti.
A. H. Snygg.
Korkiawuoren katu N:o 17.

Wärjätyn palowiinan uhreja.

Uusi Suometar 72, 18.6.1877

Wiime heluntai-juhlina kuoli kaksi miestä wärjätyn palowiinan nauttimisesta Ylöpään tienoilla. Siinä on taas surullinen muistutus siitä, mitä tuo pienempien kauppapuotien "rommi" eli wärjätty palowiina woi matkaan saattaa.
(Ilm.)

27.1.13

Om färgernas varaktighet.

Typografbladet 1 / 1896

Vid val af färger är det af största vikt att veta, huruvida färgerna äro varaktiga eller icke, och detta isynnerhet vid val af färger till arbeten, som äro bestämda att brukas i längre tid. En del färger förändra utseende redan dagen efter det de blifvit tryckta, andra tala ej det minsta solljus och nägra ej ens vanligt dagsljus. Faktiskt är att några af de vackraste färgerna äro de minst hållbara.

Vi skola här klassificera de viktigaste färgerna efter deras hållbarhet.

Gula och bla färger äro i allmänhet hallbarare än röda. Af de sistnämda är det egentligen endast zinober som är lysäkta, förutsatt att den är kemiskt ren.

Följande färger äro af kännare betraktade som starka, nämligen karmingult, kromgult, röd, brun och gul ockra, zinober, kinesiskt rödt, venetiansktrödt, zinkhvitt, terra di sienna, ultramarin, miloriblätt, pariserblatt, blev d'oriental, mineralorange, koboltblatt, umbra och jakarandabrunt.

De färger som icke tala solljus äro: geraniumlack, karmosinlack, skarlakanslack, gult lack, purpurlack) turkiskt blått, indigo, berlinerblätt, patentzinober och rosenfärger.

Följande färger motstå ljuset, men skadas af fuktighet, skugga och oren luft, nämligen: mönja, kromrödt, orangerödt, mineralgult, koboltblatt, mineralgrönt eller grönt lack af hvarje slag.

Vid val bland röda färger bör man isynnerhet vara försiktig, ty dessa äro de dyraste och mest utsatta för förfalskning. Aro röda färger blandade med anilin, böra de i
ingen händelse användas till tryckning af omslag eller andra saker, hvilka äro  utsatta för sol- och dagsljuset.

Svarta färger, som användas till arbeten, hvilka länge blifva utsatta för solljuset, böra blandas med en mindre tillsats kinesiskt tusch, emedan färgen annars om en tid blir gulaktig och blek. Tuschen haller sig nämligen mot solljuset och bevarar  färgens styrka.

26.1.13

Om smörfel.

Tidning för mjölkhushållning 7, 18.2.1894

Felaktig färgning af smöret är ett ej ovanligl fel, hvilket dock dess bättre ej är svårt att rätta. Dock bör man naturligtvis alltid använda en färg af känd styrka för att därefter kunna beräkna den kvantitet, som bör tillsättas grädden. Smörets färg bör alllid bestämmas af smörgrossören. Vanligen användes under vintertiden 0,4 ccm. färg pr 100kg mjölk; om sommaren mindre, beroende på betets mer eller mindre goda beskaffenhet. Å olika marknadsplatser fordrar man något olika hög färg på smöret. Sålunda fordrar man i Newcastle, Manchester och Liverpool en svagare färg på smöret än t. ex. i London och Glasgow. Finare smör bör alltid hafva en svagare färg än en simplare vara.

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25.1.13

Waatteita - polttiaisesta

Uusi Suometar 288, 13.12.1910

Tässä lehdessä kerrottiin muutama wiikko sitten G. Grotenfeltin wirittämästä kysymyksestä: eikö maanwiljelyksestä meillä woitaisi nykyistä paljoa enemmän tuottaa sellaisia raaka-aineita, joita kotimainen teollisuus wuorostaan woisi jalostaa? Ja arweltiin olewan ilmeistä, että jos maanwiljelyksemme --- suuri kansantaloudellinen merkitys.- - - tähän kykenee, sellaisen tuotannon aikaansaamisella olisi suuri kansantaloudellinen merkitys.  Maanwiljelijät saisiwat uusia tulolähteitä ja kotimainen teollisuus saisi raaka-aineita omasta maasta. Kentiesi woisi, - niin arweltiin wielä - jos tällä tawoin halpahintaista raaka-ainetta olisi läheltä, siis m. m. ilman suuria kuletuskustannuksia saatawissa, maahamme syntyä teollisuudenhaaroja tyydyttämään ainakin oman maan tarpeen monella sellaisella alalla, jolla nyt täällä kulutetaan ulkomaalaista tawaraa.

Tämän johdosta lienee paikallaan huomauttaa, että mikäli teollisuuden alalla wangastaan tunnetut ja hywäksi käytetyt raaka-aineeet owat alkaneet käydä riittämättömiksi ja ylen kalliiksi, sikäli koetetaan ulkomailla suurella innolla ja kaikin woimin etsiä luonnosta uusia ennen käyttämätömiä aineita.  Mainittakoon wain wereskin esimerkki. Kangasteollisuudessa warsinkin on nykyaikana raaka-aineiden riittämättömyys tullut kipeästi tuntuwiin. On sen wuoksi tehty kokeita eikö pumpulin sijasta woisi käyttää polttiaista eli nokkosta. Wienissä onkin todella onnistuttu kutoa kangasta, wieläpä hywää, kaunista ja kestäwää kangasta, tästä halpana pidetystä kaswista, joka on Saksassa yhtä yleinen kuin meillä Suomessa ja joka ei siis tarwita kaukaa, merten takaa, sinne kulettaa. Polttiaisen kaikki nesteet puserretaan kuiwille ja poistetaan siitä myös kaikki walkuainenkin; jälelle jää wain syy eli soluaine, jota käy langoiksi kehrääminen. 100 kilosta polttiaisia saadaan 13 kiloa lankoja, niiden arwo 9-10 Suomen markkaa. Polttiaislanka on lujaa eikä haurasta mitenkään ja sen wärjääminen on niinikään käynyt aika hywin päinsä.

Kangasta polttiaislangasta on jo kudottu, kuten sanottu, ja waatteita tehty. Kysymys on nyt vain kudonta suuressa määrin maailman markkinain waralle. Tietysti ruwetaan polttiaista wasite wiljelemään. Europassa polttiainen menestyy melkeinpä kaikissa ilmanaloissa; lieneekö hallanarka ensinkään. Ennustetaanpa jo, että sen wiljelemisellä tulee olemaan yhtä suuri merkitys tällä puolen "rapakkoa" kuin pumpulin wiljelemisellä Amerikan neekeriwaltioissa.

Entä me hitaat suomalaiset! Mikä woima saa maanwiljelijämme ja tehtailijamme hereille rawistetuksi?

The spectroscope.

Harper's new monthly magazine, 41 / 1870

The greatest invention, or rather discovery and invention combined, of modern times, in respect to practical utility, is probably the electric telegraph. The one most important, in respect tot he development of scientific truth, is the spectroscope. The history of this instrument, now attracting so much attention is briefly this:

It was about fifty years ago that Frauenhofer, a distinguished German optician residing in Munich, by means of some very perfect optical apparatus, and some new and delicate observations which he made with it, discovered the existence of certain very mysterious lines, some dark and some bright - the latter of various colors - crossing the solar spectrum, among the colored bands which form it. As ordinaly observed, by means of a common prism, the different colors are blended together, passing into each other by insensible gradations. The reason of this is that in the ordinary spectrum the images produced by the different colored rays, or rather the images produced by rays of different refrangibility, on which the effect of different colors is produced in the human sensorium, are superposed upon each other, and their confines blended. The great point was so to perfect the apparatus as to separate these component portions of the spectrum as much as possibe by the use of the most perfect lenses and prisms, and by the nicety of the arrangements for making the observation.

This Frauenhofer succeeded in doing, and thus brought the lines above referred to fully into view. This was in 1815. He studied these lines very attentively, and made a very carefully prepared colored drawing, representing the spectrum, as he developed it, with the principal lines laid down upon it. He counted in the spectrum more than six hundred of these lines, and he laid down upon his map three hundred and dudty-four of them. The principal of them he designated by letters of the alphabet, and they continue to be known as Frauenhofer's lines, and to be distinguished severally by the letters which he gave them, to this day.

The discovery of these lines, and the exhibition of the map delineating them, copies of which were multiplied and disseminated throughout Europe, excited great attention; but the nature and the meaning of the lines remained for many years a profound and and inscrutable mystery.

It was at length discovered that while the position and character of the lines in the spectrum formed from the sun were always the same, yet they varied greatly in spectra of rays issuing from different artificial sources of light, though constant for each particular source. And it was finally ascertained that they depend on the chemical constitution and physical condition - as whether solid, liquid, or gaseous - of the ignited substance from which the light came; and also in some degree upon the character of the intervening media through which the light passed on its way from the source to the instrument. It would lead to too much detail to enter here into particulars in respect to these points, the object of this article being only to give a summary idea of the nature of the discovery, about which so much is said at the present day, and of the form and appearance of the instrument, sufficient for the purposes of the general reader.

The engraving represents one of the various forms of the instrument. it consists of a stand with three branches, each supporting a telescopic tube; all three of the tubes being directed toward a glass prism which occupies the centre of stand. This prism is covered, in the actual instrument, by a metallic box to protect it from injury - openinigs being left in the sides of the box opposite to the orifices of the three telescopic tubes.

The tube to the right is directed toward the source of light, whatever it may be, the spectrum of which is to be examined. It is represented in the engraving as receiving the light from a gas flame, the flexible pipe by which the gas is supplied being seen below upon the table. The head of the stand supporting the burner is provided with the means of intermingling various substances with the flame, in order to examine the spectra which they severally produce.

This telescope may also be turned toward any natural source of light - as the sun, for example, or a star, or the aurora borealis, or a portion of the Milky-way.

The rays emanating from the source of light, whatever it may be, pass into this right-hand tube through a very narrow vertical slit, not seen, of course, in the engraving. The ribbon-like beam thus formed, passing through the tube, strikes upon the prism, and the various rays separated by the prism, through their different refrangibility, enter the object-glass of the tube on the left, where an image of the spectrum is formed, and can be seen, magnified, by the observer, who places his eye at the left hand of this tube, where the eye-glass is placed. There is a screen placed here near the end of teh tube, to protect the eye from rays coming to it on the outside of the instrument.

There is a third tube, smaller than the others, seen in the centre, and directed toward th spectator. In the orifice of this tube in the engraving can be indistinctly seen a small micrometer scale, illuminated by a candle placed upon a stand. The light from this arrangement passes through the small tube, and the image of the micrometer scale is reflected from one of the surfaces of the prism, and enters the left-hand tube, and is seen by the observer superposed upon the spectrum, and in such a position as to enable him to measure the distances from one spectral line to another, and to determine with precision the place of any one under examination.

The object of this article is simply to give to the general reader an idea of the construction and form of the instrument and the mode of making observations with it, and not to enter at all into a discussion of  the results which have been obtained. It may, however, not be out of place to state the three general principles which form the foundation of the science of spectral analysis - or perhaps, rather, the three great divisions within which all the phenomena are comprised. The distinction depends on the conditions under which the light to be examined emanates.

1. It may emanate from an incandescent liquid or solid body.
2. It may emanate from an incandescent gaseous body.
3. It may emanate from an incandescent liquid or solid, and pass through an incandescent gaseous medium on its way.

In the first case, that is, where the source of the light is an incandescent liquid r solid body, the spectrum is contunuous, showing no traversing lines of any kind.

In the second case, that is, where the source of light is an incandescent substance in a gaseous state, the spectrum produced, instead of being continuous, consists of a certain number of variously colored bands, which are always rigorously the same for the same substance, but vary infinitely in number, color, and position when different substances are compared.

In the third case, that is, where light comes from an incandescent solid or liquid - and so would, if not modified in its passage, give a continuous spectrum - and passes, in its course, through a flame, that is, through a gaseous substance in a state of incandescence, the bright lines which the substance of the incandescent gas would have produced if it had been solid are changed into dark ones. That is, the gaseous substance intercepts and absorbs the peculiar luminous vibrations which it would have emitted if it had been the source of light instead of being the medium through which a brighter light from another source beyond it was transmitted.

Thus, if the spectrum given by any light, when examined in the spectroscope, consists of a continous longutudinal band of prismatic colors, it is known that the source of the light must be an incandescent solid. If it consists of transverse bars or bands of color on a dark back-ground, the observer infers that the source of the light is an incandescent gas; and the number, positions, and colors of these bands show what the substance is, provided it is one the spectrum of which is known. If, in the third place, the spectrum consists of a longutudinal band of prismatic colors tracersed by dark lines or bars crossing it at various intervals, the indication is that the ight under examination, coming from some source beyon, traverses an incandescent gas or flame in its way; and the dark lines, in this case, are found to correspond for any susbtance, in breadth and position, with the bright colored lines seen when the substance itself is the source of light instead of the medium through which a brighter light from an incandescent solid or liquid beyond passes on its way.

These transverse bars, whether bright, as in the second case, or dark, as in the third, are exceeding delicate, though perfectly distinct, and are very sharply defined; so that by means of a micrometer, which forms a part of the instrument, the position of any one can be very precisely determined, and its identity ascertained. And by means of them those who have attained to the necessary knowledge and skill required to read and interpret these wonderful revelations can determine, with apparent certainty, a great many facts in relation to the elementary constitution and physuical condition of the substance which constitute the sources of the light, not only of those which are near, but also, with equal facility, those which are inconceivably remote. The test is applied with same success to the light emitted from artificial sources in the laboratory, and to that coming to us from the aurora borealis, from the disk, or from the marginal conusactions of the sun, and from the remotest nebula or star.

Every different substance, so fas as is known, has its spectrum marked by its own peculiar and charasteristic lines. Even those which have never been analyzed, and so are classed by the chemists as simples substances, have usually more than one, whoch seems to indicate that they are really compounds, and that their actual elements have not been ascertained. This being so, and as the photosphere of the sun contains a great number of elements, the number of these lines in the solar spectrum is very great. It requires, however, great delicacy and exactness in the prism, and in the arrangement of the apparatus for observing them, to bring them into view. Sir Isaac Newton, as early as 1675, succeeded in forming a spectrum which showed the prismatic colors; but his apparatus and his method were too imperfect to bring the lines into view. Dr. Wollasten, in the early part of this century, was the first to do this, and to him is accordingly ascribed the honor of first discovering the existence of the lines. Afterward, by means of great improvements made in the construction of optical instruments, the celebrated optician Frauenhofer, as we have already seen, brought a great many more into view, and made a map of the spectrum, in which he laid down the positions of about six hundred of them. This map excited great attention throughout Europe, as has already been stated, and the lines were long known as Frauenhofer's lines, though no one had the least idea of the cause or of the significance of them, excepting that surmises were made by different observers that there was some connection between the position and character of the lines and the chemical constitution of the substances from which the light emanated. The number of lines since brought to view in the solar spectrum is more than six thousand!

Nothing can be more wonderful than the inconceivable delicacy of the test which the spectrum, fully developed and microscopically observed, affords. It detecs the presence of quantities of an element so exceedingly minute as to be wholly inappreciable by any other means. One of the most curious illustrations of this fact is afforded by the discovery of two new metals in a certain German mineral water, by Professor Bunsen, in 1860 - metals which existed in the water in quantities so exceedingly minute that by no other possible means than spectral analysis could their presence have been detected. Bunsen was led to suspect the existence of some new element in the water by observing two bright lines in the spectrum produced by a flame in which the alkalies left by the evaporation of a portion of the water had been introduced - which lines he had never observed in any other spectrum. The ordinary chemical tests gave no indications of the presence of such elements. This Bunsen attributed to the minuteness of the quantities; and in order to increase the quantities so as to bring the substances within the reach of the usual methods of analysis, he went to work to evaporate no less than forty-five tons of the water, and from the residue thus obtained he succeeded in obtaining an appreciable quantity of the metals in question. The names given to them are caesium and rubidium.

Another very curious instance of the delicacy of this test is afforded in the case of sodium, the spectrum of which is very remarkable, and is characterized by one line in particular by which exceedingly minute quantities can be detected. Now sodium is one of the most universally diffused substances in nature. It is one of the constituent elements of common salt, and so exists in enormous quantities in the ocean. And as two-thirds of the surface of the earth is covered with water, and as the winds are continually carrying up a fine spray from the crests of the waves into the air, the water of this spray in evaporating leaves the air full of infinitesimally minute particles of salt, which pervade the atmosphere every where, and form, as it were, a portion of its very substance. And although the quantity of sodium thus present is too small to be detected in ordinary cases by any of the usual chemical tests, it reveals itself at once in the spectrum whenever the minutest quantity of dust which has subsided from the atmosphere is thrown into the flame.

It would require many months' study to understand fully the character and the working of the instrument, and the nature and extent of the revelations which it has made, and which it is still making, in respect to the chemical and physical constitution of the distant bodies which form the sources of natural light. The knowledge which it brings to us is different in its character, as well as more subtile and precise in its minuteness, in comparison with the knowledge which we obtain by the means. With the telescope the observer sees the form and the colors of the object which comes into the field of view, and so vastly magnified that detals are clearly distinguished that are wholly invisible to the naked eye. With the spectroscope he sees no form, and no color characteristic of the object which he is studying; but simply a beautiful iridescent band, across which are drawn at intervals certain delicate and well-defined lines, which by their position and character form for him a perfectly intelligible language, which expresses the result of almost accurate, and thoroughly trust-worthy analysis of the hidden constitution of the material of which the object is composed.

Nor is it wholly to the constitution and character of distant and inaccessible objects that the revelations of the spectroscope have been confined. Some very important truths have been brought to light by it in regard to the chemical constitution of substances in the laboratory which have long been subject to the closest analytical examination, and many facts have been elicited which had baffled all preceding ofes of investigation. In a word, the "spectral analysis" opens an entirely new avenue of expoloration for man into the realms of nature around him - an avenua ehich runs in an entirely different direction from all previously known, and extends to an infinitely greater distance than any of them.

Red Color From Picric Acid.

Harper's new monthly magazine, 41 / 1870

According to the Chemical News, picric acid may be employed for imparting a beautiful red color to ivory, bone, and horn, by means of the following method: Take 4 grammes of the picrid acid (the gramme about equal to 15 grains), and dissolve in 250 grammes of boiling water; and, after cooling, add 8 grammes of liquid ammonia. Dissolve also two grammes of crystallized fuchsine (magenta) in 45 grammes of alcohol, dilute with 375 grammes of hot water, and next add 50 grammes of ammonia. As soon as the red color of the magenta solution has disappeared the two solutions are mixed together, making a bulk of liquid amounting to about a pint, which is a sufficient quantity for dyeing from four to six sheep-skins. Ivory and bone should be placed in very weak nitric or hydrochloric acid first, before being immersed in the ammoniacal liquid; wood can not be dyed by this liquid unless it has been previously painted over with paste made from flour. When, to the ammoniacal liquid, some gelatine solution is added, it will serve as a red ink, which does not attack steel pens. By changing the proportions of the magenta and picric acid, the tints obtained may be varied from a bluish-red to a bright orange-red. The desired colors do not appear until the ammonia is evaporated.

Best Colors For Signal Lights.

Harper's new monthly magazine, 41 / 1870

Experiments lately prosecuted, as to the shades of color recognizable most easily and at the greatest distances, have resulted in provuing that bright yellow has the advantage in this respect; and that next to this comes blue. Violet, green and red are said to be less easily recognizable than any other. In the construction of signals, therefore, whether designed to be used by night or day, it would be well to bear this practical suggestion in mind.

White-Lead.

Harper's new monthly magazine, 41 / 1870

An eminent German practical chemist has lately had his attention called to the defects of white-lead prepared by the so-called English method, especially to the comparatively slight covering property which it possesses. At some of our readers are aware, this method consists in calcining lead in a reverberatory furnace with one per cent. of its weight of sugar of lead dissolved in water, and placing the mixture in horizontal troughs communicating with each other and closed above. A current of carbonic acid gas is conducted through the troughs, obtained usually by burning coke. A sufficient pressure is produced by the bellows of the furnace in which the coke is burned to force the gas through cooling tubes into the mixture, which is continually stirred during the introduction of the carbonic acid. This process, however, according to careful experiment, is not sufficient to produce a soft white lead, of a suitable coating quality, as the product is found to contain too much hydrated oxide of lead. On this account the suggestion was made - with an excellent practical result - to use two and a half per cent. of neutral acetate of lead, dissolved in water, to one hundred parts of the oxide of lead, to which a slight quantity of vinegar is to be added. By acting upon this suggestion, it was found that the process of the fabrication of lead was greatly accelerated, and that a very much better article was produced, having an extraordinary coating power.

Mica Spectacles.

Harper's new monthly magazine, 41 / 1870

The use of mica in spectacles, for protecting the eyes of workment from the heat and glare of the fire, is rapidly coming into general favor; and complete masks, and even cylinders entirely encincling the head, are sometimes used for a similar purpose when a greater safeguard is required. Experiments have been lately made in regard to the manufacture of blue spectacles from this material. The best method of accomplishing this has been found to consist in the use of plates of transparent blue gelatine fixed between two layers of mica, thus protected from the action of the heat. The experiment of applying the blue coloring matter directrly to the surface of the mica itself failed in consequence of the impossibility of forming a suitable combination; but the gelatine layer, as indicated, answers all the purposes desired.

Ignorance of Blue Among The Ancients

Harper's new monthly magazine, 41 / 1870

De. Geiger, of Frankfort, calls attention to the curious fact that in all the most ancient writings there is no term used to indicate the color blue, notwithstanding the inducement to this in the description of natural phaenomena, such as the cloudless sky, etc. Neither in the Rig Veda nor in the Bible, the writings of Hesiod, the Zendavesta, nor in the Koran, is there any reference to the blue color of the heavens. Theocritus and Virgil speak of a sun-burnt conntenance, and compare it with the black of the violet and the hyacinth. Cassiodorus confounds blue with gray. References to green even do not occur in the highest antiquity, although it is mentioned earlier than blue. In the Rig Veda and Zendavesta, in speaking of trees and plants, golden fruits are described, but no mention is made of the green color of leaves; and among the Greeks green was frequently confounded with yellow. Xenophon, Aristotle, and the Edda, recognize only three colors in the rainbow; the Pythagoreans, four; while the Chinese and Arabians are to first to add green to the list. We find that in the very earliest periods the colors black and red are very sharply and accurately defined. From this, and many other facts adduced by Dr. Geiger, he concludes that the most refrangible rays of the spectrum were last of all appreciated by the human eye, while previously one the most brilliant portions around the red were noticed. He infers, therefore, a successive improvement in this important sense. The speculations in question are highly curious and interesting, and deserve to be followed up, although it seems hardly possible that entire nations should be insensible to the existence of certain colors in early times, or should be, in a measure, color-blind. If, however, the deductions referred to are legitimate, such a conclusion would seem to be a natural consequence.

Decorative Painting.

Harper's new monthly magazine, 41 / 1870

A new method of applying paint in houses has recently been introduced into Paris, by which the disagreeable smell attendant upon freshly painted surfaces may be entirely escaped. This consists in applying the paint in the shop first upon tinfoil, which is spread upon damp glass and treated exactly as if it were a surface to be coated. As many coats are given of such tints as may be desired, and when perfectly dry the foil with its paint is removed from the glass, rolled up upon a roller, and carried to the building where it is to be used. A water-proof mixture is first applied to the wall or surface to be coated, and then the painted foil is put on as if it were wallpaper. The flexibility of the foil permits its application, even to surfaces of an irregular character; and it may be so skillfully done that it is difficult to realize that the paint was not put on coat by coat, as in common painting. Gilding may be effected in the same manner by first applying the gilt leaf to the tin-foil, and then fastening this to the surface desired. The advantage of this method of tin gilding consists in the fact that it does not so easily become tarnished as the ordinary guilding.

Color of Larval Salamanders.

Harper's new monthly magazine, 41 / 1870

Much interest was excited some years since by the result of certain experiments instituted in Paris upon the larva of a Mexican salamander, which laid eggs while still in the immature condition, these eggs hatching out in the water, and ultimately developing into the perfect salamander form. The progeny of this salamander tadpole has been distributed since that time over Europe, and there are few collections of any importance without specimens, either in alcohol or living. In experiments upon breeding these salamanders it was found that when reared under orange-colored glass they were bleached exactly as if they had been kept in the dark - this appearance (due to the absence of pigment in the cellules of the skin) contrasting very remarkably with the dark gray tint of those reared in vessels of transparent glass. The bleaching in question is supposed to be due to the absence of blue, violet, and ultra violet rays of the spectrum, which are absorbed in passing through the glass.

A Harmless Green for Pickles, etc.

Harper's new monthly magazine, 41 / 1870

We extract from a German journal the following recipe for a beautiful green color, to be used for sweetmeats, candies, and pickles, which, it is asserted, is entirely destitute of any poisonous qualities. It is made by dissolving five grains of saffron in a quarter of an ounce of distilled water, and in another vessel dissolving four grains of indigo carmine in half an ounce of distilled water. After shaking each up thoroughly they are allowed to stand for twenty-four hours, and on being mixed together at the expiration of that time, a fine green solution is obtained, capable of coloring five pounds of sugar.


Relationships of the Aurora.

Harper's new monthly magazine, 41 / 1870

A recent article by Mr. Proctor, upon the aurora, may be summed up as follows: First, the increase and diminution of the disturbance of the magnetic needle corresponds, in periods of about ten years, with the increase and diminution of the number of solar spots; secondly, the auroral displays announced as seen from all parts of the earth probably correspond to similar manifestations upon every planet; third, the spectrum of the aurora exhibits only a single bright line, and hence it is due to luminous vibrations, the luminosity being caused by the passage through it of electrical discharges; fourth, the same bright line is exhibited by the spectrum of the zodiacal light, by the sun's corona as seen during a total eclipse, and very faintly by the peculiar phosphorescent light sometimes seen over the whole sky. Finally, he concludes that the key to these phenomena probably lies in the existence of myriads of meteoric bodies, traveling separately or in systems around the sun.

Poisonous Coloring of Fruit Sirups.

Harper's new monthly magazine, 41 / 1870

A note of alarm has been raised in regard to the employment of aniline dyes for coloring various liquids and fruit sirups, used extensively as beverages; and the dangerous effects likely to result from the use of such mixtures are carefully pointed out. The following are some of the methods of distinguishing between the true fruit juices and those that have been colored by any of the aniline dyes.

Genuine fruit sirups become completely deprived of their color by means of chlorine; and while aniline colors are also destroyed, a black deposit is left, which is readily recognized. Sulphuric acid, nitric acid, and hydrochloric acid render the red colors of genuine sirups brighter, and color the artificial of a yellowish orange. Caustic potash decolorizes fuchsine sirups, and changes the red fruit sirups into a dirty green. Carbonate of potash does not alter the color of artificial sirups, but changes the genuine to green. Acetate of lead produces a greenish deposit in a genuine fruit sirup, and a red one in fuchsine sirup. A similar change takes place in the gradual addition of alum and carbonate of potash. Aldehyde changes sirups colored with aniline to blue.

Coloring Matter in Coal Tar.

Harper's new monthly magazine, 41 / 1870

The tar produced in the distillation of coal for the manufacture of ordinary burning gas, at one time looked upon as mere refuse, has more recently proved of much commercial value, on account of the great variety of chemical products, especially of coloring matter, which it contains. It has been estimated that 100 pounds of the tar will furnish, on an average, 3 pounds of  commercial and 1½ pounds of pure benzole, out of which 3 pounds of commercial nitro-benzole can be obtained. These 3 pounds of nitro-benzole furnish 2½ pounds of rosaniline; and from this, again, are obtained 3.37 pounds of the raw aniline red, out of which 1.12 pounds of pure fuchsine can be made. Since 10 pounds of coal furnish, on average, 3 pounds of tar, it requires, therefore, about 3000 pounds to furnish 1 pound of pure fuchsine. It is estimated that all the gas-works in Europe consume annually about 160,000,000 cwt. of coal; so that the gas tar which they will furnish will yield about 53,000 cwt of fuchsine.

18.1.13

Syöpätaudin (kräftan) parannuskeino

Uudenkaupungin Sanomat 7, 13.2.1891

Syöpätaudin (kräftan) parannuskeinon luulee professori Mosetig Wienin kaupungissa keksineensä. Hän ruiskuttaa syöpäpaiseesen erästä wäri-ainetta, jonka nimi on methyl-wiolet. Tätä wäri-ainetta saatuaan rupeawat syöpähaawat kutistumaan kokoon sekä parantumaan.

Wärillinen walokuwaus.

Uudenkaupungin Sanomat 7, 13.2.1891

Professori Lippmann on ilmoittanut Parisin tiede-akatemialle, että hänen on onnistunut walokuwata taiwaankaaren wärit niiden oikeassa karwassa. Tuota on jo moni yrittänyt tehdä, mutta aina turhaan. Sitten wasta walokuwaus tulee täydelliseksi, kun sen awulla saadaan kuwihin myöskin luonnollinen wärinsaä.

Yhtä ja toista läheltä ja kaukaa: Maalatut waatteet

Turun lehti 59, 23.5.1885

Maalatut waatteet owat muotimaailman uusin kehitysaste. Atlas, oikea sametti ja puuwillasametti owat siihen sopiwimpia. Kuwat saadaan kankaaseen siten, että ne maalataan ensin hienoon paperiin, joka pannaan kankaan päälle, ja sitten silitetään sitä kuumalla silitysraudalla. Kankaaseen tarttuu siitä aiwan hieno öljywäri, joka pysyy siinä lujasti. Ennenkuin wäri on aiwan kuiwa, siroitetaan siihen pronssijauhoa, joka myöskin tarttuu warsin lujasti kiini. Tällä tawoin muodostetut kukat ja koristeet näyttäwät erinomaisen loistawilta ja owat riittäwän kestäwiä. Luonnollisesti woidaan tällä tawoin muodostaa koristeet waatekappaleen muodon ja asianomaisen henkilön kauneudenaistin mukaan. Yleensä woidaan sillä saawuttaa mit äsuurinta waihtelewaisuutta, niin että joka nainen woi saada pukuunsa jotakin aiwan omituista, jota ei kellään muulla naisella ole. Myöskin pöytäliinoja y. m. warustetaan tällä tawoin maalauksilla, jotka tarkoin sowitetaan kunkin huonekalun suuruuden ja muodon mukaan. Täten awautuu tälle uudelle keksinnölle sangen lawea kehitysala, warsinkin kun warmaankin useat naiset tulewat käyttämään tätä koristustapaa puwuissaan.

Kuva: Newar Women Weaving

Nepalilaiset newar-naiset kutovat. Kuva julkaistu lehdessä: Harper's new monthly magazine, 1889 (numero ei tiedossa)

Graphite - Its Uses and Durability as a Paint

Manufacturer and builder, 9/1893

An address by John A. Walker, Vice-president of the Joseph Dixon Crucible Co., delivered before the convention of the Master Painters' Association, held July 12 and 13 at Jersey City, N. J.Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Master Painters' Association of New Hersey: I appreciate the honor of tis ocacsion, and have some deference in speaking, as I do at this time, on the subject of paint, after the mode of bringing coals to Newcastle. Possibly every one of you, if you are worthy of the title of master painters, know as much about the subject as I do. Graphite paint is about thirty years old. About thirty years ago graphite was found by some prospectors in the rocks of Ticonderoga, near Lake George. At that time there was formed the agreement of the Graphite Company, and this company was sformed exclusively and specifically for the purpose, at that time, of making graphite paint, and this was about twenty-eight or thirty years ago. I saw, two weeks ago, on a visit to Ticonderoga, a piece of machinery lying there that had been painted twenty-three years ago with some paint in an offhand way, and, expect fot abrasion made by rubbing against another piece of machinery, to all observation the result oft he paint was just as good as it was a dozen or fifteen years ago.

In the early days, while making their experiments there, certain roofs were painted in the village of Ticonderoga, and observation of the roofs shows they are intact to-day.

Graphite itself is one of the forms of carbon. Charcoal is another carbon form, and the diamond is still another. Graphite has a large number of peculiar qualities. In the first place the graphite itself will stand any change of temperature; it doesn't make any difference how cold the cold is or how hot the heat, the flake of carbon is inert, and suffers no change at either extreme of the temperature. And again, it is indestructible and inert, so that the strongest acids have no effect on it. You can put a piece of graphite in any dilute acid, and after awhile remove it, and you will find no harm has taken place. It is there in its original form, and has not given up any of its properties. The entire piece has remained intact and impervious to that powerful and destructive solution. Made up in this way it has proved to be one of the most valuable of the recent additions to the lines of pigments. It is found in a good many quarters of the globe. The most productive deposits are in the island of Ceylon. The graphite that comes from there is almost all foliated graphite; the flakes come in a granulated form, and these two specimens are the forms of the element as it comes from the island. The largest quantity of graphite used comes from that island. Next in rank as to source of production comes Ticonderoga. There is a third source of graphite in the kingdom of Bavaria, in Germany, where a large quantity of amorphous graphite is found mixed with clay and other kinds of minerals, and so intimately mingled that it cannot be separated. The Ticonderoga quartz interposes no difficult in this respect.

Outside of these three places, graphite is found in Canada; but these deposits have not, or, at least, not very largely, been developed or explored, so no considerable output has come from that territory yet. All over the South specimens have been found, but none of these occurences have proven to have merchantable value. Nine-tenths of all these that have come, so far have been of the amphorous form, in which the impurities could not be separated, so the débris and graphite have to be ground down together, giving uncertain results.

It occurred to the people who had charge at Ticonderoga to work that material up into a paint; but other ideas took up the company's time, and this became a tradition, and that branch of the business was not followed out. Later on, within the last ten years, the graphite paint has been largely manufactured. It has been made a specialty, and its manufacture has been made the subject of careful study. The paint, so far as experience and knowledge of the manufacture goes, has been very useful as applied to roofs, to all classes of bridges, smoke-stacks, boiler fronts, gas holders, machinery in sugar and paper factories, where acids are used in the work. The graphite has proved to be the best anti-acid pigment that could be placed on them, and so on through the line of outdoor iron-work and electric-light poles, and shingle roofs, some remarkable results have been ascertained.

Some years ago a Boston and Colorado smelting company, with their works at Argo, in the neighborhood of Eldorado, had their large plant, which was a quarter of a mile long, covered with a corrugated iron rood, and five hundred fires were blazing away within. As the acid rose, the roof was affected, and it was not a great while before it became honeycombed, and it meant protection or a new roof. These people saw some account of the graphite paint and its characteristics in that direction, and they wrote on the subject, received the information desired, and had the roofs painted with graphite paint.  Since then those roofs have remained intact, and the only thing that has happened to them in the last fifteen years has been a new coat of paint. The graphite paint was successful in defending the before-victorious attack of the acid fumes. If I recollect, at the convention at Harrisburg last year some statements were made by a man there who had taken observations of roofs, oil-painted, that lasted six to eight years without rusting, and another made a statement of a roof that lasted from ten to twelve years without rusting. Of course we all know that linseed oil is presumably the best vehicle with which to convey the pigment. There may be something better in the future, but up to date the linseed oil is the best vehicle. Mineral oxides, and that class of pigments, are ground down to a powder and deposit themselves on a surface; graphite preserves its flaky character in powder form, so that by the overlapping of these a very thorough covering of the surfaces to be protected is assured. There are a good many qualities to the paint that appear in an off-hand way. Concerning the durability of graphite, there are innumerable testimonials on record in its favor. There is, to my knowledge, a boiler front which was painted in 1885, on Thanksgiving afternoon, and it has not since been repainted, and is in good condition. I remarked to the attendant, or stoker, that the front looked as if it had been repainted recently, but he answered that nothing was done to it since 1885, and he had kept a waste rag, and when the paint got dull he would rub it up with black lead and some oil. The high quality of the paint is shown by its ability to stand the wear and tear of a boiler front, and remain thus, after the lapse of eight years, almost as good as it was the first year.

This is about the sum and substance of graphite paint. There is no doubt it will figure more prominently in the future than it has in the past. One of the handicaps it must bear is the color. Of course, being made of a black pigment, its colors are largely somber. When it comes in its natural form it has a tinge of a natural slate. It can be covered with other materials so that it will become a jet black. Experiments have been recently made by which , by blending other materials, light green and dark green are added to the color; also dark brown and dark red, which will be very likely to produce a good effect.

With one little incident I will close. Some three years ago the iron for the elevated road was made at the Pencoyd Iron Works. The iron for the whole structure was brought to Jersey City, and lay there. The work was commenced, and in two months the structure was completed; but six months elapsed before they commenced to operate the road. It had been painted with a mineral paint, and was rusty from top to bottom, and it was necessary to take the rust off. You could pull it off in scales. This work has hurriedly put through the painters, and the result was when the north and south tracks were up a year they were both painted with graphite paint. With the engineer, Mr. Brooks, I walked the track down to the train shed, and there was not a place on the one side of the track where one could put a knife blade, whereas, on the other side, where it had been painted and not carefully scraped off, and not carefully prepared, the painting was more or less imperfect, and there were large pieces and flakes that came off. The engineer and I went up and down the track, and saw the paint on one side and the blisters on the other side, and he was frank enough to admit that the difficulty lay, not in the paint, but in the application of the paint. The paint as it stood on the south track stands there to-day, a living evidence of the durability of graphite.

Hiusvärimainos vuodelta 1950

(julkaistu: Life Magazine, huhtikuu 1950)


15.1.13

Maawiljelijäin kokouksen keskustelemuksista Lewäsellä 4 ja 5 p:nä Heinäkuuta.

Tapio 30, 26.7.1862

(Jatkoa wiime numeroon.)

[...]

14. kysymys. Miten saataisiin poistetuksi se paha ja kaikin puolin wahingollinen tapa, että tyttäret warastawat wanhempiansa, kootaksensa itselleen koto-perua?

Kestkiewari A. Rahikainen luuli paraksi, ettei tyttärillä saisi olla eri-huoneita ja eri-kassoja talossa, sillä kuin nämä heillä on, niin tahtowat he pitää eri-taloutta ja siihen warastelewat talonhywyyttä. Maawiljeliä H. Jaatinen Hiitolasta päätti koko wian olewan lasten kaswatuksessa. Niitä pitäisi kaswattaa paremmassa kristillisyyden tunnossa. Pitäisi isäin aina antaa tytärilleen kaikkia mitä ne kohtuullisesti tarwitsewat. Waan meillä jo lakikin halweksii waimo-puolta, koska niille ei anneta perua yhtäpaljo kuin miehille, joka kehoittaa heitä sitte omistamaan omin-käsin talon yhteistä hywää. Emännätkään meillä tavallisesti eiwät saa täysinäistä arwoa ja osaa taloudessa, mikä heille olisi tulewa. Tähän puheesen yhdistyi hra Westzynthius ja tahtoi, että talossa pitää oleman yksi isäntä, joka pitää paremmassa waarissa aittansa ja antaa tarpeensa kaikille, sekä tekee tilin taloudesta. A. Kolehmainen moitti myös sitä tapaa, ettei isännät anna emännillensäkään tawallisia tarpeitansa, josta seuraa omin-luwin ottaminen. O. Räsänen taas tahtoi paremmalla lasten kaswatuksella pois saatawaksi liiallisen koreuden-innon ja -hengen nuoresta wäestä.

M. Puustinen sanoi aikoinansa tehneensä talon aiwan uudelle paikalle ja siinä ijän-pitkään jo monta kokeneensa ja siinä siwussa hawainneensa  senkin, että mitä enempi lapsia wangitaan, sitä enempi koti-warkaus on walloillaan.

Työ-wouti Pehkonen niin-ikään toiwoi tawaksi parempaa lasten kaswatusta ja walitti sitä surkuteltawaa seikkaa tässä koto-warkauden asiassa, että jokainen isä kyllä tietää, lastensa warastawan, ja näkee kyllä lapsellansa osto-waatteita, mutta ei milloinkaan nuhtele siitä eitä edes kysy, mistä on sen tahi sen saanut. Sanoi myös olewan isiä, jotka sanoivat: "warastakoot lapset; kuinhan waan minä en näe!"

H. Jaatinen moitti taas senkin turhan tawan, että morsiamet jakawat häissä lahjuksia, puoleltaan paljo pitäwän toimessa koto-warkautta: sillä siinä tarwitaan paljo hankkia, ostaa sekä kylän ämmillä teettää, kuin pitää olla lahjuksia ja antimia melkein kaikelle pitowäelle.

*) Lääkärit myös moittivat tätä paksua sinistä wäriä waatteissa terweydelle wahingolliseksi, ruumiin hiostuissa warsinkin.Metsä-Herra H. Aminoff sanoi täällä paikkakunnalla rahwaalla olewan, kalliin sinisen wärin *) sekä tyttärien liian paljot waatteet, ollen satoja paitoja ja kymmeniä hameita kullakin, niitä hankkiissa waikuttawan koto-warkautta.

Sitte tuli puheeksi, josko pojat ja tytöt jo pitäisi ruweta saamaan yhtäläisen perinnön. Tässä oltiin eri-mielisiä toiset tahtoiwat yhtäläistä osaa, koska waimo tekee yhtä paljo hyötyä ja monta wertaa ahkerammasti työtä talossa kuin miehet. Waan toiset oliwat aiwan toisesta ajatuksesta ja kiinteästi tahtoiwat sen asian olemaan entisellänsä. A. Kolehmainen luuli poikain heittäwän työn-teon, jos ei heille anneta suurempaa osaa kuin tyttärille ja yli-oppilas M. Jaatinen taas ei luullut olewan ajan wielä lakia  perinnöstä muuttaa, koska kansassa on wielä semmoinen mieli, ettei tytär pidä perimän yhtä paljo pojan kanssa, josta seuraa, että waikka laki muutettaisiinkin, se kierretään kaupoilla, lahjoituksilla ja testamentilla poikain eduksi.

H. Jaatinen muistutti myös sitä seikkaa, että tässä on ollut waan kysymyksenä tyttärien kotowarkaudesta; waan että pojatkin tekewät samaa ja se on yhtä paha.

Kauppamies Fogman esitteli, että pitäisi wanhempain antaa oikea wuosipalkka lapsillensa työnteosta, niinkuin palwelus-wäelle ja tätä näin saatua omaisuuttansa saisiwat lapset sitte käyttää oman tahtonsa mukaan.

Maawiljelijä Europæus sanoi juurta jaksain tämän pahan tawan poistamiseksi pitäwän oikein yhteisillä woimilla tarttuman asiaan ja pitää huolta siitä, pitäisi nimittäin laiteltawan kansakouluja joka-paikkaan, niin että kansa oppisi pitämään tätäkin tapaa häpiällisenä.

Sitte kysyttiin läsnä-olewalta waimo-wäen joukolta, eikö heillä puolestansa olisi mitään sanomista tässä kysymyksessä, waan he luuliwat ensin heidän itsensä ei sopiwan puhua tässä heitä paraastaan koskewassa kysymyksessä, ja waikka heille selwitettiin,  heidän kyllä saattawan sanoa mielensä asiassa, niin eiwät sittekään ruwenneet puhumaan, sanoiwat waan "kuuntelewansa walmista."

Sen perästä luettiin tässä, niinkuin jo edellisissäkin kysymyksissä, kysymykseen koskewat paikat Karjalan kokouksen sekä piirikuntain pöytäkirjoista.

(Jatketaan.)

1.1.13

Glass of Bohemia

The International magazine of literature, art, and science 3 / 1851

This beautiful article is manufactured in various places throughout Germany - most largely amid the very mountainous districts of Bohemia; some of the best, however, is made in Bavaria and sent to Bohemia, and thence exported. The materials from which the glass is formed consist chiefly of the same as those used in England; the manufacturers themselves seem to believe that there is no difference except in the proportions of the materials, and in the fuel, which is exclusively wood, and produces, by a little attention, a more constant and intense heat that can be produced by any coal; the feeding of the furnace with the latter material, they say, always creates a change in the temperature detrimental to the fluid above, and never sufficiently intense. The wooded mountains of Bohemia are entirely inhabited by a population whose industry, morals, hospitality, and kindliness of manners, do honor, not only to this rich and beautiful kingdom, but to the whole human race. They are pure Germans, not of Sclavish origin, and the German dialect alone is spoken. Unlike every other manufacturing district I have ever visited, they retain unimpaired all their rural and primitive virtues. Clean to a proverb, in their houses and persons, hospitable and amiable in their manners, simple in their habits, cheerful and devoted in their religion, they form perhaps, the happiest community in the world. In padding through the country, a stranger would never find out that he was in a manufacturing district, but might fancy himself in the green valleys of a partly pastoral, partly agricultural people. Thickly inhabited, the beautiful little cottages, clustered into villages, or scattered along the glens, or sides of the hills, are embowered with fruit trees, and encircled with shrubs and flowers, which each cottager cultivates with a zeal peculiar to his race; on every side rich fields of grain or pasture stretch out like a vast enamelled carpet between the hills, which are clothed in dense forest of spruce, fir, pine, and beech, filled with deer, roe, and capercalzie; they extend in every direction, far beyond the reach of the eye, one vast cloud of verdure. The fabriques of factories, are placed generally in the middle of one of these villages, the extent of which can only be known by going from house to house; so closely is each hid in its own fruit-bower, and so surrounded by shrubs and flowers, that the eye can only pick up the buildings by their blue smoke, or get a glimpse of them here and there as you advance; thus some of the villages are elongated to three miles, forming the most delicious walk along its grassy road, generally accompanied by a stream, always overhung by a profusion of wild flowers, the mountain-ash, and weeping birch; many of the former only to be found in our gardens.

The fabrique is built like the rest of the cottages, and only differs from them in size, and the shape and height of its chimbey, which emitting only wood smoke, has none of the dense sulphuric cloud which blackens and poisons the neigborhood of coal-fed factories: it is never that ostentatious building for whose magnitude and embellishments the public are obliged to pay in the increased charges of its productions. * The mould are of beech-wood.The glass fabriques of Bohemia are all small, in fact only one large apartment, in the centre of which is the furnace, a circular structure divided into eight compartments containing the melted metal for as many colors; one man and a boy are stationed at the door of each compartment, the former to extract the fluid with his pipe, the latter to hold the wooden mould* in which the article is blown and shaped. The number of hands employed in an ordinary fabrique, are: - Eight man who work in the metal, take it from the fire, and blow it in the moulds; eight helps to hold the moulds, &c.; four to stir the metal, &c.; two breakers; four day laborers.

The best men are sometimes paid from eighteen to twenty shillings a week, and provide their own food, which is good; and as they require much nourishments from the exhausting effects of the heat, it consists of meat, vegetables, and a vast quantity of beer; those who are employed about the furnace especially, drink from twelve to fifteen quarts a day; it is a clear, bitter beverage, which they, in common with all the German race, like beyond every thing else, but it is of little strength; intoxication is almost unknown, and as a proof of their careful and excellent character, in one of the above-mentioned villages, three miles in length, a fire had not been known in the menory of the oldest inhabitants I questioned, though the houses from the ground to the roof are made entirely of wood.

The materials of which the glass in composed, as far as can be ascertained, and they seem to make no secret of it, appear to be the same as those in use in England; they say, they derice their perfection from their mode of mixing and burning the material. Thus the principal component parts are: - Sand; chalk; potash; brimstone; arsecnic, mixed with various colors, regulated by the principal: - Uran oxide; cobalt oxide; coppré oxide; nickel oxide; chrom oxide; minium; tin oxide.

The gold used in ornamenting the glass is from the purest ducats, dissolved in strong acid (artz wasser), the oil with which the colors are mixed is of turpentine (harz öhl).

* These earthen floors are not, as might be supposed from their name, dirty and untidy; they are made with wet clay, which, when dry, becomes quite hard, and can be kept as clean as brick or stone.Nothing is done in most of the blowing fabriques but mixing the material, and coloring; and for cutting, polishing, &c., from three to six wheels are used - all the finishing goes on in the little cottages by which the furnace is surrounded, and with which the valleys and sides of the hills are studded; here you find, within the contracted chambers of these small block-houses, if on the ground-flat, standing on an earthen* floor like our Highland cottages, and artist of the first ability, tracing the exquisite scrolls and flowers which we see in these beautiful works of art; and which are performed by men bearing all the appearance of simple cotters; but whose hand sweeps free and careless over the glass with the confidence and ease of an experienced artist; seldom being provided with more than two very ordinary looking brushes, a small one and another a size larger, and working frequently without any pattern, or indicating lines upon the glass they are painting; but perfect from habitude, the scrolls, and wreaths, and flowers, come out with the same facility as one traces a name upon the dewy pane of a window. Often the whole family are brought up from childhood in painting and drawing on glass, and thus producing a race of hereditary artists; boys from thirteen and upwards are employed in the most delicate works in this genre of art. Each cottage where the paining and gilding go on, is provided with a small oven, into which the glass is put to bake in the colors, where it is kept for a day and allowed to cool down; the white figures and flowers, when they go into the oven, are of a dark chrome color, but come out pure white, as will be observed on examining any glass on which flowers of this color are painted; the gold, also, when laid on, is of a dead brown, and when burnt in, is polished, generally by women of the family. The gold in many instances is left unpolished, and only the stalks and fibres are burnished, which give an excellent effect. It is most interesting to go from one cottage to another; in one you are amazed by the exquisite paintings in gold, silver, and colors; in another, the cutting out all those beautiful leaf-work, lily, bell-flower, octagon, and star-shaped vases, which is done, not only by men, but by their children, girls and boys. In one cottage, I was particularly struck by a man, his two daughters, and son, sitting at as many wheels, cutting the most elaborate, but delicate, figures; shaping from the merely turned over bell vases, those neautiful varieties of lily and flower-intented lamps for suspension, and vessels for holding bouquets, tracing the scrolls, stalks, and fibres, with the same ease as the bare-footed wide and mother prepared their supper in the wooden bowl on the earth-floor behind them; for there was but one apartment for the fine arts, the nursery, and the kitchen, yet all was neatness, perfect cleanliness, and order; while on the long beam which formed the sill of the three mullion windows, was arranged a number of glass objects in the glorious colors of Bohemian art - ruby, emerald, topaz, chrysopras, tuquiose; with pure crystals, which, richly cut, reflected, like a rainbow, the gems by which they are surrounded.  In another cottage, in Steinchonan, I was much pleased with the design which two young men were painting, both in gold, and colors; of which the former were scrolls of a very superior character, and the latter, flowers, butterflies, and insects. I questioned one of the ment respecting the forms and characteristics of those he was painting, and which were beautiful illustrations of Natural History; when he brought me in, from a little bed-room, or rather closet, two boxes full of exquisitely preserved specimens of a great variety of native insects, which he had collected in his leisure hours, and arranged himself, to assist him in his painting. The copies were facsimiles of the originals, both as to colors and character. Among these insects I observed a beautiful miniature craqfish, not so large as a schrimp, a native, also, of the streams in his neighborhood. So identified had these productions of nature become with his imagination, that he was, at the moment I came in, painting some most correctly, without any specimen before him. It is impossible to express the feelings produced by these people, so simple, so industrious, and, above all, so modest. They could not refrain from surprise at the admiration their every-day productions created in us; and these simple artisans would with difficulty believe that their works were sought for, and thus valued, in all powerful and wealthy England, where they believe nothing is unknown, nothing imperfect, nothing impossible! One man whom I visited is and extraordinary genius, rarely to be met with; he has been driven by the force of that same genius, to seek abroad, in France and Bavaria (Munich), food for his mind, and has brought back with him several folio works of engravings from the best masters, from which he designs. Placing before him one of these works, a Raphael or a Rubens, he either copies the group, or composes from them to suit the form of his vase, which he thus embellishes with the most exquisite figures; his name is Charles Antoin Günther. He lives in a little block-house, as humble as the commmonest of those above described, on the declivity of a brae, by a small stream, on which stand the little scattered village of Steinschönau. It is composed of only two apartments below, of which his work-room is one, and which is not above ten feet square, with just space enough to hold four little lathes for engraving glass, at one of which he works himself, while the others are occupied by three boys, the youngest twelve and a half years old, the eldest fifteen! They all engrave beautifully, pieces laid before them by Günther, and which they follow with a faithfulness and spirit only to be believed on personal inspection. He was at work himself on a vase goblet, of the shape of the usual green hock-glass, but which might contain a bottle; it was lapis lazuli blue, enriched by a group of Bacchanalian Cupids and vine-leaves of his own composition, and worked with a spirit and freedom worthy of some of the masters by whose works he was surrounded. What struck me most, was one of those exquisite little figures of Raphael's, in his great picture of the "Madona del Sixto," in the Royal Gallery at Dresden. The cherub leaning on the parapet, with his chin resting on one hand, as he gazes on the Virgin; it is exquisitely drawn in pencil, a fac-simile, and pinned on the wooden wall of the engraver's cottage, immediately opposite his seat. I asked him how he first traced on the glass the subjects which he was to cut; he replied by taking up a plain glass without any figure or indication on its surface, and asking me what subject I should like engraved. On my replying that, being an old deer-stalker, I should be very well pleased with a stag; he immediately applied the wheel to the glass, and in five minutes by my watch, produced one of the most splendid, spirited animals I ever saw in the forest, and really worthy of Landseer; the stag is making a spring over some broken palings and rough foreground, and his action and parts can only be appreciated by those who have lived with the deer on the hill and watched them with the feelings of a hill-man, like Günther, who has had opportunities of seeing the deer in his own native woods, where they abound. I brough this glass away with me, though in itself but an inferior article; merely as a specimen of what I had seen done by this man in the space of five minutes, without a copy or any thing to guide him on the smooth surface of goblet.

I send you sketches of the artist and his dwelling; and as the portrait exhibits, at the same time, his native costume, it will be the more interesting, and cannot fail to give a correct idea of the character of this Bohemian mountaineer.

The sketch of Günther's House will also afford an idea of these Bohemian artisans' dwellings, more so than any written description could do. I send you with it a drawing of another of these picturesque houses.

There are two classes of persons engaged, on a large scale, in the exportation of Bohemian glass - the fabricant and the collector; generally speaking, however, the latter is the direct exporter, and he also superintends the cutting, painting, and packing. The fabricant is more frequently engaged in furnishing the collector, and to a great extent, with the glass in its original and more simple forms as it comes from the furnace, and it is then cut and painted by the cottagers who surround the dwelling of the collector; so that many of these villages are entirely formed by the collector and his people. Others however, employed in the same way, cluster round the fabrique; but even their productions for the most part go to the collectors, who have their correspondents in America, Spain, Turkey, Greece, England, &c.

* This excellence in the decoration of glass is, probably, only a branch of the hight proficiency of the art of engraving and carving, in Germany, on all materials - the metal work of guns, seals engraved on steel and stone, wood, ivory, up to the copper plates of landscape and history; with regard to the second, seal engraving on steel, it cannot be surpassed, and scarcely, if at all, equalled in any other part of Europe. It is wrought with a delicacy unrivalled, and the impressions are equal to the best cutting on stone; it is done, too, at a cost wholly unknown in England, even among to the lowest order of seal engravers, for initials on brass for sealing wine or sauce bottles! It is not only in the depth and sharpness of the cutting, that they excel, but in the beauty of the frawing of the various subjects - figures of men, animals, birds, and the lambrequins and mantlings with which the German heraldry abounds. The cheapness arises, no doubt, from the great patronage enjoyed by the seal engravers. Every nobleman has a large office-seal for each of his properties, and some have a vst number, as, for instance, the Prince Schartzenberg, who has upwards of forty; the full coat of arms is engraved on the office-seal of each lordship. Such, of old, was the case with us; and I remember, among others, a beautiful gold seal, in the possession of the late Gordon of Fyvie, which had a thin topaz, with the arms of Sealton (the ancient lords of Fyvie< engraved upon it, with the colors enamelled on the gold beneath.
A comparison, however, between the prices of these works of art, here and in England, will be more satisfactory and interesting; for an office-seal, which would cost in the latter country, if cut on brass, from 5l. to 7l., costs here from 30s. to 2l. on steel! including a beautifully ornamented base, and polished Bohemian granite, porphyry or agate handle, three inches in length; and such coats of arms as would cost in England, on stone, from 10l. to 20l., can be had here for a third of that sum, and executed in the best style of the art.
Carving in ivory is equally good, and equally moderate. Pipers, also, of that beautiful material erroneously called Meerschaum, and of large dimensions, are carved either with a superb coat of arms or historical subjects, the prices of which vary according to the size of the pipe and number of figures, from 30s. to 2l.!
As might be expected, there is a considerable difference in the designs of different houses; some are much superior to others, both as to color and design. Those of Egermann, in Hyda, who has added many new and valuable discoveries in the art  of making and coloring the glass, and Hoffman, in Prague, are the best I have visited, to which whom Günter engraves. Egerman's establishment in Hyda, for cutting, painting, and engraving, is very considerable, and exhibits first-rate talent, which can only be appreciated by a personal inspection of his works; and the taste and jusgment of Hoffman, in Prague, in his selections, the designs he gives, and the artists he employes, cannot be surpassed, if equalled, in Germany. He has entirely abandoned the modern school, and returned to the first principles of art,* and produces, both in form and decorations, subjects worthy of the ancient masters.

The glass villages are scattered all through the mountainous districts, whose ridges, and summits, and upper ranges are covered with a forest, which extends forty or fifty miles in length, by thirty broad; the fabriquants maintain that the finer glass cannot be brought to perfection but by wood heat, and hence, the glass fabriques are only to be found in these vast forests. One of the most interesting natural formations within this circle is the volcanic rock, called "Spirlingstein," which shoots up out of a little valley on the right bank of the Elbe crowned with a shattered mass of natural towers and turrets which it is difficult to believe, till closely examined, are not hte ruins of one of those feudal holds crowning the summits of so many of the hills in Bohemia. Every village has its school, in which are to be found all the children too old for the nursery, and too young to be employed. Several I visited contained as many as three hundred; the specimens of their writing are beautiful, some quite like engraving; the eldest child, whose specimen I saw, was only thirteen; they sing most sweetly, and many accompanying themselves on the guitar, the schoolmaster being almost always a musician, and capable of playing two or three instruments. There is a church and good organ in each village, and a very good choir entirely composed of these villagers, all of whom play some instrument, and form the choir by turns, generally directed by the schoolmaster. Some of these amateur bands play exquisitely, as an idea may be formed by the families or communities who occasionally visit England, and who are often from a district such as I have described, and whose sole instruction has been that which they could pick up from each other in their hours of recreation. At the fabrique of A. Kittls-Erben of Kreibitz, while at dinner in the garden, and which was provided by the hospitality of the fabriquant, and in great profusion, with a variety of Hungarian and Bohemian wines, I observed a little girl of twelve years of age, who came into the bower with a guitar, and while I was looking round for the performer, the master of the fabrique lifted the little girl on a chair, and laid a music book before her, from which she played and sang a number of Bohemian songs with much taste and execution. All the instruction she ever had was from the schoolmaster, who taught her during the leisure hours of the scholars. She was an orphan, and brought up by the fabriquant. After dinner we walked up the valley to visit a fabrique of Chiochorie; in the way I remarked a little cottage, like the rest, with its fruit-trees and garden, but which had, in addition to its projecting roof and windows filled with flowers, both in pots and Bohemian glass vases, verandahs in carved oak, the scroll-work of which was quite classic, and the execution admirable. While I stopped to examine this, the fabriquant who accompanied me remarked that the owners were makers of musical instruments. On inquiring of what kind, he replied a variety, - violins, accordions, and others. I was met at the door by a man whose appearance was that of a simple cottager, and his manners indicated all the simplicity of rural life. He was told that I wished to see some of his instruments, upon which he bowed, slightly evevated his shoulders, and replied, that he had nothing worth seeing, but would be happy to receive us, and showed us the way, with that natural kindness and politiness, which distinguish the peasants of this country. We followed him up a little carved-wood staircase, and he ushered us into a small, yet clean apartment, where, to my surprise, I found two rather large organs, sufficiently large for a moderate church; one was a peculiar instrument, a pan-harmonicon, invented by himself, with improvements and great facility and simplicity in tuning; it formed a concert of the single organ, brass horns, and kettle drums, having a double row of keys behind, so that the performer was masked by the instrument, which had a handsome front; the face of it could be removed to show the whole interior of the mechanical arrangement. * Their name is Lehmann; residence - Schonfeld, near Kreibitz.Avariety of other instruments were packed in different parts of the room, some of which were large and highly improved accordions, which, as well as the organ, are beautifully played by the brothers,* of whom there are three; their talent for music is extraordinary.

* The ruins of similar little chapels are found all over the highlands and isles of Scotland, however remote, with other sacred edifices, in some of which may still be traced the remains of frescoes. In the ruins of larger buildings the frescoes are more apparent: thus, in the abbey church of Pluscardine, near Elgin, the four Evanelists were distincly visible in 1826, after more than 300 years of ruin and decay. The church in this country is still the great patron of the arts. In every little chapel, however remote or small, (and in some of the minute villages in the mountains, they are not larger than an ordinary room,* though of a vast height in proportion to the length and breadth,) is found a good organ, and always well played. There is also an amateur choir attached to each. These chapels are decorated by paintings and frescoes, some of which are of considerable merit. In the house of a priest, who officiates in one of them, I observed a "Crucifixion," without a frame, apparently quite newly painted, and, on inquiring, I found it was the work of an artist in Antwerp; that it had been bought by the glass-makers of the district, or rather obtained in exchange for some part of a cargo sent to that city, from which they had brough and presented it to their little chapel; it was valued at Antwerp, against the glass, at seven hundred florins ($150).

The little chapels in  the glass districts are also beautifully decorated with colored glass, the rich ruby lamps suspended before the altars, with their ever-burning lamps, the clusters of prisms in the great centre chandelier, reflecting the ruby lights, and gold, and flowers, from the altar, are always - independent of any other feeling - subjects worthy the contemplation of the artist. All the vases for flowers which richly decorate the country churches are of native manufacture - ruby, emerald, topaz, chrysophras, turquoise, and crystal chalices,full of the rarest of those flowers which form  so much the delight and pastime of the inhabitants to cultivate, shed their delicious perfume through their chapels, mingled with the incense which, renewed daily, at morning and evening service, fills the buildings with perpetual fragnance. Another great resource for the arts in this country, which is offered by the Church, is the sculpture of wood. I have often been surprised and confounded by seeing an exquisite Virgin, or Crucifixion, or figure of a patron or local saint, in some far out of the way chapel in the hills, or in some lonely shrine, and even in the niches on the exterior of these buildings: but on inquiry I found that these were often the works of the first artists! the foreman of some native Canova, or Max, whose health, impaired by inhaling the fine dust of the marble, was not obliged to work on till death put an end to his talent; but, before the disease had become incurable, forsook marble for oak, and reproduced in that material all the beauties of the original; and under the fostering wing of the Church recovered his health, and filled his native village church with works of the highest order. It is the same with artists, natives of larger towns; I do not speak of such works as are to be seen in Antwerp, and other cities of note - wonderful productions of rare art in carving, such as the figures which stand on each side of the numerous confessionals in the north transept of the glorious cathedral of the former, nearly as large as life, all emblematical of repentance and forgiveness, and other attributes of contrition and mercy; with many others of nearly, if not quite, the same merit, in the various churches with which this town abounds. These are the works of great masters whose celebrity is European; but to find in the wild and unknown districts of these mountains such works of art - to know there is a sure and safe means for the suffering artist to continue his work and regain his health, while he fills his country with fine objects of art, carved in wood, and which could never be obtained in any other way, is a blessed encouragement to talent, and a field for the arts which can only be appreciated by those who are relieved by it, or those who are dying for want of its protecting hand. Mr. Steel, in Edinburgh, the last time I had the happiness of visiting him in his studio, when he was engaged on that exquisite work the Scott statue, and which has since been placed within the monument erected to this illustrious man, told me he had, then, lately lost one or two of his best men from pulmonary complaint, brought on by inhaling the marble dust; that he had tried every means to counteract its effects, by providing the men with veils and masks, but to no purpose. His best man then at work upon this national masterpiece, was fast failing beneath the effects of the same cause, and is now probably laid with all his talent in the dust, lost to his country in the prime of life, when here, such a man would soon be restrored to health, while he reproduced his works in wood, and maintained himself and family in a comfortable and illustrious independence, enriching his country, and carrying the arts into the remote valleys of his native home.

Thus far we make use of a letter to the Art Journal. In the Great Exhibition we perceive that the glass of Bohemia has attracted much attention, not more for the grace and beauty of its forms than for the recent improvements which have been made in its colors. The principal agent for the sale of Bohemian Glass in the United States is Mr. Collamore, of 447 Broadway, in whose extensive establishment may be seen in particular all the varieties of those vases, and other mantel ornaments, of Bohemian Glass, which, to a great extent, are taking the place of porcelain fabrics, of the same description, in the more fashionably furnished houses. One of these vases we copy here from the Art Journal Catalogue of the Hyde Park Exhibition; others are of different forms, and of colors equalled in richness only in other manufactures of the same country.