31.3.12

A New Supplement...: I. Indian ink. Indian yellow. Indigo. Indigogene. Indigo(t)ic acid. Isatis tinctoria. Ivory black. Japan Blacking.


A New Supplement to the latest Pharmacopoeias of London, Edinburgh, Dublin, and Paris, Forming A Complete Dispendatory, Conspectus, and Dictionary of Medical Chemistry, Giving All the Old and New Names, Including the New French and American Medicines, and Poisons; with Symptoms, Treatment, and Tests; as Well As Herbs, Drugs, Compounds, Veterinary Drugs, With the Pharmacopoia of the Vetenary College, Nostrums, Patent Medicines, Perfumery, Paints, Varnishes, And similar articles kept in the Shops; With Their Compositions, Imitations, Adulterations, And Medicinal Uses, Being a General Book of Formulæ and Recipes For Daily Reference in the Laboratory and at the Counter.
Fourth edition, corrected, improved, and very much enlarged.
By James Rennie, M. A., Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Foreign Medicine; the Pharmacopeia Universalis; Author of a Conspectus of Prescriptions in Medicine, Surgery, and Midwifery; the Pharmacopeia Imperialis, &c. &c.
London: Baldwin and Cradock. 1837.
London: Thomas Curson Hansard, Paternoster Row.


INDIAN INK, or China Ink, from its being originally imported from China, is, when genuine, supposed to be procured from the smoke of resinous trees, but is made in this country of lamp-black from the umbrella-formed shades of oil lamps, beat into a mass with purified glue or isinglass, and scented with musk or amber.
Imitated by charcoal made from cherry-stones or beans, and mixed with gum arabic; or with common lamp black beat up with gum, honey, seed lac, common glue, &c&. Its goodness will appear at once from rubbing it down in a saucer with alittle water, from its breaking splintery, and feeling soft and not gritty when rubbed against the teeth.

INDIAN YELLOW, a pigment of a bright yellow, which is imported in lumps from India. It is frequently adulterated.

INDIGO. P. The fecula of the Indigofera tinctoria. Procured by macerating the leaves, treating the infusion with lime water, and drying the sediment in lumps. The French physician prescribe it in phthisis, diarrhoea, and immoderate flow of the lochia, as and astringent, it has also been prescribed with advantage in epilepsy, but its chief use is in dyeing.
Adulterated, where it is manufactured, with the fecula of other species of Indigofera, which do not produce so fine a tint; and also with the dyed fecula of other plants; but these adulterations can only be detected by trying the deepness and brightness of the tint int solution. When mixedwith earthy matters, as it often is, these will subside from the solution. The best indigo has a coppery tinge of colour.

INDIGOGENE. The basis of Indigo, which is white or deoxidized indigo. (Liebig.)

INDIGOIC, or INDIGOTIC ACID. THe acid of indigo, which has recently been investigated with great care by Dr. Buff. It is said by M. Chevreul to be quite distinct from the carbazotic acid.

ISATIS TINCTORIA. Woad, a native plant, which is sometimes employed by dyers for producing blues. It is supposed to contain indigo.

IVORY BLACK is prepared by burning the shavings or chipsof wood in a closely covered crucible till no smoke is seen to pass through the joinings. The matter, when cooled, is pounded, ground on a porphyry slab with water, washed on a filter with warm water, and dried. It is used in painting, and also as a tooth-powder, and largely in sugar refining. See CARBO ANIMAL. PUR. L.
Adulterated with common bone-black, which may be known by having a tinge of red, instead of a fine clear greyish-black. Bone-black is made in the same way as ivory-black. Other blacks of an inferior kind are also frequently mixed with it.

JAPAN BLACKING. Boil together half a gallon of boiled linseed-oil, an ounce and a half of bitumen, and four ounces of burnt umber. When sufficiently incorporated, add as much oil of turpentine as will make it of a proper thickness, taking care that it does not catch fire.
Or, mix lbss of treacle, 3j of lamp-black, 3v of yeast, aa 3j of sugar-candy, of sweet oil, of gum-dragon, of isinglass, and of ox-gall, with Oij of stale beer. It ought to stand an hour by the fire before using, and be applied with a sponge. Or, mix Oj of spirits of turpentine and 3j of Chio turpentine and asphaltum.


30.3.12

A New Supplement...: H. Hematine. Haematoxylum lignum. Harlem blue. Hair dyes. Hamburg lake. Hassan's Dye. Hematin. Holly green. Hooker's Green. Hungary Blue. Hypericum.


A New Supplement to the latest Pharmacopoeias of London, Edinburgh, Dublin, and Paris, Forming A Complete Dispendatory, Conspectus, and Dictionary of Medical Chemistry, Giving All the Old and New Names, Including the New French and American Medicines, and Poisons; with Symptoms, Treatment, and Tests; as Well As Herbs, Drugs, Compounds, Veterinary Drugs, With the Pharmacopoia of the Vetenary College, Nostrums, Patent Medicines, Perfumery, Paints, Varnishes, And similar articles kept in the Shops; With Their Compositions, Imitations, Adulterations, And Medicinal Uses, Being a General Book of Formulæ and Recipes For Daily Reference in the Laboratory and at the Counter.
Fourth edition, corrected, improved, and very much enlarged.
By James Rennie, M. A., Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Foreign Medicine; the Pharmacopeia Universalis; Author of a Conspectus of Prescriptions in Medicine, Surgery, and Midwifery; the Pharmacopeia Imperialis, &c. &c.
London: Baldwin and Cradock. 1837.
London: Thomas Curson Hansard, Paternoster Row.


HEMATINE. New. The active principle of logwood, which consists of reddis-white crystals, brilliant and small, possessing an acrid, bitter taste, and slightly astringent.
Incompatible with gelatine, which precipitates it from its solutions, and with sulphuretted hydrogen.

HÆMATOXYLUM LIGNUM. L. E. D. Logwood, or Campeachy-wood, from the Hæmatoxylon Campechianum.It has little smell, and tastes somewhat astringent.
Incompatible with the mineral acids and the acetic acid, with acetate of lead, with the sulphate of alumine, with potassio-tartrate of antimony, and the sulphates of iron and copper.
Medicinally it is tonic in doses of 3j to 3ij of the decoction thrice or oftener a day in diarrhoæ, dysentry, &c. But I think its astringent effect is extremely doubtful. It often tinges the stools red or purple.
Enters into Ext. Hæmatoxyli. L.

HARLEM BLUE, a pigment similar to Antwerp blue, consisting apparently of ferro-sesqui-cyanide of alumina.

HAIR DYES. These depend upon the sulphuretted hydrogen evolved from the hair turining metallic preparations (chiefly nitrate of silver, trisnitrate of bismuth, diacetate of lead, and plumbite of lime) black or chlorine destroying the colour. See Orfila, Hassan, Grecian Water, Essence of Tyre, &c. Before applying these, the grease of the hair must be removed by washing it with solution of ammonia. (Orfila.)

HAMBURGH LAKE, a pigment of a deep purplish crimson, but not durable as a pigment.

HASSAN'S DYE. A solution of nitrate of silver, coloured with syrup of buckthorn.

HEMATIN. THe colouring principle of logwood.

HOLLY GREEN, or VERDETTO, a native pigment similar to Terre Verte.

HOOKER'S GREEN, a pigment similar to Antwerp green. See Green.

HUNGARY BLUE. A pigment prepared with cobalt.

HYPERICUM. St. John's Wort. Several of the species, particularly the H. perforatum and H. elegans, are much ujsed by the herbalists in vervous maniacal disorders; but though I believe them to have some powert from what I have seen, yet the effects are by no means distinctly ascertained. The leaves and flowers contain a colouring matter, and are sometimes used in dyeing. An oil of St. JOhn's wort is used by farriers, but what is sold for it is only olive oil and verdigrise.

27.3.12

A New Supplement...: G. Galls. gallic acid. Gall-stone. Garance blue. Gargarisma aeruginis. Gold purple. Green basilicon. Green pigments. Grey lotion. Gum sandarach. Gum senegal. Gypsum.


A New Supplement to the latest Pharmacopoeias of London, Edinburgh, Dublin, and Paris, Forming A Complete Dispendatory, Conspectus, and Dictionary of Medical Chemistry, Giving All the Old and New Names, Including the New French and American Medicines, and Poisons; with Symptoms, Treatment, and Tests; as Well As Herbs, Drugs, Compounds, Veterinary Drugs, With the Pharmacopoia of the Vetenary College, Nostrums, Patent Medicines, Perfumery, Paints, Varnishes, And similar articles kept in the Shops; With Their Compositions, Imitations, Adulterations, And Medicinal Uses, Being a General Book of Formulæ and Recipes For Daily Reference in the Laboratory and at the Counter.
Fourth edition, corrected, improved, and very much enlarged.
By James Rennie, M. A., Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Foreign Medicine; the Pharmacopeia Universalis; Author of a Conspectus of Prescriptions in Medicine, Surgery, and Midwifery; the Pharmacopeia Imperialis, &c. &c.
London: Baldwin and Cradock. 1837.
London: Thomas Curson Hansard, Paternoster Row.


GALÆ. L. E. D.P. Galls. Produced from Quercus infectoria, by the grub of the Diploplesis Gallæ, or Cynips quercifolia. The best galls are from Aleppo and Smyrna. Galls have no smell, but a strong astringent and austere taste.
Incompatible with the sulphate and other salts of iron, the acetate of lead, sulphates of copper and zinc, nitrates of silver and mercury, bichloride of mercury, potassio-tartrate of animony, carbonate of potass, lime water, infusion of Peruvian bark, and solution of isinglass and animal jellies, and with the mineral acids.
Good Galls are small, heavy, and bluish-grey, or olive coloured. The inferior sorts are larger, light, incline to white or red, and if examined narrowly, it will be found that the grub has eaten its way out, by a minute perforation, which always deteriorates their quality, and renders them hollow and powdery when broken.
Medicinally galls are powerfully astringent and tonic in doses of ge. x to Ej, twice, or oftener in the day, for internal hæmorrhage and diarrhoæ; or externally in gargles, injections, or ointments, such as that applied for piles.

GALLIC ACID, previously confounded with tannin and tannic acid, is procured by mixing powdered galls into a thin paste with water, exposing it to the air at 60° or 70° for four or five weeks, adding water to keep it moist; then press out the liquid and throw it away, boil the residue in water, filter when hot, and it will deposit gallic acids as it cools, which must be purified with animal charcoal. It crystallises in long silky needles. (Pelouze.)

GALL-STONE in the arts is a calculus found chiefly in the gall bladder of the ox. It is of a baeutiful golden yellow, more powerful than gamboge, and works well in water, but fades in the light. (Field.)

GARANCE BLUE, or Bleu de Garance. See Ultramarine. Laque de Garance or French lake is tinged with safflower, and is inferior to madder lake. (Field.)

GARGARISMA ÆRUGINIS. Verdigrise Gargle. Tkae 3ij of verdigrise liniment, 3j of honey of roses, 3vj of infusion of linseed; mix, and employ for foul ulcers of the throat, and tonsils. It is not a very safe medicament.

GOLD PURPLE. The purple precipitate of Cassius is a compound oxide produced by mixing solutions of gold and tin. In the arts it affords not a bright, but a rich and powerful colour of great durability. It is used in miniature and enamel painting, but is more expensive than madder purple. (Field.)

GREEN BASILICON. Mix 1bj 3/4 of yellow wax, 3viij of olive oil, 3ij of verdigrise.

GREEN PIGMENTS, in the arts are either native, or composed of various blues and yellows, such as ultramarine and yellow, the supposed fine green of the Italian masters; of Antwerp blue and gamboge; or of Prussian blue and Dutch or Italian pink. Chrome green, when native, is a pure oxide of chrome; when factitious, it is made with chromate of lead and Prussian blue, and called Brunswick green. Both these are fine and durable. Cobalt Green is also original, or prepared from cobalt blue and chrome yellow. Green bice and African green are preparations of copper. See Sap green; Scheele's Green; Mineral Green; Mountain Green; Prussian Green; Terreverte; Verdigris; and Verditer.

GREY LOTION is prepared by adding variable proportions, according to the case, of chloride of mercury to lime water. Used for soothing irritable sores.

GUM SANDARACH, or Gum Juniper, is used in powder, to prevent ink from spreading on parchment or bad paper, and also in making varnishes.

GUM SENEGAL is an inferior sort of gum arabic, which is clammy and tenacious, rather than dry and brittle. It is the strongest and tbest for dark colours in water-colour painting.

GYPSUM, or Paris Plaster, is the native sulphate of lime, and is much used in arts, and also to adulterate flour, it being tasteless, and not gritty in the mouth.

26.3.12

A New Supplement...: F. Flake white. Flash. Flux. Franfort black. French green. French red. Fustic.


A New Supplement to the latest Pharmacopoeias of London, Edinburgh, Dublin, and Paris, Forming A Complete Dispendatory, Conspectus, and Dictionary of Medical Chemistry, Giving All the Old and New Names, Including the New French and American Medicines, and Poisons; with Symptoms, Treatment, and Tests; as Well As Herbs, Drugs, Compounds, Veterinary Drugs, With the Pharmacopoia of the Vetenary College, Nostrums, Patent Medicines, Perfumery, Paints, Varnishes, And similar articles kept in the Shops; With Their Compositions, Imitations, Adulterations, And Medicinal Uses, Being a General Book of Formulæ and Recipes For Daily Reference in the Laboratory and at the Counter.
Fourth edition, corrected, improved, and very much enlarged.
By James Rennie, M. A., Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Foreign Medicine; the Pharmacopeia Universalis; Author of a Conspectus of Prescriptions in Medicine, Surgery, and Midwifery; the Pharmacopeia Imperialis, &c. &c.
London: Baldwin and Cradock. 1837.
London: Thomas Curson Hansard, Paternoster Row.


FLAKE WHITE. A pigment, consisting of carbonate, or white oxide of lead, prepared by hnaging sheets of lead over evaporating vinegar, the vessel containing the vinegar being placed in a steam-bath. It is in form of scales, sometimes grey on the surface. When levigated it is termed Body White. (Field.)

FLASH. A preparation sold by brewer's druggist, to colour brandy and sum, and to give them fictitious stregth. It is prepared by making an extract of cayenne pepper or capsicum, and adding to it burnt sugar.

FLUX, in the arts, a composition to assist the fusion of metals, usually made with borax, tartar, nitre, hydrochlorate of ammonia, common salt, glass, &c., in varying proportions.
Black Flux consists of white flux detonated by means of kindled charcoal in a mortar slightly covered, when the smoke unites with the alkalized nitre and the tartar, rendering it black.
Cornish Reducing Flux. Mix well together 3x of tartar, 3iijss of nitre, and 3iij and 3j of borax.
Cornish Refining Flux. Deflagrate, and then powder, two parts of nitre and one part of tartar.
White Flux. One part of nitre and two parts of tartar well mixed together.

FRANKFORT BLACK, in the arts, is said to be made from the lees of wine, after washing and burning out the tartar. It may also be made from vine twigs and tendrils, and of inferior quality from box wood or ebony charcoal levigated. It is chiefly used in copperplate printing, being stronger than ivory black, and deepening on exposure to light. (Field.)

FRENCH GREEN, in the arts, a preparation of copper.

FRENCH RED, or ROUGE, for the toilette. Take 3j of genuine carmine, light in weight and strong in colour, mix it with very finely-sifted starch powder, according to the shade required, and tempering the colour by the eye, which will be assisted by laying it on sheets of black paper.

FUSTIC, a dye stuff, procured from the fruit of the Morux Xanthoxylum, or dyer's mulberry.

25.3.12

A New Supplement...: Ferri... Ferro...


A New Supplement to the latest Pharmacopoeias of London, Edinburgh, Dublin, and Paris, Forming A Complete Dispendatory, Conspectus, and Dictionary of Medical Chemistry, Giving All the Old and New Names, Including the New French and American Medicines, and Poisons; with Symptoms, Treatment, and Tests; as Well As Herbs, Drugs, Compounds, Veterinary Drugs, With the Pharmacopoia of the Vetenary College, Nostrums, Patent Medicines, Perfumery, Paints, Varnishes, And similar articles kept in the Shops; With Their Compositions, Imitations, Adulterations, And Medicinal Uses, Being a General Book of Formulæ and Recipes For Daily Reference in the Laboratory and at the Counter.
Fourth edition, corrected, improved, and very much enlarged.
By James Rennie, M. A., Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Foreign Medicine; the Pharmacopeia Universalis; Author of a Conspectus of Prescriptions in Medicine, Surgery, and Midwifery; the Pharmacopeia Imperialis, &c. &c.
London: Baldwin and Cradock. 1837.
London: Thomas Curson Hansard, Paternoster Row.


FERRI OXIDUM NIGRUM. D. Black Oxide of Iron. Ethiops martialis. O. Is prepared by several processes. It is prescribed in engorgements of the liver and spleen, and in cases in which chalybeates are exhibited.

FERRI PERCYANIDUM. L. Ferri Prussias. O. PRUSSIAN BLUE, (which see) is exhibited in America as a tonic, in doses of gr. iij. to gr. viij twice a day in jelly or syrup, in intermittens, scrofula, chorea, and epilepsy.
Incompatible with the mineral alkalies and alkaline earths.

FERRI RUBIGO. D. Rust of Iron. Crocus martis aperiens. O. A bicarbonate or protoxide of iron. Take 500 parts of sulphate of iron, and dissolve in 4000 parts of distilled water, add q. s. of sesqui-carbonate of potass, or of solution of soda, to precipitate the oxide, which is washed, dried, and reduced to powder; or expose pure filings of iron to the dew till the rust is formed. See the next article.

FERRI SESQUI-CARBONAS. L. Sesqui-carbonate of Iron.Carbonas ferri. E. Take ?viij of sulphate of iron, ?vj of carbonate of soda, one gallon of boiling water; dissolve the sulphate of iron and the carbonate of soda separately in Oiv of the water, mix the solutions, and let them stand that the powder may subside, pour off the liquor, wash the precipitate with hot water, and dry it by a gentle heat on bibulous paper. It is insoluble in water, is of a chocolate-brown colour, without smell, and of a styptic taste.
Decomposition. The acid of the sulphate of iron passes over to the soda, forming sulphate of soda in solution, while the disengaged carbonic acid of the soda passes over to the iron and forms a protocarbonate, which is precipitated to a green colour. The subsequent exposure of this to heat drives off both its water and carbonic acid, while it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere, and becomes a chocolate-brown, being in reality a peroxide of iron, that may have remained undecomposed by heat.
Incompatible with galls, and other astringent vegetables, and with tannin, &c.
Medicinally it is exhibited as a diffusible tonic, like other chalybeates, it doses of gr. iv. to ?j, in form of pill or powder, with bitters and in doses of gr. iv. to ?j, in form of pill or powder, with bitters and aromatics, in dyspepsia and debility. It has lately been strongly recommended also in cancer, and particularly in neuralgia, or tic doloreux, in doses of ?ss to ?iij twice or thrice a day. It is obvious it can do no good where the pain is produced from the pressure of osseous spiculæ, &c.
Enters into Ferri Ammonio-chloridum. L. Tartar. Ferri. D.

FERRI SULPHAS. L. E. D. P. Sulphate of Iron. Green copperas. Green vitriol, Sal martis, Ferrum vitriolatum. O. Take 3viij each by weight of iron and sulphuric acid, Oiv of water; mix the sulphuric acid with the water in a glass vessel, and add the iron; when bubbles cease to escape, filter the liquor and dry the crystals on blotting-paper.
Decomposition. The water being partly decomposed, its hydrogen escapes while its oxygen unites with the iron, forming a suboxide, which combines with the sulphuric acid, and is dissolved in the water that remains, forming a protosulphate or subsulphate of iron in solution, which afterwards crystallizes in rhombs of a green colour, soluble in water, but insoluble in alcohol. These crystals when exposed to a strong heat part with their sulphuric acid, and preoxide of iron remains, known by the name of CALCOTHAR. See OXIDUM FERRI RUBRUM. P.
Incompatible with the alkalies, the earths, and their carbonates; - with the biborate of soda, the acetates of ammonia and lead, the chloride of barium, the hydrochlorate of ammonia, the nitrates of potass and silver, the tartrates of potass and soda; and with soap. It is also decomposed by astringent vegetable susbstances, and what has been termed a tannogallate of iron is formed, but it retains in that case most of its properties.
Medicinally the sulphate of iron is tonic and astringent, and in a large dose emetic. It is given in doses of gr. j to gr. v with bitters, &c., in debility and relaxation, and also as a vermifuge. M. Marc says it is febrifuge.
It is used extensively to adulterate beer, to which it gives a fine frothy heading. When not in great quantity, however, it must be rather wholesome than otherwise. It is also used extensively in dyeing, making of ink, &c.
Enters into Pil. Ferri Comp. L. Sulph. Ferri Exsicc. E.

FERRO-CYANATE OF BARYTA is prepared by digesting purified Prussian blue with a solution of pure baryta. It is soluble in water, and is used in preparing ferro-cyanic acid. A similar salt is formed with magnesia nad with strontia.

FERRO-CYANATE OF POTASS, formerly Triple Prussiate of Potass, is procured by digesting pure Prussiab blue in potass till the alkali is neutralized, when the peroxide of iron being set free, a yellow liquid is formed, which yields crystals of ferro-cyanate of potass by evaporation. It is made also on a large scale by igniting hoofs, horns, &c., with potass and iron. It is an excellent test for iron.
Soluble in less than its own weight of water.

FERRO-CYANIC ACID is procured in crystals by dissolving 58 grains of crystallized tartaric azic in alcohol, and mixing the liquid with 50 grains of the ferro-cyanate of potasss, dissolved in the smallerst possible quantity of hot water, when the bittartrate of potass is precipitated, and the clear solution upon being evaporated deposits the acids in small yellow cubic crystals. It has no smell, is not valatile, and in small quantities is not poisonous. M. Porrett calls it Ferruetted Chyazic Acid. It forms with bases ferrocyanides, or ferrocyanurets, such as the ferrocyanide of potassium.
Test. Any of the per-salts of iron, when no free alkali is present, furnish a very delicate test of this acid, by forming with it Prussian blue.

FERRO-SESQUI-CYANIC ACID. Procured from solution of lead by treating it with ferro-sesqui-cyanide of potassium. It is in the formof brown crystals.

FERRO-SESQUI-CYANIDE OF IRON. A name for Prussian Blue, which see.

24.3.12

A New Supplement...: E. Earth of alum. Earths. Eggshell white. Emerald green. Emplastrum attrahens; caeruleum; oxidi ferri rubri. Essence of tyre. Essentia bina.


A New Supplement to the latest Pharmacopoeias of London, Edinburgh, Dublin, and Paris, Forming A Complete Dispendatory, Conspectus, and Dictionary of Medical Chemistry, Giving All the Old and New Names, Including the New French and American Medicines, and Poisons; with Symptoms, Treatment, and Tests; as Well As Herbs, Drugs, Compounds, Veterinary Drugs, With the Pharmacopoia of the Vetenary College, Nostrums, Patent Medicines, Perfumery, Paints, Varnishes, And similar articles kept in the Shops; With Their Compositions, Imitations, Adulterations, And Medicinal Uses, Being a General Book of Formulæ and Recipes For Daily Reference in the Laboratory and at the Counter.
Fourth edition, corrected, improved, and very much enlarged.
By James Rennie, M. A., Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Foreign Medicine; the Pharmacopeia Universalis; Author of a Conspectus of Prescriptions in Medicine, Surgery, and Midwifery; the Pharmacopeia Imperialis, &c. &c.
London: Baldwin and Cradock. 1837.
London: Thomas Curson Hansard, Paternoster Row.


EARTH OF ALUM. Used in making paints, and procured by precipitating it from alum, dissolved in water by adding ammonia or potass.

EARTHS, chemically speaking, are alumina, silica, magnesia, lime, &c. In the arts are Sienna, Vandyke's brown, &c.

EGGSHELL WHITE, in the arts, has been prepared by pounding and levigating egg-shells. It is a soft pigment.

EMERALD GREEN, in the arts, is a new copper green on a terrene base, suited for gems and glazing. It works well in water, but with difficulty in oil. (FIELD.)

EMPLASTRUM ATTRAHENS. Drawing Plaster. Take three parts each of yellow wax and yellow resin, and one part of mutton suet. Melt, mix, and make a plaster.

EMPLASTRUM CÆRULEUM. Blue Plaster. Take 3vj of olive oil, 3iv each of yellow wax and nutritive ointment, 3iij of smalt; mix, and make a plaster.

EMPLASTRUM OXIDI FERRI RUBRI. P. Plaster of Red Oxide of Iron. Take 24 parts of litharge plaster, six parts of resin, three parts each of yellow wax and olive oil, eight parts of red oxide of iron; triturate the red oxide of iron with the oil, and add the other ingredients previously melted.
Medicinally it is used for muscular relaxations, and to strengthen weakness of the joints, by supporting the parts mechanically.

ESSENCE OF TYRE. A solution of nitrate of silver, used as a HAIR DYE, which see.

ESSENTIA BINA. A colouring matter sold by brewers' druggists to colour brandy, porter, &c. It is prepared by boiling coarse sugar till it is quite black and of a bitter taste. This is made into a syrup with lime water.

23.3.12

A New Supplement...: Dragon's blood.


A New Supplement to the latest Pharmacopoeias of London, Edinburgh, Dublin, and Paris, Forming A Complete Dispendatory, Conspectus, and Dictionary of Medical Chemistry, Giving All the Old and New Names, Including the New French and American Medicines, and Poisons; with Symptoms, Treatment, and Tests; as Well As Herbs, Drugs, Compounds, Veterinary Drugs, With the Pharmacopoia of the Vetenary College, Nostrums, Patent Medicines, Perfumery, Paints, Varnishes, And similar articles kept in the Shops; With Their Compositions, Imitations, Adulterations, And Medicinal Uses, Being a General Book of Formulæ and Recipes For Daily Reference in the Laboratory and at the Counter.
Fourth edition, corrected, improved, and very much enlarged.
By James Rennie, M. A., Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Foreign Medicine; the Pharmacopeia Universalis; Author of a Conspectus of Prescriptions in Medicine, Surgery, and Midwifery; the Pharmacopeia Imperialis, &c. &c.
London: Baldwin and Cradock. 1837.
London: Thomas Curson Hansard, Paternoster Row.


DRAGON'S BLOOD. A vegetable gum brought from the Canary Islands, the East Indies, and America. It exudes from the Dracærna Draco chiefly when the tree is full grown; for when very young or very old the gum is in small quantity. The produce is increased by incisions. Berthollet has given an interesting account of the tree in the Ann. des Scien. Nat. for June 1828. The finest sort is in tears, or drops of an oval form; the ordinary sort is in cakes and masses, containing many impurities. The fine sort also is very light, friable, and of a beautiful deep crimson colour. Used to colour varnishes and lackers in the arts, and by farriers for the disease called red water, but without effect.

Incompatible with white lead, and is darkened by exposure to light, and deepened incolour by impure air. (FIELD.)

Adulterated with cheaper gums and resins, tinged with cochineal and Brazil wood. If genuine it will dissolve entirely in spirits of wine, withour sediment. When heated it smells like benzoin, which it contains. See SANGUIS DRACONIS.

22.3.12

A New Supplement...: Crocus.


A New Supplement to the latest Pharmacopoeias of London, Edinburgh, Dublin, and Paris, Forming A Complete Dispendatory, Conspectus, and Dictionary of Medical Chemistry, Giving All the Old and New Names, Including the New French and American Medicines, and Poisons; with Symptoms, Treatment, and Tests; as Well As Herbs, Drugs, Compounds, Veterinary Drugs, With the Pharmacopoia of the Vetenary College, Nostrums, Patent Medicines, Perfumery, Paints, Varnishes, And similar articles kept in the Shops; With Their Compositions, Imitations, Adulterations, And Medicinal Uses, Being a General Book of Formulæ and Recipes For Daily Reference in the Laboratory and at the Counter.
Fourth edition, corrected, improved, and very much enlarged.
By James Rennie, M. A., Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Foreign Medicine; the Pharmacopeia Universalis; Author of a Conspectus of Prescriptions in Medicine, Surgery, and Midwifery; the Pharmacopeia Imperialis, &c. &c.
London: Baldwin and Cradock. 1837.
London: Thomas Curson Hansard, Paternoster Row.


CROCUS. L. E. D. P. Saffron, Crocus sativus, the pistils of the flowers sold in form of cakes pressed together. Adulterated very frequently with saddron, from which part of the colour has also been extracted, which makes it pale, and of a dirty hue. It is also often mixed with the petals of marigold and safflower; but, by steeping in water, these will unfold and detect the fraud. Shreds of smoked beef are also said to be sometimes mixed with it; which may be detected by the smell it produces when burnt. Genuine saffron ought to be of a bright, deep, rich, orage-yellow colour, not too moist, and adhering to the clothes. The English, French, and Italian are the best. The Spanish is greasy and bad. Medicinally it is aromatic, warm, bitterish, of a sweet diffusive odour, feebly stimulant, cordial, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, and diaphoretic, in doses of gr. v to 3ss of the powder, in atonic amenorrhoea, hysteric affections, and vomiting. Externally it is applied in ophthalmia; but is seldom used in practice now, except as a colouring matter for other drugs. It is much used also in cookery and confectionary.

CROCUS. An old term applied to oxides, and other preparations of the metals.


A New Supplement...: C. Carthamus tinctorius. Catechu. Cathartin. Ceratum coeruleum. Chalk for drawing. Chlorophyle. Chrome yellow. Cinnabar. Cocci. Court plaster. Crayons. Cud-bear.


A New Supplement to the latest Pharmacopoeias of London, Edinburgh, Dublin, and Paris, Forming A Complete Dispendatory, Conspectus, and Dictionary of Medical Chemistry, Giving All the Old and New Names, Including the New French and American Medicines, and Poisons; with Symptoms, Treatment, and Tests; as Well As Herbs, Drugs, Compounds, Veterinary Drugs, With the Pharmacopoia of the Vetenary College, Nostrums, Patent Medicines, Perfumery, Paints, Varnishes, And similar articles kept in the Shops; With Their Compositions, Imitations, Adulterations, And Medicinal Uses, Being a General Book of Formulæ and Recipes For Daily Reference in the Laboratory and at the Counter.
Fourth edition, corrected, improved, and very much enlarged.
By James Rennie, M. A., Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Foreign Medicine; the Pharmacopeia Universalis; Author of a Conspectus of Prescriptions in Medicine, Surgery, and Midwifery; the Pharmacopeia Imperialis, &c. &c.
London: Baldwin and Cradock. 1837.
London: Thomas Curson Hansard, Paternoster Row.



CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS. Safflower or Bastard Saffron, the seeds and flowers of which are diuretic, cathartic, and aromatic. The flowers are the bases of vegetable rouge.

CATECHU. L. E. D. Catechu, or Japan Earth (Tera Japonica O.), an extract from the wood of the Acacia Catechu. It is very astringent, sweetish, and without smell. Incompatible with alkaline and metallic salts, and with gelatine. Medicinally it is employed to check diarrhoeas, dysentry, and hæmorrhages; also in relaxations, or atonic disorders of the primæ viæ, sponginess of the gums, &c. Dose, from gr. x to gr xx of the powder. It is also exhibited in form of tincture, infusion, and lozenge.

CATHARTIN. New. An alkaline substance found by MM. Lassaigne and Fenneulle in the pods and leaves of senna. It is solid, yellowish-brown, of a peculiar odour, and nauseously bitter. It is very soluble in all proportions in water and alcohol; but not at all in ether. On exposure to the air it becomes moist. Medicinally it has not yet been used.

CERATUM COERULEUM. Pharm. Leyd. Blue Cerate is made by takin z3iv of oxide of lead, which has been rendered white by rubbing it up alternately and gradually with vinegar and rose water, and melting it with z3iv of yellow wax, and Oss of olive oil, mixing the whole with z3iij of smalt.

CHALK FOR DRAWING is prepared by sawing into slips red or black chalk, and putting them into a pipkin with melted bees' wax, near a slow fire for half and hour; then take them out, and when they are cold they are fit for use.

CHLOROPHYLE. The green colouring matter of the leaves of plants.

CHROME YELLOW, used to paint gold colour, is prepared by heating a portion of chromate of iron with nitrate of potash, and mixing the ley with solution of diacetate of lead, forming chromate of lead, which, when good, will not effervesce with nitric acid.

CINNABAR. See HYDRARG. Bi-SULPH. L. It is a heavy mineral of a dark red colour, sometimes made artificially. In farriery it is given in half ounce doses in thickness-of-wind and coughs. Adulterated with red earths.

COCCI. Coccus Cacti. E. D. P. Cochineal, is the dried female insect, Coccus Cacti, a native of America. It has the appearance of a wrinkled seed of a dark mulberry tint, and is acrid, bitter, and astringent, with a slightly heavy smell. It is only used for colouring tinctures and making carmine. Incompatible with the sulphates of iron, zinc, and diacetate of lead, decompose the colour. Adulterated with paste formed in moulds, and tinged to resemble the genuine. This is detected by throwing a portion into water, when the dough will dissolve.

COURT PLASTER, or Black Sticking Plaster. Take z3ss of benzoin, and z3vj of rectified spirit, dissolve and strain; then take z3j of isinglass, and Oss of hot water, dissolve and strain separately from the former. Mix the two, and set them aside to cool, when a jelly will be formed; and this is warmed and brushed ten or twelve times over a piece of black silk, stretched smooth. When this is done enough, and dry, finish it with a solution of z3iv of Chian turpentine, in z3vj of tincture of benzoin.

CRAYONS, for drawing, are made by mixing a pint of boiling water with z3iij of spermaceti, lbj of finely-pulverised bone ashes, and as much of ochre or other colouring matter as may bring it to the required tint, roll the whole out into a paste, and cut it, when half dry, into pencils. Or, prepare the paste as before, and mix up with it fine clay, and evaporate on driers of plaster. Cochineal, and other pigments, are used to give the colours.

CUD-BEAR. A dye stuff procured from lichens. It is frequently adulterated, or rather imitated by Brazil-wood, mixed with stale urine, (HERMSTADT.)

21.3.12

A New Supplement...: Carmine.


A New Supplement to the latest Pharmacopoeias of London, Edinburgh, Dublin, and Paris, Forming A Complete Dispendatory, Conspectus, and Dictionary of Medical Chemistry, Giving All the Old and New Names, Including the New French and American Medicines, and Poisons; with Symptoms, Treatment, and Tests; as Well As Herbs, Drugs, Compounds, Veterinary Drugs, With the Pharmacopoia of the Vetenary College, Nostrums, Patent Medicines, Perfumery, Paints, Varnishes, And similar articles kept in the Shops; With Their Compositions, Imitations, Adulterations, And Medicinal Uses, Being a General Book of Formulæ and Recipes For Daily Reference in the Laboratory and at the Counter.
Fourth edition, corrected, improved, and very much enlarged.
By James Rennie, M. A., Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Foreign Medicine; the Pharmacopeia Universalis; Author of a Conspectus of Prescriptions in Medicine, Surgery, and Midwifery; the Pharmacopeia Imperialis, &c. &c.
London: Baldwin and Cradock. 1837.
London: Thomas Curson Hansard, Paternoster Row.


CARMINE. An exquisite red prepared from cochineal by several processes, some of them kept secret. Pour two quarts of distilled water into a copper pan, and when boiling add z3ij of the best grain cochnieal finely ground and sifted; boil it for six minutes, carefully stirring it the while. Then add 60 grains of fine Roman alum in powder, and boil three minutes longer, when it is set to cool; but while yeat a little warm decant the clear liquor, and strain through silk into porcelain dishes, and in four days decant and filter again into other dishes. The precipitate which has fallen down is then to be dried carefully in the shade, as it forms the finest carmine. The second deposition will not be so good. Adulterated with vermilion and red lead; but its merits may be known by its dissolving wholly in ammonia, and forming a deep pink colour. The finest is the lightest, and a good test is the filling of a very small thimble with the specimens, and weighing them comparatively.

20.3.12

A New Supplement...: C. Cautchouc varnish. Carbo... Carbonas plumbi. Cardamine.


A New Supplement to the latest Pharmacopoeias of London, Edinburgh, Dublin, and Paris, Forming A Complete Dispendatory, Conspectus, and Dictionary of Medical Chemistry, Giving All the Old and New Names, Including the New French and American Medicines, and Poisons; with Symptoms, Treatment, and Tests; as Well As Herbs, Drugs, Compounds, Veterinary Drugs, With the Pharmacopoia of the Vetenary College, Nostrums, Patent Medicines, Perfumery, Paints, Varnishes, And similar articles kept in the Shops; With Their Compositions, Imitations, Adulterations, And Medicinal Uses, Being a General Book of Formulæ and Recipes For Daily Reference in the Laboratory and at the Counter.
Fourth edition, corrected, improved, and very much enlarged.
By James Rennie, M. A., Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Foreign Medicine; the Pharmacopeia Universalis; Author of a Conspectus of Prescriptions in Medicine, Surgery, and Midwifery; the Pharmacopeia Imperialis, &c. &c.
London: Baldwin and Cradock. 1837.
London: Thomas Curson Hansard, Paternoster Row.


CAOUTCHOUC VARNISH is made by taking z3xvj each of elastic gum, boiled linseed oil, and spirit of turpentine, cutting with a wetted knife the caoutchouc into thin slips, liquifying them in a hot sandbath, and while boiling add the linseed oil, and then the turpentine, also warm. When nearly cool strain through linen, and keep in a wide-mouthed bottle. It has the inconvenience of being very tedious in drying. It is used for balloons.

CARBO ANIMALIS. L. Carbo ex carne et ossibus coctus. L. Animal charcoal, prepared from the flesh and bones of animals.

CARBO ANIMALIS PURIFICATUS. L. Purified Animal Charcoal. This is prepared by mixing ääz3xij of hydrochloric acid and of water, gradually pouring this upon lbj of animal charcoal, then digesting it fro two days in a gentle heat, and frequently shaking it. After it hasw settled, pour off the supernatant liquor andwash the charcoal with water, repeatedly changin it till there be no acid perceptible, then dry it.
The gelatine of the bone is only partially dissipated by the calcination in a vessel with a small aperture, and the substance produced is ivory black, much used in sugar refining for removing organic colours. The phosphate and carbonate of lime in the ivory black is removed by the hydrochloric acid. Used in preparing the new alkaloids such as veratria, &c. See IVORY BLACK. Chemically it ought to emit no bubbles when treated with hydrochloric acid, not give any precipitate with this acid on adding ammonia, or the sesqui-carbonate of ammonia.

CARBO LIGNI. L. E: D. Wood Charcoal. Burnt sponge, ivory black, and lamp black, as well as soot, are all a sort of charcoal, with other matters in combination. Medicinally charcoal is a strong antiseptic used for removing fetid smells, such as in old ulcers, decayed teeth, &c. The offensive eructations in dyspepsia, ptyalism, &c., are also partially removed by taking it internally, in doses of gr. x. to €j with rhubarb. It is said to be an antidote to arsenic. The best for tooth-powder is made from cocoa-nut shells.

CARBONAS PLUMBI. The Carbonate of Lead. Cerussa vera. O. Used as a pigment, but often adulterated. When pure, the solution of it in nitric acid will not be disturbed by sulphate of soda. Poisonous, similar to the sugar of lead. See PLUMBI ACETAS (poisonous).

CARDAMINE, L. Cardamine pratensis, flores. L. The flowers of Lady's Smock, or Cuckoo Flower. This herb, like other cresses, is a reputed antiscorbutic. The flowers are said to be a good antispasmodic in epilepsy and hysteria, in doses of €j to 3iij twice or thrice a day.

19.3.12

A New Supplement...: Gambogia


A New Supplement to the latest Pharmacopoeias of London, Edinburgh, Dublin, and Paris, Forming A Complete Dispendatory, Conspectus, and Dictionary of Medical Chemistry, Giving All the Old and New Names, Including the New French and American Medicines, and Poisons; with Symptoms, Treatment, and Tests; as Well As Herbs, Drugs, Compounds, Veterinary Drugs, With the Pharmacopoia of the Vetenary College, Nostrums, Patent Medicines, Perfumery, Paints, Varnishes, And similar articles kept in the Shops; With Their Compositions, Imitations, Adulterations, And Medicinal Uses, Being a General Book of Formulæ and Recipes For Daily Reference in the Laboratory and at the Counter.
Fourth edition, corrected, improved, and very much enlarged.
By James Rennie, M. A., Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Foreign Medicine; the Pharmacopeia Universalis; Author of a Conspectus of Prescriptions in Medicine, Surgery, and Midwifery; the Pharmacopeia Imperialis, &c. &c.
London: Baldwin and Cradock. 1837.
London: Thomas Curson Hansard, Paternoster Row.


CAMBOGIA. L. Gambogia. E. D. Gamboge, a gum resin produced from the Stalagmitis cambojioides, much like cherry-tree gum, almost tasteless, but acrid in the throat and fauces. It is brittle, opaque, and of a deep yellow, so as to be used as a pigment. Adulterated in the original preparation with inferior substances, and ought to be selected of a clear colour, and glassy fracture. Medicinally it is a drastic cathartic, and also emetic and vermifuge. It is used in dropsy, and for tape-worm, and in obstinato costiveness, and hydrocephalus. The dose is gr. ij to gr. vj of the powder, combined with chloride of mercury, jalap, aloes and other cathartics. For anasarca it is best to combine it with a solution of bicarbonate of potass. Poisonous, producing great heat and dryness of the mouth and throat, hypercarharsis and death. Cases often occur from taqking Morison's pills, the basis of which is gamboge. Treatment. Give enemata and copious draughts of barley water, and other bland fluids.

18.3.12

A New Supplement...: B. Badigeon. Battley's green senna powder. Bistre. Black... Blacking... Bleaching. Berhaave's astringent powder; red pill. Bole.


A New Supplement to the latest Pharmacopoeias of London, Edinburgh, Dublin, and Paris, Forming A Complete Dispendatory, Conspectus, and Dictionary of Medical Chemistry, Giving All the Old and New Names, Including the New French and American Medicines, and Poisons; with Symptoms, Treatment, and Tests; as Well As Herbs, Drugs, Compounds, Veterinary Drugs, With the Pharmacopoia of the Vetenary College, Nostrums, Patent Medicines, Perfumery, Paints, Varnishes, And similar articles kept in the Shops; With Their Compositions, Imitations, Adulterations, And Medicinal Uses, Being a General Book of Formulæ and Recipes For Daily Reference in the Laboratory and at the Counter.
Fourth edition, corrected, improved, and very much enlarged.
By James Rennie, M. A., Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Foreign Medicine; the Pharmacopeia Universalis; Author of a Conspectus of Prescriptions in Medicine, Surgery, and Midwifery; the Pharmacopeia Imperialis, &c. &c.
London: Baldwin and Cradock. 1837.
London: Thomas Curson Hansard, Paternoster Row.



BADIGEON. A preparation for colouring houses, prepared with sawdust, slaked lime, the powder of the stone with which the house is built, and a pound of alum dissolved in a bucket of water. A little ochre will give a deeper yellow colour.

BATTLEY'S GREEN SENNA POWDER, A nostrum, supposed to be senna leaves heated till they become yellow, and then mixed with powdered charcoal.

BISTRE. A composition used in painting as a fine brown colour, prepared from soot, of which that from beech wood is best. Put a quantity of this into water (2lbs to the gallon), and oil half an hour; let it then settle, and while it is still hot pour off the clearer liquor from the sediment, and evaporate to dryness.

BLACK DRAUGHT. A very popular and excellent purgative, prepared by dissolving 3ij of sulphate of magnesia in z3j of the infusion of senna; or in other similar proportions, to which a few drops of tincture of opium may be added to prevent griping.

BLACK DROP, or the Lancaster or Manchester black drop, or the Quaker's black drop. The following is the original receipt, published by Dr. Amstrong: Take lbss of opium sliced, and Oiij of good verjuice, z3jss of nutmegs, and z3ss of saffron. Boil to a proper thickness, then add lb¼ and two spoonfuls of yeast; set the whole in a warm place near the fire, for six or eight weeks, then in the open air, till it becomes a syrup, when it is to be decanted, filtered, and bottled up, with a little sugar added to each bottle. One drop equals three of the Tincture of Opium. L. Medicinally it is supposed to be less injurious than the common preparations of opium, not being followed by head-ache, &c.

BLACKING. Various receipts have been given for making shoe-blacking, among which the following are samples: Take z3ij each of treacle, and ivory black, z3iv or spermaceti oil, four pints of white wine vinegar; mix and preserve for use. Or, Take z3vj each of bone-black and treacle, z3ss of sulphuric acid and spermaceti or common oil, and one quart of common vinegar. First mix the acid and the oil, and then add the rest. If it does not dry quick enough, add more acid. See JAPAN BLACKING.

BLACKING CAKES are made by thoroughly mixing z3j of gum tragacanth, with z3ij each of neat's-fool oil, superfine ivory-black, and deep blue, prepared from iron and copper, and z3iv each of brown sugarcandy and river water. When mixed evaporate to a proper consistence.

BLACKING BALLS may be made in the same way; or melt together over a slow fire z3iv of mutton suet, z3j each of bees' wax and sweet oil, z3j each of sugar-candy and gum arabic, and add carefully, lest it take fire, a spoonful of turpentine, with lamp black enough to give it a good colour; pour the liquor when hot into tin moulds, and let it stand till cool enough to be worked into shape by the hand. See PASTE.

BLACK REVIVER. Boil Oij of water down to Oj, **z3ij of Aleppo galls, in powder, and logwood, z3j of gum arabic, then add z3j of sulphate of iron. This may be evaporated to a powder.

BLACK WASH. Rub together lbj of lime water and 3ij of chloride of mercury.

BLEACHING LIQUID. What is sold under this name is a solution of the chloride of lime, which is also kept in the market under the name of Bleaching Powder, Bleaching Salt, or Tennant's Salt. It is a deliquescent salt, of a sharp, bitter taste, soluble in alcohol. It is a chloride of lime (not of calcium) mixed with hydrate of lime. It is prepared by exposing thin layers of recently slaked lime in fine powder to an atmoshere of chlorine. Chlorate of potass prepared in a similar way is also sold under this name. The sulphuret of lime is also used in the same way, but is not so efficious. See EAU DE JAVELLE and CALX. CHLORINATA, L.

BERHAAVE'S ASTRINGENT POWDER for the ague, is prepared by mixing equal parts of alum, nutmeg, and Armenian bole.

BERHAAVE'S RED PILL, is prepared by mixing itnto a mass, with crumbs of bread, or mucilage, a portion of the bisulphuret of mercury, and dividing it into pills; or bichloride of mercury with oxysulphuret of antimony.

BOLE. A genus of earths, of which there are several species, and of which BOLUS ARMENIÆ, P. Armeniab bole, is the chief. It is astringent and desiccative, but is mostly used to colour ointments, such as the sulphur ointment. The boles are of a red or yellowish colour. Adulterated frequently with inferior materials. Boles should be chosen of a fine clear colour, particularly when they are to be used for paints, or for colouring medicinal preparations.

17.3.12

A New Supplement...: Antimoni oxy-sulphuretum.


A New Supplement to the latest Pharmacopoeias of London, Edinburgh, Dublin, and Paris, Forming A Complete Dispendatory, Conspectus, and Dictionary of Medical Chemistry, Giving All the Old and New Names, Including the New French and American Medicines, and Poisons; with Symptoms, Treatment, and Tests; as Well As Herbs, Drugs, Compounds, Veterinary Drugs, With the Pharmacopoia of the Vetenary College, Nostrums, Patent Medicines, Perfumery, Paints, Varnishes, And similar articles kept in the Shops; With Their Compositions, Imitations, Adulterations, And Medicinal Uses, Being a General Book of Formulæ and Recipes For Daily Reference in the Laboratory and at the Counter.
Fourth edition, corrected, improved, and very much enlarged.

By James Rennie, M. A., Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Foreign Medicine; the Pharmacopeia Universalis; Author of a Conspectus of Prescriptions in Medicine, Surgery, and Midwifery; the Pharmacopeia Imperialis, &c. &c.

London: Baldwin and Cradock. 1837.

London: Thomas Curson Hansard, Paternoster Row.




ANTIMONI OXY-SULPHURETUM. L. Oxy-sulphuret of Antimony. The Golden sulphur of antimony, and Kermes mineral, are much the same. Prepared by mixing --- of triturated sesqui sulphuret of antimony, Oic of solution of potass, and Oij of distilled water, boiling over a slow fire for three hours, constantly stirring it the while, and adding distilled water to keep up the measure. Then strain, and while it is warm add by degrees enough of diluted sulphuric acid to precipitate the powder of the oxy-sulphuret, which is to be washed free from sulphate of potass, and dried with a gentle heat. Decomposition. First, the potassium of the ooxide of potassium in the solution goes over to the sulphur, and sulphuret of potassium is formed with sesqui oxide of antimony and a portion of sesqui sulphuret not decomposed by the potass. Again, the sulphuric acid unites with potass, forming sulphate of potass in solution, the oxide and sulphuret of antimony being precipitated together. At the same time hydrosulphuric acid is formed, and passes off in form of gas by the hydrogen of the water combining with the sulphur of the sulphuret, while the oxyden of the water potass with the potassium, and this potass, with the sulphuric acid, forms sulphate of potass. Adulterated with chalk, sulphur, &c., and coloured with Venetian red. The genuine is of a bright orange colour, wholly vaporizable by heat, wholly soluble in nitrico-hydrochloric acid, and does not effervesce with acids. Medicinally it is alterative, diaphoretic, carthatic, or emetic, according to the dose, which is from gr. j. to gr. v. in obstinate cutaneous eruptions, hooping cough, rheumatism, and gout, given in any vehicle not containing acids or acidulous salts, e. g. conserve of roses; but is seldom employed.

16.3.12

A New Supplement...: A. Albumen. Album graecum. Alkanet root. Alum. Archel, archill. Aurum musivum.


A New Supplement to the latest Pharmacopoeias of London, Edinburgh, Dublin, and Paris, Forming A Complete Dispendatory, Conspectus, and Dictionary of Medical Chemistry, Giving All the Old and New Names, Including the New French and American Medicines, and Poisons; with Symptoms, Treatment, and Tests; as Well As Herbs, Drugs, Compounds, Veterinary Drugs, With the Pharmacopoia of the Vetenary College, Nostrums, Patent Medicines, Perfumery, Paints, Varnishes, And similar articles kept in the Shops; With Their Compositions, Imitations, Adulterations, And Medicinal Uses, Being a General Book of Formulæ and Recipes For Daily Reference in the Laboratory and at the Counter.
Fourth edition, corrected, improved, and very much enlarged.
By James Rennie, M. A., Editor of the Quarterly Journal of Foreign Medicine; the Pharmacopeia Universalis; Author of a Conspectus of Prescriptions in Medicine, Surgery, and Midwifery; the Pharmacopeia Imperialis, &c. &c.
London: Baldwin and Cradock. 1837.
London: Thomas Curson Hansard, Paternoster Row.


ALBUMEN, a chemical animal principle, found nearly pure in the white of eggs, which contains besides only a little water and free soda. It is nown by coagulating in hot water, and in solution of corrosive sublimate which will detect the 2,000th part in water.

ALBUM GRÆCUM. He white fæces of the dog from eating bones. It consists of lime and bone earth, with phosphoric acid. It was formerly used in medicine.

ALKANET ROOT. The root of Anchusa tinctoria, brought usually from France, but the best is from India. It should be kept in a dry place, and not much handled. It is used to colour hair-oils and lip-salves; and tends also to preserve them.

ALUM: Common alum is sold in lumps.  Roche alum is from Syria, and in small pieces, covered with a reddish efflorence, which is imitated in the case of common alum, by moistening it, and shaking it with armenian bole. Roman alum has both the reddish efflorescence, and the fracture is also reddish.

ARCHEL, or ARCHILL. A dye stuff prepared from various species of Lichens, as Lichen rocella, L. calcareus, L. parellus. The lumps are prepared by reducing the substance to powder, and mixing it with a portion of potass, lime, and stale urine. See LITMUS.

AURUM MUSIVUM is the bisulphuret of tin, procured by heating a mixture of sulphur and peroxide of tin in a close vessel.

15.3.12

M. Fortia: Travels in Sweden (kappaleita kirjasta A general collection of the best and most interesting voyages)


Kappaleita teoksesta:

A general collection of the best and most interesting voyages and travels in all parts of the world; many of which are now first translated into English

Digested on a new plan.
By John Pinkerton,
Author of Modern Geography, &c., &c
Illustrated with plates.
Volume the sixth.
London:
Printed for Longman, Hurst,  Rees, and Orme, Paternoster-Row; and Cadell and Davies, in the Strand.
1809.



CHAP. V. - Learned Men. - Artists. - Cabinets of Individuals.
[---]

Mr. Swartz is the director of the King's cabinet of natural history at Drotningholm: although very young, he has yet travelled a great deal, and has added considerably to the knowledge of mosses, which has been his principal stury; he possesses the most perfect collection of them in existence: he has published a work entitled, Nova genera et species Plantarum, seu prodromus descriptionum Vegetabilium, in maximam partem incognitorum, quæ sub itinere in Indiam Occidentalem, annis 1783-87, divenit Olaff Swartz: M. D. Holmiæ, 1788. He has specified more than three hundred sorts of  lichen, one hundred and thirty of which only are described by Linnæus. A small number is peculiar to Sweden, no more than five or six. Vulpinus, a kind of moss found in Finland; the country people make use of it to poison wolves; it is found in Sweden alone, and yields a very pretty green colour. Tartareus, a moss which the English formerly purchased to extract a dye: a manufactory thereof has been actually established at Stockholm. Impressus, a new species, found hitherto no where but in Sweden, gives a red colour. Mr. Vestring, a doctor of physic at Norkoeuping in Ostrogothia, has made a number of experiments on the colouring principles of moss; he is shortly to give a dissertation of the result of his researches, which will be read at the Academy of Sciences. Already from different mosses the following colours have been extracted; yellow, red, and green of different shades, brown, black, and violet. Hitherto none has been discovered that have given blue, which appears a difficult matter to find. Mr. Swartz imagines, dyes among them may be found capable of vieing in brilliancy with cochineal; experimetns tried on silk and wool have succeeded, but not with cotton. The raugiserinus, & islandicus proboscidens serve for food. The Laplanders eat the raugiferinus boiled in water and milk; it is excellent for phthsicky coughs and consumption. Mr. Swartz brought with him from the West Indies more than a thousand new plants, the description of which may be seen in his work; he met with the same kind of moss in Jamaica, that serves as food for rein deer, which is rather singular.

[---]

CHAP. VIII. - Manufactories and Manufactures. - Merchants. - Workmen.

[---]

Cloth manufactory. We saw that of Mr. Hebbé adjoining the Dannwiken. This is not the most considerable, Mr. Barkins having more than forty looms, Mr. Hebbé no more than thirteen; each of which produces annually sixteen pieces of cloth, from eighty to ninety ells in length. The dearest cloth they manufacture is blue; it costs 3 dollars the ell; fine cloth, in other colours, from 2 dollars, 15 skillings, to 8 plotts; common cloth from 4½ plotts to 7; striped woollen cloth from 7½ plotts to 8; soldiers cloth 40 to 42 skillings: the credit three months. IN every manufactory there is a certain number of looms used for making of cloth for the troops on account of the crown: the cloth is dyed on the premises. Those emnployed in winding and twisting in the manufactory earn at most but 5 or 6 plotts in a week, working very hard: the spinners earn a great deal, in gaining a plott. All hands counted, three hundred persons find employment here. The fine cloths are sometimes eleven quarters wide, but the common breadth is nine quarters. The wool is imported from Poland and Holland; it costs five dollars the lispund, and loses 15 per cent. in washing. Spanish wool, according to the current price, (1791,) costs from 22 to 24 copper-dollars, and loses 16 to 20 per cent. on account of its being more carefully washed. The wool of the country is at 24, 28, and 32 skillings.

Manufactory of Colours. For a long time the English carried on a considerable traffic for mosses, at Gottenburgh, produced in abundance in that part of Sweden: people were at a loss to know what use they could be put to; at length it was discovered, that they extracted from them colours for dyeing: the Count de Ruuth, then minister of finance, resolved on supplanting the English in this commerce, and enriching his own country by the acquisition: he in consequence induced the King to make experiments, which ended in the doundation of the establishment in question, entirely upon the royal account. The greatest part of the moss called lichen Tartareus, comes from Marstrand and its environs: when dry, it is put under a large wheel with stone edges, after having been ground by it into tolerably small dust, it is thrown into large wooden tubs, with lime, urine, and other ingredients which remain a secret. The mixture remains in there for six months, during which it is stirred every day; by degrees it thickens, the watery particles evaporate, and it becomes at first thick as mud, and afterwardsof the consistence of the marle of grapes; as soon as arrived to this state, it is cut into small pieces, and exposed to dry in a large covered apartment. When dried and hardened, it is pounded in mortars, reduced to a very fine powder, and packed in casks. It is not intended that the sale of it shall begin until 150,000 pounds weight shall have been prepared.  It is reckoned, it will obtain five rix-dollars 26 skillings the lispund (eightreen and a half poun is English). A number of experiments have been made with it on woollen cloths, which have perfectly succeeded: the finest colours yet extracted are a violet, a flaxen grey, (gris de lin,) and a plumb colour (prune de Monsieur). This manufactory employes no more than five or six hands. The warehouse is very extensive. There are a considerable number of tubs, and an immense stock of urine.  The moss is stirred about in the tubs with large sticks, formed at the end in shape of an oar. When we saw this manufactory, permission from Count Ruuth was requisite; but the secred assuredly cannot long remain such.

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CHAP. XII. -Journey to the Mines; Sahla; Asvestad; Sater; Ornes; Fahlun; Mora; Elsfal; Quarries of Porphyry. - Dalecarlians. - Gesle. - Cataract of Elsscarleby. - Suderfors.

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You begin to smell the sulphur at a pretty considerable distance from Fahlun: there we arrived in the middle of the night, and from the number of open furnaces burning for the urpose of grilling the ore, these seemed to us a general conflagration. The mist over the mouth of the mine is very thick; the road runs by it and even under the spouts of the pumps.

Fahlun, the capital of Dalecarlia, is a town of no great size, containing but four thousand inhabitants. Its charter is dated 30th October, 1641: it possessed charters of earlier date, that is to say 1608 and 1624, but these were granted, principally that trials might be made, and have been amended in the charter first mentioned. The church buil in 1650, is covered with copper, which covering has already been renewed three times.

The traveller, if he be provident, will write beforehand to some merchant in order to procure lodging, (a number of people let apartments at so much per diem,) for owing to the small number of strangers who visit this place, there is but one inn in the square near the church, which it is true is a tolerably good one, but which may perchance be full, as we found the case. The only object of curiosity in this town is the copper mine and its pertinences: these certainly recomse you for your trouble, which on our part we were no ways disposed to regret.

The famous mine of Kopparberg is at the distance of five hundred toises from the town: its origin is unknown; its most ancient existing charter is that of Magnus Smek, in 1347, which ascertains that there were anterior characters. At different periods it has experienced damage, the falling in of parts of it in 1789, lasted for two days. The greatest depth of the mine (in 1791,) was one hundred and eighty.nine fathoms. The main shaft, the depth of which is forty, included in the one hundred and eighty-nine, and which the last fall has somewhat diminished, is two hundred fathoms long by one hundred and twenty broad; you descend to this by a wooden staircase formed on the rock, and at the extremity of this large opening you find the entrance into the mine: perhaps there is none in the world the descent of which is less fatiguing; it has staircases the whole way to the bottom,l the last twelve fathoms excepted, down which you go by an iron ladder; this is the most unpleasant part of the descent, or rather the only one that is at all so, it conducts you to the deepest part called Armfeldt's bole. The staircases are so convenient that even the horses employed in the mine, twenty-two in number, go up and come down them; but when by any extraordinary accident the staircases become impassable, they are let down the great pits by means of cords, in a species of harness made on purpose (for the Christmas review.) Some years ago the new staircases not being yet compleat and the old one being unfit for longer service, they were drawn up and let down constantly in this manner. The following are the different galleries you dinf in going over the mine, and their depths from the summit of the staircase of the great opening: the gallery of  Bonde forty-two fathoms. Of Tilas forty-three. A small gallery at present abandoned, owing to the fall of the roof in 1789; the vault now encreases in size as you arrive at the staircase of Gustavus III; a dirty road with a little streamlet: the vaults are six feet high and from four to five broad. The gallery of Sophia Albertine, sixty-five fathoms. The gallery of Prince Charles, seventy-two: vaults of masonry. The gallery of the Flotte, eighty-eight: here you distinguish a vitriolic smell proceeding from a communication with the shaft of Gustavus Adolphus; here is a forge, a furnace, and an anvil. The gallery of Mars, one hundred; here you feel a smart breeze, and are offended by a very disagreeable smell. The North gallery one hundred and nine. The gallery of Prince Gustavus one hundred and nine; they are at work in this at present. The Brother one hundred and ten. Rolamb one hundrend and ten; a large vault where they are now at work, they have supported the roof by means of scantling, and at present are compleating the boarding, having removed the cords. The Hall of Council one hundred and eighteen; here you find tables and a chandelier, here it was the King stopped and write his name in 1788, on the 20th of September, on some pyrites found in the mine, which is framed and glazed. He descended into the mine also in 1755 and 1768. Here as you ascend it is customary to take refreshment, which we were enable to do through the civil provision of Mr. Gahn. The gallery of the Crown one hundred and eighteen; this has a communication with King Frederic's shaft. The Cross, one hundred and twenty-three, has a very handsome vault, in which there were men at work; this is the bottom of Frederic Adolphus's shaft; here we saw the ore transported on poles fastened together, and laid on a carriage with six wheels, two of which are under the load. The gallery of the Polar Star one hundred and forty-nine. Of Stierncrona one hundred and eighty-two: the appearance of this pit is very curious; its machinery is worked by horses. A distance beneath is a communication with the previously mentioned pit. The gallery Frä one hundred and fifty seven fathoms deep, communicates with the pit Stierncrona: a machine worked by a horse, with a furnace and anvil. The gallery of the Cavalier one hundred and fifty-eight fathoms. Leyenmarck one hundred and sixty-eight. Baron Armfeldt one hundred and seventy-three. Grefve galerie one hundred and sixty-eight. At the extremity you come to the iron ladder which leads to Armfeldt's bole. The earth of the mine is not a mineral earth; the whole of the ore is concentrated in one spot not in vein, but metallic masses; that upon which they are at present at work is imagined to be of conic form, notwithstanding the opposite assertion of Mr. Jars, in his metallurgical travels, a work in many respects deservedly esteemed, yet which at the same time is not exempt from errors. Of pyrites that answer the magnet, found in the mine, there is none but that of a greyish cast, nor of any other description but the greenish and the whitish yellow; the first of these two contains copper alone, in the proportion of from 24 to 30 per cent; and on the proportionate mixture of these three pyrites, is that the richness of the ore depends. The lefver slag, or greyishpyrites (mispresented by Mr. Jars as reddish,) never contains any copper.

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The ore of Fahlun is poor, it was much richer formerly. In the seventeenth century the produce of the mine exceeded twenty thousand schippunds: at present the ore yields no more than two per cent. of metal. The great mine has four wells by which the ore is drawn up, that of Adolphus Frederik, that of King Frederic, that of the Count de Creutz, one hundred and twelve toises deep, and that of Count Wrede. The second is one hundred and twenty toises deep. There are six tubs, two hydraulic engines, and one for the pumps. The machines for raising the ore are nine in number. The great mine is divided into five districts, which are to be reduced to three. Each district has wtwo inspectors at a salary of 100 rix-dollars. The great mine and the free mines, (that is to say those which belong to individuals, and pay no duty to the crown) are united, (the second paragraph, page fory.six, of the work of Mr. Jars is untrue.) The cord used for the well of King Frederic, weighs seven schippunds: it might be better made. The workmen are prohibited descending by the means of the tubs, the vitriolic liquid eating the cords, and even the iron chains; the fist are of leather and last about a year. Last year (1790) two hundred schippunds of lead were extracted from the mine, eight hundred marks of silver (the first trial), and two hundred ducats value of gold.

The ore which contains silver is heated in a reverberating furnace, in which by the action of the blast-pipe on the fire that lead calcines and becomes litharge; the silfver when fused falling on the ashes of which the crucible is made.

The mine is divided into one thousand two hundred shares for the interior work alone; the price of a share of late years has been from 166 to 190 rix-dollars.

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Vitriol manufactory. In 1775, by private contract, a privilege was granted to three persons to make vitriol; the water from the mine is received in a reservoir, and thence conducted by a canal to fix compartments, made on a very high wooden scaffold, on hundred and twenty-eight feet long; these canals have number of holes on each side to admit the water to drop over faggots of three feet breadth, some lying and others erect, made of birch for want of orher wood; sixty-six cocks let out the water into the six compartments of the canal, which is about two feet broad from one extremity to the other, perhaps an inch more at the entrance of the first compartment; this slight increase of breadth, however, we conceive, has been accidental, although the size of the compartments might be less by degrees since the volume of water decreases. The water is then let into the first compartment, whence it falls into another reservoir, through the chinks; it is carried back into the second, whence it drops again into the third reservoir, and so on to the sixth, when it is plain it will deposit most of vitriolic matter, the quantity encreasing at every fresh exudation. The specific gravity of the water being 1280, on coming from the mine is reduced after the graduation to 1250, or at most 1260. In winter the works are suspended. After this operation it is put into leaden boilers with iron, to precipitate the copper, and saturate the acidity of the vitriol, where the water is evaporated for the space of twelve or thirteen hours, thence it is conveyed into basons to clarify, in which it deposits its sediment: to prevent the too sudden cooling of the matter, these basons are made of wood coated with clay, and are covered with planks; in these it remains from six to twelve or twenty.four hours, according to the gravity of the water; from these basons it runs by means of spouts into others to crystallize, wherein it is suffered to remain fourteen days, at the expiration of which the vitriol remains at the bottom, on the sides, and adhering to sticks placed in the basons; if any sediment yet remains it is heated anew; the crystals are laid on an inclined plain for the water to escape; the lye or first matter which is not crystallized is poured into a well apart, whence it is taken to be heated again with fresh lye. In order to dry the crystals they are laid on shelves of four stories, and in two or three days, according to the season, it is effected; the quantity of vitriol annually made is eight hundred schippunds, which fell at Stockholm for three rix-dollalrs, thirty-two schillings, per schippund.

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 Red colour. To make this they begin with washing the earth, which is afterwards baked in an oven for twelve hours; with this they paint their houses, mixing with it a small quantity of vitriolic water, mixed with flour and boiling water, which is the most general practise, or mingle with it oil of flax, which is a more expensive mode; it is also mixed with boiling vitriolic water, and a little pitch, or with pitch alone for painting the foors and roofs: with pitch and oil of turpentine, or oil of turpentine alone; this colour preserves wood from rotting from the generation of moss, &c. it  costs two rix-dollars the ton, of eleven lispunds Viet; a thousand tons it are annually sent to Stockholm.

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14.3.12

Varovaisuutta leikkikaluja ostettaessa ja käytettäessä.

Suomen terveydenhoito-lehti 4, 1899

Lienee paikallaan huomauttaa muutamien leikkikalujen vaarallisuutta. Ne voivat olla lapsille vaarallisia sekä värinsä, muotonsa että muiden ominaisuuksiensa kautta.

Karamellitehtailijoilta on kielletty värjätä vaarallisia makeisiaan metalliväreillä. Mutta leikkikalujen ja värikakkujen suhteen ei voida noudattaa sellaista kieltoa. Vaaralliset metallivärit ovat sekä halvemmat että koreammat kuin vaarattomat kasvivärit. Ne ovatkin päässeet laajaan käytäntöön.

Japanilaiset puu- ja paperikalut, kuten varjostimet, viuhkat y. m. s. ovat varsinkin usein maalatut arsenikkipitoisilla väreillä. Kun nämä ovat päältä lakeeratut, niin ei niiden tosin pitäisi olla vaarallisia, ennenkuin ne murtuvat. Mutta lapset saavat pian värin irti varsinkin semmoisista kaluista, joita he pureksivat. - Lyijyä on usein keltaisissa väreissä, niinkuin kromikeltaisessa, sitroonakeltaisessa, keisarikeltaisessa, pariisinkeltaisessa. Mutta lyijy on, kuten tunnettu, varsin myrkyllistä, jos sitä suuremmassa määrässä tai pitemmän ajan kuluessa tulee ruumiiseen. - Kuparisuoloja on myös muutamissa väreissä, eikä näitä silloin voi ensikään pitää vaarattomina.

Siis ei saa antaa lasten pureksia koreavärisiä leikkikaluja, varsinkaan japanilaisia.

Kauniiden käärepaperien tehtailijat tunnustavat myös, että nämä usein värjätään vaarallisilla väreillä. Vuonna 1891 tutkittiin Mynchenin kuninkaallisessa tarkastuslaitoksessa 181 käärepaperin näytettä. Näistä huomattiin 32 värjätyiksi arsenikkipitoisilla kupariväreillä, useimmin n. k. Schweinfurtervihreällä. Vuonna 1892 huomattiin 14% samassa paikassa tutkituista käärepapereista myrkyllisiksi. Kun sellaista koreaa paperia käytetään myös karamellien käärepaperina, niin on katsottava, etteivät lapset pureksi karamellipaperia. Voihan sattua, että lapset käärepaperista tekevät purusuttia.

Erittäin varovainen täytyy myös olla gummikalujen suhteen. Harmaissa gummi-esineissä on lyijyä ja sinkkioksiidia. Tämän voi näyttää toteen esineiden painon nojalla. Gummi semmosenaan on keveätä, mutta mainittujen metallien sekoittumisesta se tulee raskaaksi. Sekoittamaton gummi pysyy veden päällä, mutta metallisuolojen sekainen painuu pohjaan. Läpeensä värjätyistä gummitavaroista ovat mustat useimmin vaarattomia, sillä ne ovat noella värjätyt. Samoin voi sanoa niistä, jotka ovat läpeensä punaiset tai ruskeat, sillä ne ovat värjätyt rikkiantimonilla, joka ei liukene sylkeen.

Mutta sitäpaitsi on kaupassa, varsinkin leikkikalukaupoissa joukko gummitavaroita, jotka ovat päällystetyt koreilla, myrkyllisillä, lyijyä, sinkkiä ja elohopeaa sisältävillä väreillä (lyijyvalkoisella, sinkkivalkoisella, kromikeltaisella, sinoberilla). Kun lapset pureksivat sellaisia tavaroita, saavat he helposti väriä sisäänsä.

Gummitavaroita ostaessa voi siis muistaa seuraavia käytännöllisiä sääntöjä: 1) gummi, joka pysyy veden päällä, on yleensä vaaratonta, koska se on vapaa  metallisekoituksista; 2) mustaksi värjätyt gummitavarat ovat vaarattomat, koska ne ovat noella värjätyt, elleivät ne vedessä painu pohjaan, jolloin ne voivat sisältää muita vieraita sekoituksia; 3) läpeensä punainen tai ruskea gummi on vaaraton; 4) väri-aineilla päällystetyt gummitavarat ovat usein vaarallisia, koska niihin usein käytetään myrkyllisiä värejä.

Värilaatikot voivat tietysti sisältää myrkyllisiä värejä, jonka vuoksi lapset eivät saa kostuttaa värejä kielellänsä niitä käyttäessään.

Muuten voivat tietysti kaikki terävät aseet olla vaarallisia lapsille, jotka eivät vielä ole oppineet käyttämään sellaisia. Erittäin vaarallisia ovat lasitavarat, jotka voivat murtua ja levittää lasimurusia; nämät ovat aina vaikeat saada ulos ihosta, jos pääsevät siihen tunkeutumaan. - Vaarallisimpia vammoja lapset kuitenkin tekevät itselleen nalleilla, ruudilla ja muilla räjähtävillä aineilla. Nallinsirpaleet, räjähtävät pyssyt, leikkitykit y. m. s. ovat puhkaisseet monta lapsensilmää sokeiksi koko elinajaksi. - Ilman  räjähdysaineitakin käytettävät ampuma-aseet, niinkuin ilmapyssyt, voivat varomattomasti käytettäessä vahingoittaa sen silmiä, joka joutuu nuolen tielle.  Näöltään jotenkin vaaraton leikki-ase on putkipyssy, jonka läpi höyhenellä varustettu nuoli puhalletaan. On kuitenkin sattunut, että lapsi on ymmärtämättömyydessään imenyt sen sijaan että olisi puhaltanut sellaiseen putkeen ja siten saanut nuolen höyhenineen suuhunsa, vieläpä syvälle kurkkuunsa.

Useilla pikku lapsilla on suuri taipumus pistää leikkikalunsa sieraimeensa tai korvaansa. Parasta on sentähden, että heidän leikkikalunsa ovat niin suuria, etteivät ne mahdu näihin aukkoihin. - Imevät lapset panevat mielellään kaikki suuhunsa. Heidän helynsä ja muiden leikkiaseittensa tulee siis olla sen mukaan sovitettuja ja niin suuria, ettei niitä voi yrittääkkään nielemään.

Kaikkia leikkikaluja ostettaessa tulee ottaa huomioon lapsen ikä, ymmärrys ja luonne, niin että leikkikalut tulevat sen mukaan. Mikä toiselle sopii, se ei aina sovi toiselle.

Hälsovännen (T.ri V— d).

The Art of Weaving, by Hand and by Power, With an Introductory Account of its Rise and Progress in Ancient and Modern Times for the Use of Manufacturers and Others.

By Clinton G. Gilroy, practical weaver and manufacturer.
General subjects of this work.
Illustrated by appropriate engravings
New York: George D. Baldwin, 35 Spruce Street.
1844.

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SECTION FIFTH. Figured Weaving:
Design and Colouring — Ornamental Drawing  — Harmonious Colouring — Design Paper — Designing Patterns —  Comb Draw Loom

Design and Colouring

"Learn hence to paint the parts that meet the view
In spheroid forms, of light and equal hue:
While from the light receding or the eye,
The working outlines take a fainter dye,
Lost and confused progressively they fade,
Not fall precipitate from light to shade;
This nature dictates, and this taste pursues,
Studious in gradual gloom her lights to lose,
The various whole with softening tints to fill,
As if one single head employed her skill."

- Du Fresnoy.

Mr. Smith, one of the principal silk merchants in London, stated in his evidence before a committee of the House of Commons, that in fancy silks the superiority of the patterns in French fabrics, occasioned the sales to be in the proportion of one half or more over the English; that in fancy ribbands, three-fourths of those sold were of French manufacture, and obtained public favour solely on account of superior design.

James Skene, Esq., of Rubislaw, secretary to the Board of Trustees for the encouragement of manufactures in Scotland, says, "It appears to me that one thing in which the British manufacturer is most deficient is, a knowledge of colours. At present, as far as my acquaintance with manufactures goes, I believe they copy their patterns entirely from France; in doing which, if they introduce any alteration, they often spoil them; and we know quite well that any deviation from the regular established and fixed rules to harmonize colours, produces the same effect to the eye, as any deviation in music from the harmony of notes: and, in placing our manufactures or fancy goods, along with French fancy articles of the same nature, it has often struck me as a remarkable circumstance, to see how very little those rules, which are exceedingly simple, are attended to in the English copies."

Mr. Crabb, a designer of paper hangings in London, states, that the designs of the French room papers are superior in accuracy of drawing to those of the English: and that the colours are arranged upon some fixed principle by the French artisan: while in Great Britain, the workmen, not being sufficiently instructed, labours more at random until he obtains the effect he wishes, and this may be as often wrong as right.

Charles Tophs, Esq., a vice president of the London Mechanics' Institute, and one of the directors of the Museum of National Manufactures, says, 'Many important branches of manufacture call for careful cultivation of the eye, for the purpose of arranging, assorting, and contrasting colours; which as an affair of taste, calls for some portion of a painter's education." And he adds, "whatever partakes of the nature of ornament, will only be appreciated in a refined eye, as it is characterised by grace and elegance of design; and by delicacy and precision of execution."

It is no doubt true, that the cultivation of the fine arts will, in course of tune, improve the perception and taste of a nation, from the highest to the lowest grades of society; this is, however, the work of ages: but the present state of our American manufacturers demands an immediate improvement in this particular.

We believe this want of ornamental designers to arise as much from the nature of the instruction given, as from the want of opportunities afforded for study. It is seldom that the young men who are admitted to our drawing academies, consider their studies as merely intended to unprove them in the useful arts to which they may be bred. They almost always imbibe the idea of rising into a higher sphere, and seem to have no other ulterior object in their studies, than to leave their humble calling, at the conclusion of their apprenticeship, and become artists.

We speak from particular facts which have come under our observation.

Many an industrious young man, of ordinary talent, but possessing sufficient to have raised him to the head of ornamental painting, we have known to sacrifice himself to a life of penury and neglect, from this vain idea.

Various reasons may be assigned for the prevalence of this mania among young men who have had opportunities of studying the art of drawing: the flattery of their friends; injudicious patronage; the desire to become, by the quickest and easiest means, a gentleman; and many others, over which no national institution can have any control.

The most prominent cause, however, seems to be, that nothing is reckoned a work of art unless it be a picture. No matter how superior an ornamental design may be, or how much study or knowledge may have been required to produce it, still the production of such, although it may increase the wealth of the individual, cannot raise him one step in the scale of society; he is only a mechanic in the eyes of the public.

On the other hand, no sooner does the youth lay aside his useful implements, and dash off upon canvass something like a landscape, often with no eye to nature, but in servile imitation to some popular painter, than he seems to be by common consent raised to the dignity of artist. In short, those branches of the fine arts that are applicable to manufacture and other departments of useful industry, do not obtain in the United States that relative situation to the more intellectual and higher branches, to which they are fairly entitled. The case is different in Italy, for in the Academy of the Fine Arts at "Venice there are distinct professors in the following departments of art: Architecture, Painting, Sculpture, Engraving, Perspective, and Ornament, and that in this latter branch the pupils are so numerous that the professor requires an assistant. Their examples are not only the best ornamental models of antiquity, but fruit, flowers and foliage. Every fifteen days they are required each to make an original design within a given number of hours, precautions being taken to prevent deception; and, according to its merits, advancement and preference are bestowed.

A learned writer states that "the town of Lyons is so conscious of the value of such studies that it contributes 20.000 francs per annum to the government establishment of the school of arts, which takes charge of every youth who shows an aptitude for drawing or imitative design, of any kind applicable to manufactures. Hence, all the eminent painters, sculptors, even botanists and florists of Lyons, become eventually associated with the staple trade, and devote to it their happiest conceptions."

The Chinese seem to surpass all others in directing the studies of their youth distinctly to their ulterior object.

A writer on painting, in "Arnold's Library of the Fine Arts," mentions having seen, in the city of Pekin[g], a drawing book with progressive examples, where the separate character of land and water, rock and foliage, are given in perfect detail; and to these were added implements of various kinds, with figures, separate and in groups, all highly picturesque; and adds, that the objects of all these preparatory studies of the pupil was to enable him to paint a fan, which was the last example given.

We feel quite assured that were a similar course followed in our American Academies, a sufficient portion of that genius which at present seems to be all flowing into one channel, would, like a mill race taken from a river, be directed from that which is merely ornamental to that which is essentially useful and beneficial to the country. Art would not suffer from this, on the contrary, where real genius was discovered the facilities for encouraging it would be much greater: and we should have less of that misapplied and often selfish sort of patronage which fosters ordinary talent until it is fictitiously raised to where it cannot stand, and is then by the desertion of such injudicious patrons allowed to fall far below its own natural level.

We have attributed selfishness to some of these pretended patrons of art, for we know that they are often actuated by that feeling.

They cannot bring their minds to encourage those who have really proved themselves to possess the qualities which constitute the real artist; the works of such are too expensive, because their real value is known. Their proteges are the undeveloped, and they procure the early attempts of such for a mere pittance. They calculate that these embryo artists are all to be Rubenses in their day, and that their early productions will, like those of such great men, consequently become highly valuable. In many cases too injudicious patronage is the means of fostering mediocrity, which, assisted by other circumstances, is sustained in a situation injurious to true art. This is well known and much lamented among artists themselves, we mean such as really deserve the name; hence the necessity of national institutions, where merit alone will receive patronage, and be honoured by the approbation of those who are most capable to be its judges.

But, to return to our subject,— notwithstanding the superabundance of mediocre artists, it must be admitted, that there is a want of proper instruction in the art of drawing where it would be of most service; namely, in the populous manufacturing districts; and as this book, being adapted to the improvement of manufactures, may probably find its way into these quarters, we shall add a few hints  for the assistance of such as wish to commence this pleasing and useful study, and who may not have had any previous instructions. The best kind of study to begin with, for those who intend to direct their attention merely to ornamental designs for manufactures, is that of flowers and foliage. When they are perfect in that branch, they may then soar higher if they please. It is the fault of most students of drawing to begin at the wrong end of their studies, by attempting difficult subjects before they are capable of drawing a single correct line, (it is for a similar reason that we have given in this work so thorough an analysis of plain weaving) and this want of knowledge of the first elements generally sticks to them trough life; for, in very few instances do those who neglect the attainment of such knowledge at the outset ever descend to the drudgery of doing so afterwards.   


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Harmonious Colouring.

Harmonious arrangements of colours are such combinations as by certain principles of our nature produce an effect on the eye similar to that which is produced by harmonious music on the ear; and a remarkable conformity exists between the science of colour and that of sound in their fundamental principles, as well as in their effects.

It is well known to all who have studied music, that there are three fundamental notes, viz. C, E, and G, which compose the common chord or harmonic triad; and that they are the foundation of all harmony. So there are, also, three fundamental colours, the lowest number capable of uniting in variety, harmony or system.

By the combination of any two of these primary colours a secondary colour of a distinct kind is produced; and as only one absolutely distinct denomination of colour can arise from a combination of the three primaries, the full number of really distinct colours is seven, corresponding to the seven notes in the complete scale of the musician. Each of these colours is capable of forming an archus or key for an arrangement to which all the other colours introduced must refer subordinately. This reference and subordination to one particular colour, as is the case m regard to the key note in musical composition, gives a character to the whole.

This characteristic of an arrangement of colour is generally called its tone; but, this tone is more applicable to individual hues, as it is in music to voices and instruments alone. The colourist, like the musician, notwithstanding the extreme simplicity of the fundamental principles upon which his art is founded, has ample scope for the production of originality and beauty, in the various combinations and arrangements of his materials.

The three homogeneous colours, yellow, red, and blue, have been proved by Field in the most satisfactory manner to be in numerical proportional power as follows: yellow three, red five, and blue eight.

When these three colours are reflected from any opaque body in these proportions, white is produced. They are then in an active state, but each neutralized by the relative effect that the others have upon it. When they are absorbed in the same proportions they are in a passive state, and black is the result. When transmitted through any transparent body the effect is the same, but in the first case they are material or inherent, and in the second impalpable or transient.

From the combination of the primary colours the secondary arise, and are orange, which is composed of yellow and red in the proportion of three and five; purple, which is composed of red and blue in the proportion of five and eight; and green, composed of yellow and blue in the proportion of three and eight. These are called the accidental or contrasting colours to the primaries with which they produce harmony in opposition, in the same manner in which it is effected in music by accompaniment, the orange with the blue, the purple with the yellow, and the green with the red. They are therefore concords in the musical relation of fourths, neutralizing each other at sixteen. From the combination of these secondaries arise the tertiaries, which are also three in number, as follows: olive, from the mixture of the purple and green; citron from the mixture of orange and purple; and russet from the mixture of green and orange. These three colours, however, like the compounds produced by their admixture, may be reckoned under the general denomination of neutral hues, as they are all formed by a mixture of the same ingredients, the three primaries, which always less or more neutralize each other in triunity; the most neutral of them all being grey, the mean between black and white, as any of the secondaries are between two primaries, it may appropriately be termed the seventh colour. These tertiaries, however, stand in the same relation to the secondaries that the secondaries do to the primaries, olive to orange, citron to purple, and russet to green: and their proportion will be found to be in the same accordance, and neutralizing each other integrally as 32.

Out of the tertiaries arise a series of other colours, such as brown, marone, slate, &.c. in an incalculable gradation, until they arrive in a perfect neutrality in black. To all of these the same rules of contrast are equally applicable.

Besides this relation of contrast in opposition, colours have a relation in series, which is their melody. This melody or harmony of succession is found in all the natural phenomena of colour. Each colour on the prismatic spectrum and in the rainbow is melodized by the two compounds which it forms with the other two primaries. For instance, the yellow is melodized by the orange on the one side and the green on the other, the blue by the green and purple, and the red by the purple and orange. Field, in his excellent essay on the "Analogy and Harmony of Colours," has shown these coincidences by a diagram, in which he has accommodated the chromatic scale of the colourist to the diatonic scale of the musician; showing that the concords and discords are also singularly coincident.

An eminent writer on the fine arts observes, that colouring, like sound in music or poetry, should be an echo to the sense; and according to the general sentiment the subject should inspire, it will be gay, lively, sombre or solemn.

By keeping these observations in view, the pattern drawer will have an extensive field for the display of his judgment and taste, in the selection and arrangement of the harmonizing and contrasting colours, especially if he examines attentively, the order in which nature commonly disposes them. Thus, for example, in the centre of a red rose he will find a yellow tint blended with the orange hue of the stamens, while the petals or leaves of the flower are red. These tints, agreeably to the principles of which we have been treating, are harmonizing colours; while the calyx or cup, which comes in contact with the petals, as well as the other parts of the shrub are green, the natural contrasting colour of red. Examples of the contrasting colours on flowers will be found in some species of the violet, the wall flower, and many other productions of the flower garden.

In the finest specimens of Persian and Turkish carpets, the deep tones of indigo and brown predominate, while the bright hues and tints only appear in detail, and heighten the effect of the pattern.

* The Laws of Harmonious Colouring. By D. R. Hay: W. S. Orr. 1838. For the majority of the foregoing observations on design and colouring, we are indebted to Mr. Hay's work on colour* the best and cheapest practical work on the subject, and one which to the professional man and to the student is indispensable.

11.3.12

Törnudd: Näkemisestä.

Stylus. (Piirustusopettajayhdistyksen julkaisu) 2, 1908

(Muutamia Prof. A. Heim'in ja H.Grothmann'in mietteitä.)

Näkeminen on kuvaamataidon perustus. Me emme kiinnitä huomiotamme luontoon kyllin tarkkaan, muuta kuin silloin kun tahdomme kuvata sitä. Kuvaantoharjoitukset pakottavat meitä tekemään tarkkoja havaintoja, toisinsanoen itsetietoisesti näkemään; - sentähden on kuvaanto-opetus näkemisen koulu." (Heim.) Piirustus- eli kuvaanto-opetuksen ensimäinen tarkoitus on kasvattaminen näkemiseen, oikeaan näkemiseen. Samalla kuin oppilaita on kasvatettava oikean muotohavainnon tekemiseen, on niitä myös herätettävä huomaamaan ensin väri- ja sitten valaistusilmiöitä. Prof. Heim sanoo näkemisestä: "Näkeminen on hyvin monimutkainen prosessi. Se ei riitä, että verkkokalvoon syntyy kuva, joka johtaa käsitteen aivoihin. Tämän lisäksi täytyy tulla käsitys ja selonteko kuvasta aivoissa.

Voimme sata kertaa nähdä esineen ja säilytämme ainoastaan osaksi kuvan siitä tiedossamme. Mutta löytyy yksinkertainen ja kerrassaan pätevä keino koetella kuinka  tietoisasti olemme nähneet, nim. muistista piirustaminen."

Jos tällä tavalla koetamme tarkastaa onko näkeminen ollut tiedotonta vai tietoisaa, tulemme useimmiten siihen johtopäätökseen, että olemme katsoneet esinettä eli luontoa niin tiedottomasti, etfemme sitä ensinkään tunne. "Muistista piirustaminen on siis (sanoo prof. Heim) huomioidenteon tarkistelu, ja piirustus suoraan luonnon mukaan on tietoisan näkemisen ja havaintojenteon koulu."

Usein kuulemme sanottavan, että toisella ihmisellä on taipumusta piirustukseen eli kuvaantoon, toisella ei. Tämä tosiasia ei liene muuta kuin että toisella on syntyperäisesti tahi kasvatuksesta riippuen suuremmassa määrässä tietoisaa näkemiskykyä kuin toisella.

On kuitenkin tultu siihen vakaumukseen, että raakalainen näkee itsetietoisammin kuin kulturi-ihminen, ja lapset pieninä itsetietoisammin kuin suurempina ja täysikäisinä, koska alkuperäinen olento antautuu koko mielenkiinnollaan havaintovaikutelmiensa valtaan, jota vastoin kulturi-ihmisen havainto useimmiten on hajallinen.

Kun varsinainen havainnonteon opetus alkaa, "on tärkeätä että viivoihin, pintoihin ja väreihin kiinnitetään huomio siinä järjestyksessä, kuin niillä on merkitystä luonteenomaiseen (karakteristiseen) kuvan kehittämiseen nähden.

Tällainen karakterististen muoto- ja väri-ilmiöiden tietoisa näkeminen syntyy arvostelukyvyn ja kaunoaistin kehityksen kautta, ja tätä näkemistä voisimme sanoa näkemiseksi henkisillä silmillä."

Tätä henkistä näkemistä tarvitsemme ennenkaikkea väriilmiöitä kuvatessamme ja kiinnittäessämme huomiomme valaistukseen ja varjoihin. Sanotaan että "sivistymätön henkilö on suuremmassa tahi vähemmässä määrässä värisokea," - hän nimittäin ei voi huomata värivivahduksia ja heijastuksia varjoissa, hän ei voi keksiä värienvastakkaisuuksia, ei erottaa kylmiä ja lämpimiä värejä toisistaan, eikä ensinkään nähdä ja käsittää ilman vaikutusta väreihin ja etäisyys-suhteisiin.

Sanotaan "että nämät tosiasiat usein riippuvat organisestakin vajavaisuudesta näköelimissä, joka kuitenkin oikealla johdolla on autettavissa." Keinoja, joiden kautta tätä värien näkemisen kyvyttömyyttä voi parantaa, ovat esim. maalattujen kuvien (nimittäin taideteosten) katseleminen ja tutkisteleminen, joista oppilaat tulevat huomaamaan miten värit voivat voimakkaasti esiintuoda valo- ja varjoilmiöitä, sekä niiden muotoja että valöörejä, niin että kuva pitemmän matkan päästä vaikuttaa samoin näköelimiin kuin luonto itse.

Seikka josta kehittymättömällä silmällä kaikkein vähimmin on käsitystä, on ilman vaikutus luonnossa, sen vaikutus etenkin väreihin. "Valoilmiöitä kuvattaessa kiinnitetään sentähden oppilaan huomio siihen, kuinka perusväritys muuttuu valopuolella, varjoissa ja heijastuksissa, ovatko värit tunnultaan kylmät vai lämpöset, - vaikuttavatko ne taannuttavasi vaiko lähentävästi, onko niillä loistava vai himmeä sävy, - ovatko ne läpikuultavat vai tiiviit."  Havainnot ovat tehtävät erilaisista aineista valmistettujen esineitten avulla.

Oppilaan näkökyvyn ja huomion herättäminen tässä suhteessa pitäisi oleman a ja o  k uvaanto-opetuksessa, sillä tätä näkemiskykyä aina puuttuu harjaantumattomalta silmältä, ja sentähden onkin luonnon ja taiteen nauttimiskyky
yleensä niin vähäinen.

Jos näitä seikkoja otettaisiin opetuksessa yleisemmin huomioon, olisi ehkä toiveita saada suurta yleisöä vähitellen paremmin erottamaan todelliset taideteokset kaikellaisista
diletanttimaisista tekeleistä.

Toivottavasti tällaisen kasvatuksen edistämiseksi vähitellen saamme kouluihimme kokonaisen sarjan tähän kelpaavia opetusvälineitä, sellaisia kuin Rouva Soldan-Brofeldfin "kevättuulia".

Toinen keino heikosti värejä käsittävän silmän kasvattamiseksi on omat värittämiskokeilut, aluksi jakamalla vivahdukset rajoitettuihin pintoihin. Jos huonoa ja hyvää tulosta tässä suhteessa vertaillaan toisiinsa, niin oppilaat pian huomaavat miten väriarvot ilmenevät ja kohottavat muotoa.

Paljo on epäilty, voivatko yleensä vähempikin lahjaiset henkilöt oppia lausumaan ajatuksensa kuvaamataiteen avulla. (Tässä ei tietysti ole kysymys vain oppitunneilla harjoitettujen muotojen toistamisesta, sillä siinä tapauksessa ajatusten lausunto olisi niin rajoitettu etfei sillä olisi mitään merkitystä elävänä kielenä.)

Tähän kysymykseen H. Grothmann vastaa: "Jossain määrin tavallinen henkilö voi oppia kuvaamaan esineitä ja tapahtumia, jotka väikkyvät hänen henkisten silmäinsä edessä, mutta toiselta puolen hänellä tulee olla intuitionia eli henkistä näkemiskykyä edellytyksenä toiminnan onnistumiselle.

Käden harjaantumisella on tässä asiassa toisarvoinen merkitys.

Piirustus eli kuvaanto ollen puhuvana kielenä edellyttää intuitionia eli sisäistä havaintoa. Tällä ymmärretään yhden tahi useamman esineen käsittämistä yhdellä silmäyksellä vastakohtana asteittain kehittyvälle käsitteelle. Intuitioni asettaa kuvat kerrankaikkiaan valmiina henkisen silmämme eteen, jotavastoin järki asteittain sommittelee kuvat johdonmukaisien mietiskelyjen nojalla.

Taideteosten alkuperänä on intuitioni.

Intuitionin voimaa olemme tottuneet etsimään ainoastaan taiteilijassa, mutta sitä löytyy enemmän kuin luulisi tavallisillakin tervejärkisillä ihmisillä. Taiteilijakyky ei esiinny niin paljo intuitiivisessa luonnoksessa, vaan luonnoksen kehittämisessä täysin valmiiksi teokseksi.

Intuitiivinen näkeminen on riippumaton tietoisasta näkemisestä eikä sitä voi tiedollisilla keinoilla varsinaisesti kehittää, vaan kehittyy se henkisen tarkkaamisen kautta, jonka jälkeen huomiot muistista kuvataan.

Intuitiivinen kuvaaminen ei ole sama kuin struktiivinen muistipiirustus, jossa kuva johdonmukaisesti tuntemuksen nojalla kehitetään eli rakennellaan."

Taidekasvatuksessa on siis erittäin tärkeinä tekijöinä, joita ei millään ehdolla saa jättää syrjään, kohdistettava huomiota toiselta puolen väri-ilmiöihin (varsinkin ilman vaikutukseen väriasteikkoon nähden,) ja toiselta puolen tietoisaan näkemiseen ja mikäli mahdollista intuitiiviseen käsitykseen, joka on elävän itsetoiminnan perustuksena.

Lilli Törnudd.