18.11.11

Kotiteollisuuspäiwät

Lappeenranta 53, 11.5.1909

Kotiteollisuuspäivät, jotka Lappeenrannan Naisyhdistys on päättänyt toimeenpanna Naisten Käsityökoulun päättäjäisten ja näyttelyn yhteydessä tämän kuun 28, 29 ja 30 p:nä, lähenewät yhä, niin että lienee paikallaan niistä lähemmin mainita jollakin sanalla. Kotiteollisuuspäiwäin tarkoituksena on, hywien esitelmien kautta herättää kotiteollisuus s. o. kotona walmistetut käsityöt entiseen arwoonsa, jotta tehtaan töitä emme käyttäisi kodissamme, sillä nykyään päästäksemme wähemmällä waiwalla, annetaan tehtaaseen ainekset langoiksi, jopa kankaiksi asti walmistettawiksi; itse kohta unohtaen mitä tarkoitusta warten sekä rukki että kangaspuut owat. Samoin owat waarassa unohtua muutkin kauniit käsityöt: pitsit, koru- ja reikäompelut, ellei ruweta palkinnoilla innostamaan niitä henkilöitä, jotka niitä wielä walmistawat ja kutowat itse kankaansa, sukkansa, lapasensa ja pitäwät siten kotona tehtyä käsityötä tehtaan työtä parempana ja kestäwämpänä. Näille K. T. päiwille kehoitamme siis kaikkia naisia laajalti Lappeenrannan ympäristöstä tuomaan näytteille kaikki nyt ja ennen kudotut kantaansa y. m. wanhat, wanhanaikaisilla malleilla kudotut, ryijynsä, täkkinsä ja loimensa, joista paraat sitten palkitaan. Rautatierahti maksetaan täällä, ja hinta on pantawa jokaiseen esineeseen, joka halutaan myydä, sillä Naisyhdistys ostaa kauneimpia malleja mallikokoelmaansa.

Miehet woiwat samoin lähettää ammattinsa tuotteita, ei mitään saa wähäksi arwostella.

Samoina päiwinä t. k. 28 ja 29 pnä pannaan toimeen wärjäyskurssit, joitten luulisi houkuttelewan kaikki naiset maaseudulta silloin Lappeenrantaan oppimaan wärjäystä kotiwäreillä s. o. sellaisilla aineksilla, joita saa kerätä omasta metsästä, oman pellon pientarelta, n. k. puolukan warsilla, sammalilla, koiwunlehdillä y. m. y. m. wähän wain käyttäen ostoainetta sekaan. Talon ja mökin emännät ja tyttäret pankaa tämä mieleenne ja saapukaa tänne t. k. 28 p. aamulla klo 9 tienoissa, jolloin wärjäys alkaa. Kurssi on maksuton ja kestää 2 päiwää.

Ilmoittautua woi neiti Orkamolle Naisten Käsityökoululla ja jos tarkempia tietoja näistä asioista tahtoo; samoin näyttelyesineet, joita nyt tulee ahkerasti kerätä naapuristakin, owat hänelle lähetettäwät.

Wärjäyskurssia tulee johtamaan neiti Halonen ja esitelmiä pitää kotiteollisuuden arwosta y. m. tarkastaja L. Mäkinen.

Kotiteolliluuspäiwien ohjelma tulee olemaan wielä tarkemmin tässä lehdessä, niin että seuratkaa tarkoin sanomalehden palstoja, mitä siellä milloinkin ilmoitetaan.

Pyydetään, että muutkin paikkakunnan lehdet tämän ottaisiwat huomioonsa.

Mainos: Maalausliike

Lappeenranta 53, 11.5.1909

17.11.11

Cadmium Yellow

Manufacturer and builder 9 / 1871

Of all the substances which have hitherto been used to impart a vivid, handsome yellow to toilet soaps, the sulphide of cadmium has given the best satisfaction in practise. The light of the sun and time do not alter the appearance of the soap colored with it, and only proportionally small addition of the color to the soap is needed to produce a handsome yellow. This addition is effected by rubbing the cadmium carefully to a very fine state of division with a little oil, and then adding to the soap mass while the latter is continually stirred. The color is not dissolved in the soap, but very finely divided in it. Two shades of the cadmium yellow, one of a lemon and the other of orange color, are furnished to the market, and most of it is made at the chemical factory of E. Shering, in Berlin, Prussia.

Paints made of Copper: Utilizing Waste. Precautions Against Poisoning.

Manufacturer and builder 9 / 1871

When speaking of the so-called Neuwider green, it was mentioned that, by its manufacture, liquids are left which still contain free arsenious acid, acetic acid, and dissolved Schwenfürter green. In case the latter is made from blue vitriol and acetate of soda, after one of the methods described by us, then the liquids left contain sulphate of soda, which is formed by the sulphuric acid of the blue vitriol combining with the soda, while its acetic acid combines with the copper oxide of the blue vitriol to verdigris or acetate of copper. The sulphate of soda remains then passive in the liquid, and the paint combines with only a portion of the acetic and arsenious acids. These remaining liquids being a diluted arsenious vinegar, are therefore easily utilized in the manufacture of successive greens.

A remnant solution from 100 pounds verdigris may be considered as still containing two thirds of the vinegar, besides some 20 pounds of arsenious acid, and the remnant solution of acetate of soda made from 165 pounds sulphate of soda, and 40 pounds of acetic acid or acetate of soda, and used for the manufacture of Schweinfürter green, contains one third, or 20 pounds, of the acetic acid, and also 20 pounds of arsenious acid, both solutions being consequently very poisonous.

All these arsenious copper paints require great care in manufatcure, on account of the arsenic used; and this is especially the case with the Neuwider and other greens, in which large quantities of this substance are manufactured. This arsenious acid may be obtained in the trade, either in lumps or in powder; in the former state, it is more sure to be free of sulteration, and therefore preferred by some. It is prepared for use by pulverization in large iron mortars. In order to protect the workman from the fatally poisonous dust, it should be pulverized under water, and afterward groud in a mill, the same precaution being observed.


Personal Precautions.

Every workman in this branch of business should keep himself scrupulously clean. Neither the dust of the arsenic nor the green paint should be allowed to remain on his clothes. It has a tendency to adhere to the skin of the hands, and especially to stick below and around the nails; therefore the hands must not touch any more sensitive part of the body before scrupulous cleaning. They should not be kept longer in the arsenious solutions than is absolutely necessary, as otherwise the laborer is soon attacked by the arsenic disease. Unfortunately, the contact with the liquids, and the dust in sifting and packing, can not be totally avoided. The influence of the vapors developed by the boiling arsenious solutions is greatly removed by placing the boilers in well-ventilated buildings, with proper arrangements to cause the fumes to ascend rapidly out of harm's way; nut in spite of every precaution, in the course of time the laborers are bound to suffer.


Arsenic Disease.

Thus far no remedy has bee ndiscovered to prevent the final attact of the peculiar disease caused by the external exposure of the body to arsenic. It commences with a burning sensation between the thighs, the lower abdomen, and genitals. Suppurating ulcers appear there, and afterward the same symptons show themselves around the nostrils. As soon as this is the case, the laborer must be removed from work, when in three to four weeks the sores will heal without leaving any injurous results whatsoever; the healing power of nature drives out the injurous substances by suppuration, and therefore should not be interfered with, but as much as possible promoted. As soon as the cause of the ulcers is removed, they heal by themselves, and must not be interfered with by plasters or so-called healing salves.

In case the laborers are not at once removed from the works as soon as the symptoms described show themselves, they soon grow worse, so much so that in two or three weeks they are unable to walk, when it will take several months to insure their recovery, which often becomes doubtful, especially when their systems are undermined with the habitual use of tobacco or strong drink.

For this reason, in all well-regulated factories the laborers are periodically removed from this branch of the business, as soon as the first symptom shows itself, and then no further inconvenience is experienced. After four or five weeks, they may resume the same kind of labor.

The copper paints are likewise very poisonous, especially those containing the most arsenic. There are scores of instances where injurious effects resulted, not only from such paints entering the stomach, but from external contact. We will only mention one of our experiencs. Many years ago, we wore in the chemical laboratory a cap similar to so-called smoking-caps; it was internally lined with a strip of green leather, which touched hair and forehead. In a short time some very sore suppurating pimples showed themselves; the cap was suspected and abandoned, when they healed in a short time. In order to experiment, the cap was again used, when the same symptoms showed themselves. It was thus considered sure that the cap was the cause. a piece of the leather being chemically tested, showed the presence of arsenic, proving that it had been colored with one of the pigments described, (the arseniate of copper kind.)

All these arseniate of copper greens are used as oil and water.colors; it is, however, somewhat difficult to rub them very fine, and as oil-colors they are deficient in body and do not cover very well; in this respect they are inferior to the different kinds of chrome greens. However, they have the advantage over the latter of withstanding in a greater degree the influence of air and light; on fresh lime they can not be used, as the caustic lime withdraws the acetic acid, and a yellowish green arseniate of copper remains which has a disagreeable color. Sulphurous vapors also act injuriously, as they change the green to a brown tint.

With this paper our series of articles on the paints made of copper is concluded.

16.11.11

Waaleanpunainen tukka

Porilainen 344, 27.9.1895

Waaleanpunainen tukka on tätä nykyä muotissa Englannin kaunotarten keskuudessa. Saadakseen tukalleen tuon oikean wärin, josta Venetian naiset ennen owat olleet niin kuuluisat, käyttäwät he hennaa. Tätä wäriainetta on siitä syystä suurissa määrin ruwettu maahan tuomaan. Wiime wuonna käytettiin Lontoossa hennaa kaikkiaan 14,800 punnan arwosta, tämän wuoden ensi puoliskolla jo 10,989 punnan edestä.

15.11.11

Barff Process.

Scribners monthly 6, 1880

The so-called "Barff process" for coating iron articles with a film of magnetic oxide, described at the time of its announcement in this department, is now carried on upon a large scale, but the objection has always been raised that, while the film prevents rust, it has a disagreeable appearance and color. Other experimenters used air instead of steam, in applying the magnetic oxide coating, and secured a better color, but at the expense of stability. By a new process, the chamber in which the iron to be coated is placed is filled with carbonic oxide, and, on introducing heated air, combustion begins, and continues till all the carboic oxide is converted into carbonic acid, when the surplus oxygen in the air attacks the iron, converting the surface first into a magnetic oxide and then into common rust. A second supply of carbonic oxide is admitted, and burned as before, but the supply of air being with-held, combustion is maintained in part by extracting oxygen from the rust, which is again converted to a magnetic oxide, which is the film desired. Repeating the operation tends to thicken the film and make it secure, and, at the same time, retain an agreeable color and surface.

14.11.11

Uutinen: Värjäyskurssi

Savolainen 48, 4.5.1909

Värjäyskurssin toimeenpanee Suomen käsityön ystäwien lähettämä opettajatar täkäläisen Naiswäenyhdistyksen pyynnöstä t. k. 24 päiwästä alkaen Kellaripellolla, maanwiljelijä P. I. Turtiaisen talossa. Kurssiin jota kestää 2 wiikkoa, otetaan 20 naisoppilasta. Opetus on maksuton, onpa Naiswäenyhdistys warattomille osaaottajille, etupäässä kutomakoulun käyneille, warannut 10 apurahaa, 5 markkaa kullekin. Apuraha on Naiswäenyhdistyksen johtokunnalta hetimiten haettawa (osoite: Hirwensalo). Käyttäkää siis, naiset, hywäksenne tilaisuutta, jota paikkakunnallamme ei usein tarjota. Ei työt tänä kewäänä kiirehdä niin, ettei aikaa olisi. Kotiwärjäyksellä säästää monet pennit itselleen, saapipa ansiotakin toisille walmistamalla wärjäyksiä ajoilla sellaisilla, jolloin muulta työltä joutaa. Sillä tuskin on sitä kyläkuntaa, jossa ei wärjäykseen tottunut nainen saisi wuoden warrella melkoisesti työtä, kun hän töistänsä tulee seudulla tunnetuksi.

13.11.11

Black-Walnut Polish

Manufacturer and builder 9 / 1869

Take asphaltum, pulverize it, place it in a jar or bottle, pour over it about twice its bulk of turpentine or benzole, put it in a warm place, and shake it from time to time. When dissolved, strain it and apply it to the wood with a cloth of stiff brush. If it should make too dark a stain, thin it with turpentine or benzole. This will dry in a few hours. If it is desired to bring out the grain still more, apply a mixture of boiled oil and turpentine; this is better than oil alone. Put no oil with the asphaltum mixture, or it will dry very slowly. When the oil is dry the wood can be polished with the following: Shellac varnish, of the usual consistency, two parts; boiled oil, one part. Shake it well before using. Apply it to the wood by putting a few drops on a cloth, and rubbing briskly on the wood for a few moments. This polish works well on old varnished furniture.

11.11.11

Uusi ihotauti

Tapio 60, 5.8.1885

Uusi ihotauti, jotenkin waarallinen ja hywin kowakipuinen, on alkanut ilmestyä Berlinissä, etenkin naisissa. Se tuntuu ensin kaulassa, josta lewiää yli kaswojen ja on hywin tulirokon näköinen. Kaswot ajettuwat pahasti ja sairasta waiwaa kowa päänkipu ja komat weren pakkautumiset aiwoihin. Jos apua pian saadaan on tauti moniaan päiwän kuluttua parannettu. Lääkärit luulewat tautia seuraukseksi myrkytyksestä, joka luultawasti on syntynyt wärillisten kaulahuiwien, nauhojen ja wärillisten pitsien käyttämisestä, joiden wärit owat olleet myrkyn sekaiset.

Aneliinilla wärjättyä makkaraa.

Tapio 60, 5.8.1885

A. T. kertoo, että Turun muutamasta lihapuodista ostelussa makkarassa liha on huomattu wärjätyksi aneliinilla. Maalataan mäännyt liha, niinkuin ihmisen kaswot teaterissa, että tulisi hywän näköiseksi, huolimatta siitä että aneliini on puhdasta myrkkyä. Jälestäpäin, kuin tuo kertomus oli ollut sanomalehdessä julaistu, muuan A. Henriksson, joka on työnjohtaja hra G:n makkaratehtaassa, tunnustaa lehdelle lähetetyssä kirjoituksessa omalla uhallaan wärjänneen makkaran. Saa nähdä minkä rangaistuksen mokoman ihmisruuan laittaja saapi petoksestaan. Meistä on wain kumma, että Turun sanomalehdet eiwät julkaise kokonaisuudessaan sen makkaratehtaan isännän nimeä, jossa moista konnuutta harjoitetaan.

10.11.11

Artificial Ultramarine

The Living Age 1374, 1.10.1870

The mode of manufacturing the substance for the beautiful pigment obtained by the ancients from the lapis lazuli, or azure stone, was, says the Scientific Review, like many other great inventions, the result of accident. A German chemist, whilst experimenting with anhydrous discovery that an exquisite blue colour was produced. He came to the conclusion that the blue colour of the ultramarine was probably due to sulphur and sulphuric acid, and at once instituted some experiments with alumina, soda, sulphur, and sulphuric acid, and succeeded, after repeated failures, in actually imitating the precious stone. The artificial material is said to be successfully formed by evaporating 100 lbs. of solution of sulphide of sodium mixed with 25 lbs. of dry china clay and 1-2 lb. of crystals of copperas; the dry mass is then heated in a muffle to a red heat, washed, and again heated.

9.11.11

Nykyisistä kahwiwäärennyksistä

Uusi Suometar 2, 3.1.1877

Arwostellessa kahwipapujen hywyyttä, on yleisö tähän saakka pannut suuren arwon eikä ilman syytä - niiden wiheriään wäriin, mutta nykyjään ei sillä tuntomerkillä ole mitään arwoa. Luonnollisesti ei ollut kauppamiehelle mikään helpompaa, kahwilastin wärin ollessa wähemmän tyydyttäwää, kuin keksiä wäri-ainetta, jolla woi niin paljon kuin mahdollista mukailla raakojen kahwipapujen wiheriää wäriä. Pahaksi onneksi walitsi kekseliäisyys siihen tarkoitukseen wärin, jossa on kuparia, ja sen awulla on suuremmissa merikaupungeissa tosiaankin laitettu oikeita tehtaita kahwin wärjäystä warten, samoin kuin jo kau'an on tehty eri tee-lajien kanssa.

Jos tahtoo johonkin määrin olla wakuutettu kahwipapujen puhtaudesta, on parasta puhdistaa ne ja huuhtoa kuumalla wedellä, sitten kuiwataan ne ennenkuin poltetaan. Semmoisella menettelyllä, joka, huolimatta mukana olewasta wieraasta wäri-aineesta, jo puhtaudenkin puolesta on tärkeä, ei kahwipawut kadota mitään arwostansa, sillä tärkeimmät ja tehokkaimmat aineet kahwissa muodostuwat wasta polttaessa. Jos papujen peseminen laiminlyödään, niin yhtywät mahdollisesti seassa olewat wieraat wäri-aineet täydellisesti polttaessa, jotka epäilemättä sitte myöhemmin paitsi kahwin huonoa makua, waikuttawat turmiollisesti ruumiisen. Koetellakseen jos papujen pesuwedessä on kuparia ei tarwitse muuta kuin tehdä se happamaksi ja pistää siihen muutamaksi minuutiksi kirkas rautainen tai teräksinen weitsen-kärki. Jos wedessä on kuparia, niin on weitsen-terä ylösotettaissa peitetty hienolla, punaisella kalwolla, joka ei ole mitään muuta kuin metallista kuparia.

Poltettuna ja jauhettuna ostetussa kahwissa on useasti sellaista, jota jo kerran on käytetty saman juoman walmistamiseen ja sitten luiwattu, siihen lisäksi sikuria. Ilman wiimeksimainittua sekoitusta, näyttää sellaisen kahwin liottamiseksi käytetty wesi warsin wähän ruskealta, lisäksi sekoitetun kahwin wuoksi, jonka tähden sellainen petos on helposti huomattu. Ei tarwitse muuta kuin antaa kylmää wettä juosta semmoisen jauhetun kahwin läpi, niin saadaan ruskeata welliä, jota wastaan puhdas, jauhettu kahwi ei anna ruskeata lientä kylmällä wedellä. Wäriä saadaan waan lisäämällä sekaan sikuria tai muuta sellaista. Jos jauhetussa kahwissa taas on sellaista, jota jo kerran on käytetty, ei noita helposti murennettuja kappaleita woi tuntea muusta kuin niiden heikommasta ma'usta.

Mutta kuinkas on niinkutsutun "homoiopatisen kahwin" ja sen wääristelemisten laita? Sen kysymyksen tekewät wälttämättömästi ne, jotka enemmän tai wähemmän perustetuista syistä nauttiwat mainittua kahwia terweydeksensä. Siihen wastaa kirjoittaja: kaikki nuo teokset eiwät woi waatia "kahwin" kunnianimeä, sillä oikeata kahwia ei niissä ole rahtuakaan. Eikä niissä ylipäänsä ole mitään parantawaa tai terweellistä waikutustakaan, sillä yksinkertainen tutkiminen osoittaa, ett'ei ne usiasti ole muuta kuin poltettuja rukiita; joskus löytääkin niistä yksityisiä polttamattomia rukiinjywäsiä. Sellainen kahwin-walmistus on kuitenkin sangen edullista. Toppa sellaista kahwia maksaa esim. 15 penniä, eli 1 sentneri noin 45 markkaa, mutta nykyjään maksaa 1 sentneri rukiita 9-11 markkaan. Waikka laskettaisi walmistus-kustannukset kuinka korkeiksi tai wähäiseksi hywänsä, niin tulee siitä woittoa kumminkin joku määrä yli 100 prosenttia. Luonnollista on, että sellainen keinollinen aine ei koskaan woi palkita oikeata kahwia, wielä wähemmin sitä käytännöstä poistaa. Kaikissa tapauksissa on se kuitenkin wiattomampaa ja wahingottomampaa kahwin-riollista kuin tuo niin kutsuttu "Saksan kahwi". Monessa paikassa on tämä jokapäiwäistä juomaa wähempiwaraisissa perheissä, jotka oikean kahwin alinomaa nousewain hintojen tähden ryhtywät tähän. Se ei ole oikeastaan mitään muuta kuin "poltettua ja jauhettua sikurijuurta".

Sikurijuuressa on karwas-ainetta, jonka tähden sitä on walittu palkitsemaan kahwin karwas-ainetta. Siihen lisäksi syntyy poltettaissa wähäinen määrä öljyä, joka antaa puhtaalle sikurikeitteelle ilettäwän hajun. Kahwin tärkein aine puuttuu kuitenkin aina sellaisesta juomasta. Sen helppohintaisuus waikutti, että sitä alussa halulla ostettiin, jonka wuoksi sikurin hinta nousi; mutta silloin keksiwät kauppamiehet keinon, jonta awulla saattoiwat yhä eteenkinpäin myydä sikuria samaan hintaan. Niin täytettiin tähän tarpeesen aluksi porkkanoita, walkojuurikkaita ja nauriita; ja ettei palanutta öljyäkään puuttuisi seasta, poltettiin ne ihran kanssa. Tätä sekasotkua myytiiin sitten sikurikahwina, myöhemmin "Saksan kahwina". Kaikki tuo käwisi kyllä laatuun, waan kun sellaisissa teoksissa toisinaan tapaa hienonnettua multaa, hiekan-jywäisiä ja tiili-jauhoa, niin taitaa olla parasta, että jokainen, joka tahtoo juoda keinollista kahwia, itse polttaa
rukiita, ohria tai tammen-terhoja. Sitten ainakin tietää mitä nauttii "kahwin" nimellä.

8.11.11

Mainos: Arco War Paints for Industry



THAT SLANT EYES MAY STRAIN IN VAIN
Street lights on the West Coast's ocean-front drives can't be blocked out, for many of them light arterial highways. Yet they offered a constant threat to coast-wise shipping, silhouetting tankers for Jap pot-shots. The obvious answer was to paint the ocean side of the lamps. But ordinary dark paints absorb heat and thus cause the glass to expand unequally - and break. Arco Infray, however, safely and effectively masks the tell-tale gleams.

Infray - the infra-red reflecting camouflage paint - is but one of many examples of the ability of the Arco Research Laboratories to meet specific needs with specialized products, tailored to fit. That ability is at your disposal to help you find the solution to any problem paint can solve. Your inquiry will receive prompt action.

THE ARCO COMPANY
Cleveland, Ohio
Los Angeles, California

7.11.11

Aniline Colors.

Manufacturer and builder 4 / 1869

Dr. M. Reiman, of Berlin, Prussia, whose name is already known to the reader as a prominent savant in the field of industrial arts, contributes the following upon the above interesting topic.

The beginning of this decennium is marked by a general change in all departments of the art of dyeing. Instead of the coloring matters previously in use, and which had been extracted from wood and bark, it was attempted to employ those coloring matters that had recently been prepared from aniline, and the most perfect success attended this innovation.

The coloring substances obtained from aniline are decidedly preferable to those extracted from woods, barks, etc., by reason of their substantial character; that is to say, the fibres do not require the use of mordants before being dyed. Thus, neither wool nor silk requires to be mordanted before they are dyed in aniline colors, since these latter are capable of dyeing material withoud any previous preparation of the animal fibre. According to the old method, when dyeing with logwood, red-wood, cochineal, etc., it was always necessary to impregnate the fibre which was to be dyed with that mordant which, by combining with the pigment of the coloring matter, would cause it to adhere to the fibre; for these coloring matters become pigments only by combining with the mordants that are employed. Aniline colors, however, being true pigments, it is unnecessary to employ mordants with them. The aniline color is, as chemists say, always a salt; when it is dissolved, the animal fibre precipitates the salt, and is dyed by it. Therefore, whenever animal fibre is dipped into such a solution, the coloring matter adheres to the fibre. According as the fibre is allowed to remain a longer or shorter time in the bath, brighter or darker shades are obtained. Hence from a single bath, every shade of a color may be produced - a thing which was utterly impossible with the pigments formerly employed.

Aside from this great advantage, these aniline colors sparkle with a brilliancy that no other color ever show. To this fact is due the extensive application of these colors in the manufacture of ladies' articles.

Who, ten short years ago, could have dreamed of a blue or violet such as is now daily produced in our dyeing establishments? To-day, however, the sparkling colors of birds and flowers are fixed on our textile fibres. Chemists have even discovered that the brilliant colors of many flowers are aniline colors, produced in the plant by nature. Thus in the dahlia has been found an aniline color, which is known in commerce by the name of "Hoffman's violet;" and M. Ziegler has shown that a colored liquid, consisting a solution of an aniline color, is contained in some couchils found on the shores of Spain. After this, it can not excite astonishment that the aniline pigments are now of the greatest importance to dyers, who could not now exist without them. Especially the grays that are now in fashion are always prepared by aniline colors. Even in dyeing cloth, a reddish gray is frequently produced by treating the cloth in an aniline bath, after it has received the usual gray color. In a similar manner the violet shades of some cloths are produced.

Aniline colors are employed to as great an extent for dyeing cotton as for the materials already mentioned - wool and silk. The difficulties to be surmounted are, however, far greater in the case of cotton. Vegetable fibre will not take the colors from the bath unless it be previously prepared.

Animal fibre, when compared with vegetable fibre, possesses the advantage of containing nitrogen; and every substance that contains nitrogen can fix aniline colors. It was therefore deemed advisable by dyers to cover the vegetable fibre, which lacks nitrogen, with some substance containing this element. Then the substance containing the nitrogen will attract the aniline color, and through it as a medium the aniline color will be fixed on the cotton or any other vegetable fibre. The nitrogenous substances were taken from animals, and hence the process of covering the vegetable fibre with animal substances was called "animalizing." The albumen of eggs and of blood, as also the caseine from milk, while in solution, were brought into contact with the fibre, and when this was thoroughly impregnated with the animal solution, the albumen or caseine was by some chemical process rendered insoluble, and thus was fixed on the fibre. For instance, to cover cotton with the albumen of eggs, the latter substance was diluted with water, and the cotton impregnated with it in a diluted state. The cotton was then dyed, and put into an apartment filled with steam. Since the temperature of steam under or dinary pressure is 222° Fahrenheit-90° Béaumur or 100° Celsius - and albumen coagulates at from 70° to 80° Celsius, the albumen of course became insoluble after a short time, as it assumed the temperature of the steam. The cotton could then be washed with either hot or cold water, without any danger of its losing a particle of albumen.

Caseine was dissolved in ammonia, and the alkaline solution of the animal product thus obtained was employed to impregnate cotton or any other fibre that was devoid of nitrogen. Now, caseine, though readily dissolved in alkaline liquids, is insoluble in acids, and it can, therefore, be precipitated from its alkaline solution by the addition of any acid. The dyers, accordingly, in order to fix the caseine, dipped the cotton impregnated with the alkaline solution of caseine in an acid bath, and the caseine was instantly precipitated on the fibre by the acid. In such or a similar manner, any animal substance was fixed on the vegetable fibre; and this process is still employed in the printing of cotton. The animal substances spoken of are, however, too expensive for ordinary use, hence the dyers were soon obliged to resort to other mordants for fixing the aniline colors on vegetable fibre. In preparing Adrianople red, an alkaline solution is employed, in which oil is divided into excessively fine drops, so fine, in fact, taht the liquid looks like milk, which is also a colorless liquid, rendered non-transparent by small drops of fat, or butter. A similar fluid is obtained by mixing oil, alcohol, and sulphuric acid; it is known to dyers by the name of "oil mordant," and has the property of enabling the cotton to take up and fix the aniline colors. The above-mentioned mixture may conveniently be diluted with water, and employed to impregnate the cotton, which will then take up and fix the alinine colors when dipped in a warm solution of these pigments. It was soon discovered that other substances containing fat might serve as mordants for aniline colors. Thus, soap, and especially barrel, or Dutch soap, when dissolved in water, fixes the aniline pigments on the cotton. This kind of soap is so cheap that it may be employed even for the cheapest cotton articles. It is necessary merely to put the cotton into a solution of Dutch soap, to wring the cotton, and to dye it immediately in a warm bath of any aniline color. Another substance used for fixing aniline colors is tannin or tannic acid, which, as is generally known, is contained in gall-nuts and other astringents. A decoction of gall-uts or sumac enables the cotton which is dipped into it to take up and to fix the coloring matters. In practice, gall-nuts, or what is more frequently employed, sumac, is boiled in water, and the cotton is allowed to remain in the clear decoction for from twelve to twenty-four hours. The cotton is then taken out, wrung, and dyed as usual in a warm bath of any aniline color.

Sumac and soap are, at present, the mordants most frequently employed for fixing aniline colors on vegetable fibre. As aniline colors are effected by the influence of the atmosphere and by soap, dyers frequently dye the cotton, at first with the coloring matters formerly employed, and then also with the corresponding aniline color. Thus, aniline blue on cotton is, in its darker shades, always grounded with Prussian blue. The very slight cost of aniline pigments is of great importance to the dyer. It is true that they are dear enough, and formerly were still more so. But then, they are, beyond all comparison, more intense than the coloring matters formerly employed. Thus, one pound of magenta will dye 200 pounds of wool to quite a deep red shade. Could a pound of any of the old pigments have sufficed for such a quantity of material? The other aniline pigments have a similar intensity; so that, besides t he increase in brilliancy, it is also economical to employ the new colors. In addition to all those advantages, the dyer can, with greater ease, produce shades after a given pattern with these colors. The pigment in solution looks exactly as the color produced by it on the fibre. Formerly the dyer was required to prepare a color which did not yet exist; now he procures it from the manufacturer. He chooses the shade which is to be produced, and can never fail, as was formerly the case when he was obliged to produce the color from the bath. How tedious were the former processes of mordanting, washing, hanging, dyeing, etc.! Now minutes suffice for that labor which previously required days.

It has been objected to the employment of aniline colors that they are unstable. This is true. But it must be observed that it is scarcely possible for such brilliant colors as the aniline pigments to be stable. The sparkling dahlia-violet, the brilliant red, and night-blue, as magenta, etc., can never bear the influence of the atmosphere, dust, acid, vaports, etc. These of the formerly employed pigments that at all approached in brilliancy these aniline colors were fully as unstable as they. One need only mention the cudbear, that violet pigment which, though by no means imparting as fresh and sparkling shades as aniline violet, is almost as unstable. The red, violet, and blue colors produced by woods and other similar substances for dyeing were fully as fleeting as the aniline pigments. Even black, which is usually regarded as a firm color, is one of the most unstable ones. In fact, the black, as it is generally produced by logwood and iron salts, is so liable to change, that acid, vapors, or atmospheric influences are sufficient to make it disappear. The true reason why the black on cloths and finer materials appears, at least, to be durable is, that it lies on a surface of the most stable of all coloring matters - indigo. The black color of cloth and other expensive stuffs is produced by first dyeing the goods dark blue in the warm indigo vat. This is an expensive and uncomfortable process, but necessary for a stable black color. The indigo imparts to the wool a perfectly firm blue color, and upon this the dyer produces his black with logwood and iron. After some time, this black dye is partly or entirely destroyed; adn the observer is prevented from noticing it by the dark.blue indigo lustre of the goods. A comparison with a piece of freshly dyed clorht will, however, show that the black has disappeared. It is a well-known fact that the black produced by logwood easily assumes a reddish hue, especially if there be but little indigo under black.

But it must never be forgotten that aniline colors are to be employed mainly for articles of fashion. Articles which must, by all means, retain their color are never dyed with aniline. In such cases, indigo, madder, and other solid pigments must be employed. In summing up the advantage of the aniline colors, we must consider their brilliancy and freshness, rather than their durability. They are certainly at present the most important pigments for the dyer, as they combine facility of treatment and moderate costliness with a brilliancy never hitherto known - in short, all that the dyer wishes.

6.11.11

An Improved Copying Process

Manufacturer and builder 9, 1881

Dr J. M. Eder describes in the Photographic News an improved process of cyanotype printing for copying drawings, designs, tracings and the like, which is said to give excellent results. We give below the essential parts of the description. Thirty volumes of a solution of gum arabic (5 parts of water to 1 part of gum) are mixed with 8 volumes of an aqueous solution of citrate of iron and ammonia (water 2, salt 1), and to this is added 5 volumes of an aqueous solution of perchloride of iron (water 2, iron 1). This mixture rapidly thickens, and should therefore be applied with a brush quickly after preparing it, to well sized paper. The paper is dried in the dark, and then exposed to the light under the tracing or drawing to be copied. A few minutes exposure to good light is sufficient, and the print should then be developed by brushing over the surface with an aqueous solution of the ferro-cyanide of potassium. The picture appears almost instantly in dark blue. As soon as it appears distinct in all its details, it is quickly rinsed in water, then immersed in a bath of very dilute hydrochloric acid, which strengthens the image, whitens the ground, and removes the gum-iron film. The washing of the print now in water completes the process.

A simple and satisfactory printing process for copying tracings, etc., is often very desirable to architects, machinists, engineers and others, and the one here described would appear to meet the case very satisfactorily. The whole operation, including the preparation of the paper, is said not to take up more than an hour or two in fair weather. The older blue printing processes were unsatisfactory, as the ground was invariably left more or less blue by the running of the color. The use of gum in the present process avoids this objection.

5.11.11

Ilmoitus: julkinen huutokauppa.

Vaasan Sanomat 39, 27.9.1880

Julkisella huutokaupalla, joka pidetään kaupungin pakka-huoneessa tiistaina 5 p:nä ensitulewaa lokakuuta ja alkaa k:lo 10 epp., myydään seuraawia, "Joutsen" kuunarin haaksirikosta pelastetuita tawaroita, nimittäin: 400 naulan paikoilla indigoa wähemmissä tukuissa, petroleummia, nauloja, ompelukoneita, parkittamattomia wuotia, y. m., jota halullisille ostajille ilmoitetaan. Nikolainkaupungin tullikamarista Syyskuun 24 p:nä 1880.
Wilhelm Sourander.

4.11.11

Gutta-Percha Paint.

Manufacturer and builder 12, 1888

The paint made by the United States Gutta-Percha Paint Company is specially claimed to be not only an excellent preservative of the wood-work to which it is applied, but also to be very durable, and of such a character as to retain for the longest time its original attractive appearance. The expansion and contraction of the surfaces to which it is applied, to say nothing of the poor quality of the materials commonly employed in the making up of the so-called mixed paints, has operated against the general intro[duc]tion of these paints, and painters have not taken to them kindly.

It is claimed that the product of the United States Gutta-Percha Paint Company is especially qualified to meet the objections above named. It is affirmed to be possessed of many features that will commend it to the favor of those who require a lasting and water-proof out-door decorative coating for structures of every description. This paint, containing gutta-percha, and other gums of equal value, combined by a peculiar process with the linseed oil, possesses all the water-proof and elastic properties for which gutta-percha is famous, and if properly laid on, it is claimed that no expansion or contraction of the surface to which it is applied, will cause it to crack or chip. The gutta-percha and other gums combine perfectly with the linseed oil, with the white lead used as a body, and with the pure coloring pigments, and the result is a paint that possesses a good covering capacity, while the purity of its materials enables it to resist alike the action of temperature or moisture. It is supplied in all the standard light colors as well in the dark shades and tints so popular in modern exterior decoration, which should commend it to purchasers. For roofing purposes, it is declared to be particularly well suited, its elasticity commending it for use in all climates, and notably for application to old tin roofs in need of repair. Being manufactured, as it is, according to special formulæ, it is always uniform in color and quality, and may be relied on to give satisfaction.In use for a number of years, the United States Gutta-Percha Paint has proved successful whenever introduced, and is worthy the attention not only of builders, practical painters and consumers, but of dealers.

The manufacturers are United States Gutta-Percha Paint Co., of Providence, R. I.

3.11.11

An Excellent Whitewash

Manufacturer and builder 12, 1888

A whitewash for indoor work is made of two pounds Paris whiting, one ounce white glue; dissolve the glue in warm water. Mix whiting with warm water; stir in glue and thin with warm water.

2.11.11

Mainos: Touwon Wärjäyslaitos

Wiipurin Sanomat 121, 6.5.1899


Touwon wärjäyslaitokseen Wiipurissa wastaanotetaan wärjäystöitä Wiipurissa Punasenlähteentori Rouva A Hartbergin kartanossa, Lappeenrannassa rouwa M. Simola, Luumäellä (Taawetissa) kauppias A. Wainikka. - Herrain ja rouwaswäen pukuja, huonekalujen päällyksiä, akkunawerhoja y.m. puhdistetaan ja wärjätään. Wärimalleja nähtäwänä.
S. A. Katriainen.

1.11.11

Mainos. H. W. Johns' Asbestos Liquid Paints.

The American missionary 5, 1878



From 20 to 40 per cent. of customary outlays for Paints, Roofing, &c., can be saved. Sed for Samples and Reduced Price Lists.

H. W. Johns' Asbestos Liquid Paints.
Pure, Undiluted Paints, Full Body and Full U. S. Standard Measure.

No other paints for structural purposes equal ours in richness and purity of color, covering capacity and durability. They are especially adapted for exposed wood and iron, but are equally desirable for inside and general workd. Two coats of these paints form a handsomer and more durable protective coating than three coats of the best white lead and linseed oil, or any other paints in use. We can therefore guarantee a saving of from 20 to 40 per cent. of the usual cost of painting.

The Contract for Supplying Paints for the Gilbelt Elevated Railroad of New York City was Awarded to Us. This is the largest contract ever made for painting any single structure in this country.

ROOF PAINT for tin and shingle roofs, iron work, agricultural implements, fences, out-buildings, etc. We quarantee this to be a better and more economical paint than has ever before been offered to the public for similar puposes.
This Paint was used with entire success, when all others failed, upon the roof of the Exhibition Buildings at Philadelphia, the largest area of Tin Roofing in the world.

FIRE-PROOF PAINT for the protection of inside wood-work of factories, bridges, boiler rooms and other wooden structures in danger of ignision from sparks, cinders or flames.
This paint has been applied to more than four and a half acres of wood-work in the two immense Dry Goods Stores of Messrs. A. T. Steward & Co. of New York City.

ASBESTOS ROOFING, With White Fire-Proof Coating.
This well-known Roofing is now in use in all parts of the world, and is the only reliable substitute for tin. It is suitable for steep or flat roofs in all climates, and forms the coolest and most durable portable roofing in use. In rolls ready for use; costs only half as much as tin: easily aplied by any one.
The Asbestos Roofing is used in preference to all others by the Kingsford Oswege Starch Factory, Remington / Sons, Cheneys Bros., Columbus Car and Wheel Works, and by the most extensive Manufacturers, Builders, Railroad Companies, etc., in the United States.

ASBESTOS BOILER COVERINGS, Consisting of ASBESTOS CEMENT FELTING, to be applied like a mortar, and ASBESTOS AIR CHAMBER COVERING, in sheets and rolls, for Hot Air and Steam Pipes, Boilers, and other heated surfaces. The most durable, effective and economical appliances known for preventing Radiation of Heat; will save from 25 to 40 per cent. of fuel.
Used by the United States Navy Department and in most extensive Public Buildings.
Asbestos Steam Packing, Boards for Gaskets, Sheathings, Fire, Acid and Waterproof Coatings, Cements for Gas Retorts, Leaky Roofs, etc.

All these materials are prepared ready for use, and can be easily applied by any one.

Liberal indugements to General Merchants, Builders, and Large Consumers.
Send for samples, Illustrated Catalogues, Price Lists, &c.
H. W. Johns Manufacturing Company,
87 Maiden Lane, New York.
The public are cautioned against purhasing worthless imitations of these materials.