VOYAGE To the Islands
Madera, Barbados, Nieves, S. Christophers
Herbs and Trees, Four-footed Beasts,Fishes, Birds, Insects, Reptiles, &c.
Of the last of those ISLANDS;
To which is prefix'd An
Wherein is an Account of the
Itthabitants, Air, Waters, Diseases, Trace, &c
of that Place, with some Relations concerning the Neighbouring Continent, and Islands of America.
The FIGURES of the Things describ'd
which have not been heretofore engraved;
In large Copper-Plates as big as the Life.
By HANS SLOANE, M.D.
Fellow of the College of Physicians and Secretary of the Royal-Society.
In Two Volumes. Vol. I
Many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increafed. Dan. xii. 4.
Printed by B. M. for the Author, 1707.
[Tekstipätkiä kirjassa mainituista värikasveista]
[The introduction V]
Jamaica lies in that part of the North Sea, which washes the East side of the Continent of America. This Sea is called the Mare Boreale, Septentrionale, or Mar del Nort, to distinguish it from the Pacific or South Sea, called Mar del Zur, which lies West of the main Land of America. It lies nearer the Continent or Main, than most of the other considerable American lsles ; which Islands, as it were, guard it from the violence of the Winds, and great Atlantic Ocean, and render it fitter for the produce of the Manufacture and Trade of those parts, than any of them. It has many Cayos, commonly called Keys, Shoals and Rocks round it, whereby ignorant Sailers are incommoded. It lies to the South West of England at about fifteen hundred Leagues, or four thousand five hundred Miles distance from it. It has to the East of it Hispaniola, or Santo Domingo, about thirty five Leagues distant. To the North Cuba distant about twenty Leagues, to the South Porto Helo, and to the South East Santa Martha, both about one hundred and fixty Leagues off, and it has alfo Cartagena one hundred and forty Leagues distant. These three last places are on the Continent of America and very great places for Trade, Cartagena for Gold and Silver, Portobelo for the same, Cascarilla, the Bark of Peru, or Jesuits Powder, and Sarsaparilla, and Santa Martha for Pearls, all which are brought to Jamaica, in exchange for Blacks and European Commodities. Besides, it lies near Campeche and Vera Cruz, the first a very considerable place for Logwood, and the other being the Port Town to Mexico, for its trading in Gold and Silver, Cochenille, and Sarsaparilla. It has a situation very happy, likewise in this respect, that it is near the Caymanes, the Cayos or desert Rocks or Isles, of Cuba, and the Isle de Facas, des Vaches, or of Ash, where the Turtlers seldom fail of getting plenty of Turtle or Tortoises, to furnish the inferior sort of people with good Food, at an easie and moderate price.
[The introduction lv]
The Trade of Jamaica is either with Europe or America. That of Europe consists in bringing thither Flower, Bisket, Beef, Pork, all manner of Clothing for Masters and Servants, as Osnabrigs, blew Cloth, Liquors of all sorts, &c. Madera Wine is also imported in great quantities from the Island of that name, by Vessels sent from England on purpose, on all which the Merchant is suppofed to Gain generally 50 per cent. Profit. The Goods sent back again, or Exported from the Island, are Sugars, most part Muscavados, Indico, Cotton-wool, Ginger, Piemento All-Spice or Jamaica Pepper, Fustickwood, Prince-wood, Lignum Vitæ, Arnotto, Log- wood, and the several Commodities they have from the Spaniards of the West-Indies, (with whom they have a private Trade,) as Sarsaparilla, Cacao-Nuts, Cochineel, &c. on which they get considerable Profit. There is about 20 per cent, in Exchange between Spanish Money and Gold in Jamaica, and English Money paid in England.
[The Introduction lxxxii-lxxxiii]
Several Persons who used the Logwood Trade, or who were imploy'd in cutting that Wood, otherwise call'd Campeche-Wood, used by Dyers, inform'd me, that at about fifteen Leagues from the Town of Campeche, are two Creeks, the Eastern and Northern, in which last they cut Logwood. This is call'd the Logwood-River, the Inhabitants live in Huts on each side of this narrow Creek, near Two hundred English, and are ready on the appearance of any Enemy to hinder their landing by firing on them on each side, every one having his Firelock and other Arms ready. It is a knotted crooked Wood, growing in Marshes, three or four together up the two Creeks, or Lagunas, about eight Leagues from where the shipping Rides; it is very hard, and bears a small Leaf like a Heart. They Saw it down, then cut pieces of it of about four or five Foot long, then cleave it. It is of a dark or purple, near a black colour. The English, who have lived there many years, Cut and Sell it to the Sloops for about Three Pound per Tun, for which the Sloops bring them Cloathing, Victuals, Rum, Sugar, &c. The Sloops carry this Wood, and sell it at Port-Royal for about Six Pound per Tun ; the half of the Profit going to the Master of the Sloop. When any of the English at Campeche resolve to come away, they having got Logwood, it may be Thirty or Forty Tun, they embark it and themselves in a Sloop for Jamaica, where the half Profits go to themselves, and the half to the Master, otherwise they send it, and paying the Fraight, viz. the half Profits, their Money is return'd them. The Indians of this place us'd formerly to Trade with them, but the English not keeping ther Faith, but taking and jelling them, they are retired up into the Country several Leagues. There are on an Island near this, wild Cows and Bulls in abundance; there are also wild Deer near this River. The Spaniards who are offended at this settlement equipped some Periaguas and Hulks againft them; but before they were ready they were burnt by the English, since they only lie out at Sea off this place cruising on their Sloops and Merchant Men. The English have a place stronger than their Huts for their Provision, and when a Strength much greater than theirs comes against them, they retire to the Woods. They have been cut off several times by the Spaniards in this place, and yet have settled here again. This usage of the Spaniards is somewhat harsh, if what Sir Henry Morgan has often told me be true, that this Logwood River was in the Possession of the English at the time of the Treaties being sign'd at Madrid concerning the West-Indies. The Ships lie Eight Leagues from the cutting place, and the Wood is carried to them by Long-Boats and
Palma prunifera foliis yuccæ, fructu in racemis congestis cerasi formi, duro, cinerco, pisi magnitudine, cujus lachryma sanguis draconis est dicta. Comm. cat. Amst. p. 260. An Dragon-Tree of Dampier, cap. 16 ?
I found this in the Island of Madera in the Hedges very plentifully though not very large. It is found in the Island Socotora, Borneo, Canaries, Madagascar, and (Aluise de cadamosto ap. Ramn. pr. vol. p. 105) at Porto Santo, where they cut the Trees at the Feet, and next Year find the Gum, which they Defecate in Water by Boiling and Purging. The Fruit is Yellow and Ripe in March, and good to Eat.
The Tree is pierced near the bottom, and so yields the Gum. The Fruit Cools and Alters, and is proper in Fevers. Cinaber du Dioscorid. Thevet.
It is adulterated with Rubrica and Colophony. Cæsalp.
Lobels Leaf is the Spatha in all likelihood. Lugd.
The Gum is used by Goldsmiths for a Foile and Enamel, and by Glasiers for colouring Glass, Park.
It is used to strengthen the Gums and Teeth, in bloody Excretions, Fluxes, &c. Jonst.
Opuntia maxima, foliis majoribus crassioribus & atrovirentibus, spinis minoribus & paucioribus obsitis. Cat. pl. Jam. p. 195. An ficus Indica seu opuntia maxima, folio spinoso latissimo & longissimo. Herm. cat. pl. p. 243?
This Indian Fig was in every part exactly the same with the Common, only each Leaf was broader, thicker, of a darker green colour, and not so prickly, having a very few white, short Prickles ; and sometimes only one coming out at a hole very like that kind on which comes the Cochineel, only it is not quite so free of Prickles as that.
It grows in a Gully near the Town of Funchal in Madera, and in the Canaries.
IV. Convolvulus radice tuberosa, esculenta, minore, purpurea. Cat.p. 54. Batates Ind. Or. part. 6. p.85 Red Spanish Batatas.
This has a Root four or five Inches long, as big as ones Finger, biggest in the middle, having a fmall lower end, and several fibrils drawing its Nourishment from the Earth. It is of a very deep red, or purple colour, and being broken, yields Milk very plentifully, which dyes of a purple colour. The Stalks were two or three Foot long, round, and green, putting forth at every Inch, or more, Leaves very like those of the precedent, only not so large, nor cornered, of a deep grass green colour, and thin, almost like those of a Violet, standing on an Inch, or a two Inches long Foot Stalk. This here described was a very young Plant.
It grew at Colonel Bourdens Plantation, beyond Guanahoa, where it was planted.
It is used only to give Mobby a fine reddish colour.
XX. Solanum racemosum Americanum. Raii. Cat. p. 84. Phytolacca Americana. Tournef. El. p. 246. Phytolacca Americana fructu majori. Ejusd. Inst.
p. 299. Blitum maximum caule rubente Virgin. Sen Amaranthus Americanas
baccifer. Schuyl. p. 14. Solanum Virginianum rubrum maximum racemosum baccis torulis canaliculatis. Bob. Hist. Ox. part. 3. p 522. An Cucchiliz tomatl. Hernandez, p 374 ? The Great Virginia red Nightshade.
I could not observe any difference between Parkinson's Great red Virginia Solanum, and this growing here, and therefore will not give the description of it, it seeming to me to be the same.
It grows on the more mountainous parts of this Island, as in Liguanee, on the Mountains above Mr. Elletson's Plantation, on Mount Diablo, in going to the North side, and several the more cool places of this Island. It is used by the Indians in New-England to dye their Skins and the Barks wherewith they make their Baskets. English People in Virginia call it Red Weed. Virginia Nightshade is a familiar Purger in Virginia and New-England. A spoonful or two of the juice of the Root works strongly. The dried Root has not, upon trial, been found to have that effect. Park.
Tsieru-Caniram. H. M. Is of this Kind.